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A

A.....U.S., launch vehicle. See Atlas.

A.....Orbit element, Keplerian element, see semimajor axis.

A.....Russia, launch vehicle designation. See SL-1, 2900 lbs (1300 kg) LEO. First launch 1957/10/04, Sputnik, Sheldon Name A or SL-2, 8K71, Semyorka, Sapwood, 2900 lbs (1300 kg) LEO. First launch 1957/11/03, Sputnik, Sheldon Name A. First launch 1957/10/04

A BROAD-BAND IMAGING X-RAY ALL-SKY SURVEY.....Germany, satellite, scientific. See ABRIXAS.

A-1.....Russia, launch vehicle. See SL-3, 10,400 lbs (4730 kg) LEO. Vostok, Sheldon Name A-1. First launch 1958/06/25

A-1.....U.S., launch Vehicle. See Scout, 269 lbs (122 kg) LEO. First launch 1966/12/21

A-1.....France, satellite. See ASTERIX.

A-1-m.....Russia, launch vehicle. See SL-5. First launch 1963/11/01, Sheldon Name A-1-m

A-2.....Russia, launch vehicle. See SL-4, 15,400 lbs (7000 kg) LEO. Soyuz, Sheldon Name A-2. First launch 1963/10/05

A-2-e.....Russia, launch vehicle. See SL-6. Molniya, Sheldon Name A-2-e. First launch 1960/10/10

A-3.....Germany, missile, V-2 development. First launch 1937/00/00

A-6.....U.S., launch vehicle motor, thrust 75,000 lbf (330 kN), pressure ? psi (? bar), liquid propellant LOX/Alcohol. Used on Redstone.

A-7.....U.S., launch vehicle motor, thrust 83,000 lbf (362 kN), pressure ? psi (? bar), liquid propellant LOX/Hydyne. Used on Redstone, Jupiter C, and Juno 1.

A-Train.....U.S. NASA, international, satellite constellation of 6, earth observation, study climate change. Constellation includes HELIOS 2A, PARASOL, AQUA, AURA. CALIPSO, CLOUDSAT. See AQUA-Train. First launch

A2100.....U.S., satellite bus, Lockheed Martin. GEO/MEO.

A2100AX.....U.S., satellite bus, Lockheed Martin. GEO/MEO.

A2100AX2.....U.S., satellite bus, Lockheed Martin. GEO/MEO.

A2100X.....U.S., satellite bus, Lockheed Martin. GEO/MEO.

AADC.....U.S., company, see Alaska Aerospace Development Corp.

AAP.....U.S., satellite, communications, GEO. First launch 2000/10/02

AAU-CUBESAT.....Denmark, satelite, imaging, LEO Polar orbit.  First launch 2003/06/30

AB.....Launch vehicle motor, Allegany Ballistics Lab.

AB1200.....U.S., satellite bus, TRW Space & Electronics, LEO.

AB940.....U.S., satellite bus, TRW Space & Electronics. GEO/MEO.

Abbot.....USS Abbot, recovery ship, part of the fleet which recovered or was on duty and capable of recovering the following: MERCURY Redstone 3.

abfahrt.....German for start.

abflug.....German for start.

ABL-248.....U.S., launch vehicle motor. Thrust 3100 lbf ( kN), pressure ? psi (? bar), propellant, solid ? Used on the Vanguard stage 3 launch vehicle. Also known as APB X-248, Altair X-248. Manufactured by the Allegheny Ballistic Laboratory (ABL).

Able.....U.S., launch vehicle, stage 2, AJ10-101 engine. Stage 3, X-248 motor. Used on Atlas-Able, Thor-Able.

Able & Baker.....U.S., payload on a Jupiter missile. American Rhesus monkeys, reached and altitude of 300 miles (510 km) and a speed of 10,000 mph (17,000 km/h). Recovered by the U.S. Navy tug, USS Kiowa. First launch 1959/05/28

ABMA.....U.S., organization, Army, Ballistic Missile Agency. Created in the 50's which became the Redstone Arsenal when the NASA Marshall Space Flight Center was formed. Managed the Jupiter missile and Able-Baker project. Joined NASA 1960/07/01.

ABRES.....U.S., launch complex at Vandenberg AFB.

ABRIXAS.....Germany, satellite, scientific, LEO. A BROAD-BAND IMAGING X-RAY ALL-SKY SURVEY. Hard x-ray, all sky survey. First launch 1999/04/28

AC.....Launch vehicle motor, AMOCO Chemicals Corp.

Academician Sergei Korolev.....Russia, tracking ship. See also tracking ships.

Academy of Launch Vehicle Technology.....China, organization. See China Academy of Launch Vehicle Technology.

Academy of Rocket Technology.....China, organization. See China Academy of Rocket Technology.

Academy of Science.....China, organization. See CAS.

Academy of Solid Rocketry.....China, organization. See CASR.

Academy of Space Technology.....China, organization. See China Academy of Space Technology.

acceleration.....Measured in distance/sec2. For Earth ag = acceleration due to gravity, 9.978 m/s2, 32.2 ft/s2. See also Planet.

Acceleration of gravity at surface of a planet.....See planet.

ACCESS.....U.S., NASA, satellite, scientific, LEO. ADVANCED COSMIC-RAY COMPOSITION EXPERIMENT FOR ISS. First launch 2005/00/00

ACCESS.....U.S., NASA, satellite, technology, LEO. ASSEMBLY CONCEPT FOR CONSTRUCTION OF ERECTABLE SPACE STRUCTURES, deployed on an EVA by the STS-61B, to simulate the concept of Space Station construction (See ISSA). Launched at KSC. First launch 1985/11/27

ACE.....U.S., NASA, satellite, scientific, ADVANCED COMPOSITION EXPLORER, investigate solar plasma affects on the magnetosphere. Launched at CC by a Delta 2 into a heliocentric L1 orbit. First launch 1997/08/25

ACeS ASIA Cellular Satellite.....Indonesia, company, communications satellite operator, GARUDA. CYBER Building 5th Floor, JL. Kuningan Barat No. 8, Jakarta, 12170 Indonesia. www.acesinternational.com.

ACES.....Indonesia, satellite, communications, owned by PSN, ASIA CELLULAR SATELLITE. See GARUDA.

ACRIMSAT.....U.S., NASA, satellite, scientific, solar physics, LEO. First launch 1999/12/21

ACS.....U.S., ship, command ship for Sea Launch, see Sea Launch Commander.

Actel.....African Continental Telecommunications Limited, aerospace company. Provides communication services to Africa.

ACTEL.....Gibralter, satellite, communications, GEO. First launch 2002/00/00

Action, Loran.....U.S., astronaut, STS-51F (19), 1985/07/29. First launch 1985/07/29

active satellite.....A satellite, typically a communications satellite, which retransmits electromagnetic signals, vs a passive satellite which reflects electromagnetic signals.

Active Dispenser.....U.S., launch vehicle, Aerojet, used on K-1. Thrust 2000 lbf (8.96 kN), pressure ? psi (? bar), propellant MMH/N2O4.

ACTIVE MAGNETOSPHERE PARTICLE TRACER EXPLORE......U.S. & German satellite. See AMPTE.

ACTIVE RADIO RELAY.....U.S., satellite, see COURIER 1-B 1 First launch 1960/10/04

ACTIVNY.....Russia, satellite. See INTERKOSMOS.

ACTS.....U.S. NASA, satellite, communications, GEO. ADVANCED COMMUNICATIONS TECHNOLOGY SATELLITE. First launch 1993/09/12

AD.....Launch vehicle motor, Allison Div. (General Motors).

AD-A.....U.S., satellite, see AIR DENISTY EXPLORER.

Adams.....USS Adams, recovery ship, part of the fleet which recovered or was on duty and capable of recovering the following: MERCURY Atlas 2.

Adamson, James.....U.S., astronaut, STS-28, 1989/08/08, STS-43, 1991/08/02. First launch 1989/08/08

ADE.....U.S., satellite, see ATMOSPHERIC DENSITY EXPLORER or AIR DENSITY EXPLORER.

Adelaide.....Australia, City, Capital of South Australia and nearest main city to Woomera launch complex. Salisbury is a suburb. See Salisbury.

ADEO.....U.S., satellite, see ADEOS.

ADEOS.....Japan, NASDA, satellite, scientific, Polar orbit. ADVANCED EARTH OBSERVING SATELLITE. The satellite contains 8 international instruments for earth observation.

ADEOS 1 1996 046A, 1996/08/17, Tanegashima, H-II, MIDORI Also know as MIDORI.

First launch 1996/08/17

ADM-AEOLUS.....Europe, satellite, see AEOLUS.

ADN.....Launch vehicle propellant, solid, oxidizer, Ammonium dinitramine.

Adrastea.....Jupiter moon, one of 16. See also Metis, Adrastea, Amalthea, Thebe, Io, Europa, Ganymede, Callisto, Leda, Sinope, Himalia, Lysithea, Elara, Ananke, Carme, Pasiphae.

Adroit.....USS Adroit, recovery ship, part of the fleet which recovered or was on duty and capable of recovering the following: APOLLO 17, SKYLAB 2.

Adv A2100.....U.S., satellite bus, Lockheed Martin. GEO/MEO.

ADV SDS.....U.S., satellite, communications, military. Also known as SDS or ADVANCED SPACE DEFENSE SYSTEM. USA-119, USA-125. First launch 1996/05/12

Advanced Extremely High Frequency Satellite.....U.S. Air Force satellite. See AEHF.

Advanced Polar Satellite.....U.S., satellite, see APS.

ADVANCED COMMUNICATIONS TECHNOLOGY SATELLITE.....U.S., satellite. See ACTS.

ADVANCED COMPOSITION EXPLORER.....U.S., satellite. See ACE.

ADVANCED COSMIC RAY COMPOSITION EXPERIMENT FOR ISS.....U.S., satellite. See ACCESS.

ADVANCED CRYSTAL.....U.S. imaging reconnaissance satellites, also known as IMPROVED CRYSTAL or ADVANCE KH-11. See KENNAN. First launch 1990/02/28

ADVANCED EARTH OBSERVING SATELLITE.....Japan, satellite. See ADEOS.

ADVANCED EHF.....U.S., satellite, military communications, laser. ADVANCED EXTREMELY HIGH FREQUENCY SATELLITE, also known as AEHF. Constellation of 3 satellites, GEO. Follow-on to MILSTAR 2. First launch 2014/00/00

ADVANCED EXPERIMENTAL COMMUNICATIONS SATELLITE.....U.S. Satellite. See AECS.

ADVANCED EXTREMELY HIGH FREQUENCY.....U.S., satellite, see ADVANCED EHF.

ADVANCED JUMPSEAT.....U.S., satellite. See JUMPSEAT.

ADVANCED KH-11.....U.S., satellite, reconnaissance, LEO sun-sync. See KENNAN. First launch 2001/10/05

ADVANCED LAND OBSERVING SATELLITE.....Japan, satellite. See ALOS.

ADVANCED ORION.....U.S., satellite, see ORION, USA 105, USA 110, USA 118.

ADVANCED PHOTOVOLTAIC AND ELECTRONICS EXPERIMENT.....U.S. satellite. See APEX.

ADVANCED RELAY AND TECHNOLOGY MISSION SATELLITE.....Europe, satellite. See ARTEMIS.

ADVANCED RESEARCH AND GLOBAL OBSERVATION SATELLITE.....U.S., satellite. See ARGOS.

ADVANCED RESEARCH IN TELECOMMUNICATIONS SYSTEMS.....Europe, ESA, satellite, see ARTES.

ADVANCED SATELLITE.....U.S., satellite see ASAT TARGET BALLOON.

ADVANCED SATELLITE FOR COSMOLOGY AND ASTROPHYSICS.....Japan and U.S., satellite. See ASCA.

ADVANCED SATELLITE FOR COSMOLOGY ASTROPHYSICS.....See ASCA

ADVANCED SDS.....U.S., satellite, see ADV SDS.

ADVANCED TIROS.....U.S., satellite, weather. See TIROS, NOAA 8 or E, NOAA 9 or F, NOAA 10 or G, NOAA 11 or H, NOAA 13 or J, NOAA 14 or K.

ADVANCED VELA.....U.S., satellite, see VELA.

ADVANCED X-RAY ASTROPHYSICS FACILITY.....U.S., satellite. See AXAF.

AdvTIROS-N.....U.S., satellite bus, Lockheed Martin, LEO.

AE.....U.S. satellite, ATMOSPHERE EXPLORER, EXPLORER #55. See EXPLORER.

AE.....Launch vehicle motor, Aerodyne Corp. (formerly AD).

AE-C.....U.S., satellite, research, EXPLORER 51, 1973/12/16, WTR, Delta, HEO, re-entry 1978/12/12. Also known as ATMOSPHERE EXPLORER C, AE C.

AE-D.....U.S., satellite, research, EXPLORER 54, 1975/10/06, WTR, Delta, HEO, re-entry 1976/03/12. Also known as ATMOSPHERE EXPLORER D, AE D.

AE-E.....U.S., satellite, research, EXPLORER 55, 1975/11/20, ETR, Delta, LEO, re-entry 1981/06/18. Also known as ATMOSPHERE EXPLORER E, AE E.

AEB.....Brazil, organization, Brazil Space Agency, see Agencia Espacial Brasileira.

AEC.....U.S., organization. Atomic Energy Commission, now part of the U.S. Department of Energy.

AECS.....U.S. USAF, satellite, ADVANCED EXPERIMENTAL COMMUNICATIONS SATELLITE. Launched at WTR by Titan IIIB-Agena D. First launch 1971/03/20

Aegir.....Norse, god of the sea.

AEHF.....U.S., satellite, see ADVANCED EHF.

AEHF.....U.S., Air Force, satellite, communication. ADVANCED EXTREMELY HIGH FREQUENCY Satellite.

AEM.....U.S., satellite, atmospheric, LEO. ATMOSPHERIC EXPLORER MISSION. First launch 1978/04/26

Aeolus.....Greece, mythology, keeper of the winds. See also Eole.

Aeolus.....Australia, rocket, sounding, upper atmospheric research. Seven launches between 1958 and 1961. First launch 1958/00/00

AEOLUS.....Europe. satellite, earth observation, SSO. Also known as ADM-AEOLUS. Built by Astrium. First launch 2007/00/00

AERCAM.....U.S., satellite, camera, released by STS to examine the surface of the space vehicle. First launch 1997/12/03

Aerfer.....Europe, aerospace company, joined with Salmoiraghi in 1970 to become Aeritalia.

aerial.....Antenne (Fr)., antenne (D).

Aeritalia.....Europe, aerospace company, joined with Selenia in 1990 to become Alenia.

Aermacchi.....Europe, aerospace company, acquired Saia Marchetti in 1995.

AERO/ASTRO.....India, ISRO, satellite, scientific.

Aero-High.....Australia, rocket, sounding, upper atmosphere geophysics. Main program consisted of 12 launches between 1968 and 1972. 1964/00/00

AeroAstro.....U.S., aerospace company. Address: 520 Hutmar Park Drive, Herndon, VA 22070, USA.

Aerobee.....U.S. Sounding rocket for upper atmosphere geophysics. Drawn from the Navy's Bumblebee missile project, an enlarged descendant of the Wac Corporal. Became the stage 2 of the Vangaurd. Versions included 150 (Hi), 300, and 350. The standard Aerobee was capable of launching 150 lbs (68 kg) payloads to an altitude of 150 miles (250 km). Also launched from Woomera with Australian and USA University payloads. Standard Aerobee First launch 1947/09/25

Aerobee 150A.....U.S., Sounding rocket, upper atmosphere geophysics. Capable of launching 150 lbs (68 kg) to an altitude of 82 miles (150 km). Was the Aerobee Hi. Named changed by NASA in 1959/09. First launch 1959/09/00

Aerobee 300.....U.S., Sounding rocket, upper atmosphere geophysics. Consisted of the Aerobee Hi with a Sparrow solid rocket motor second stage. Capable of launching a payload of 100 lbs (45 kg) to an altitude of 260 miles (420 km) Only flown from Churchill. Also known as Spaerobee. First launch 1958/10/22

Aerobee 350.....U.S., Sounding rocket, upper atmosphere geophysics. Booster was a Nike Ajax motor with the Aerobee 150 upper stage. Capability 150-500 lbs (68-227 kg) 150-300 miles (240-480 km). First launch 1965/06/18

Aerobee Hi.....U.S., Sounding rocket, upper atmosphere geophysics. See Aerobee 150. First launch 04/21/1955

AEROCUBE.....U.S., satellite, technolgy, AerospaceCorp, picosatellite that is a cubesat. First launch 2006/07/26

Aerojet Engineering.....U.S., aerospace company, purchased by General Tire and Rubber Co., in 1945. Became Aerojet General.

Aerojet General.....U.S., aerospace company. Address: PO Box 13222, Sacramento, CA 95813-6000, USA. Was Aerojet Engineering, became part of GenCorp Aerojet.

Aerojet General Elecronics and Information Systems.....U.S., aerospace company, became part of Northrop Grumman in 2000.

Aerojet SRB.....U.S., launch vehicle motor, see SRB.

Aerokosmos.....Russia, launch vehicle, see Shtil 3A.

AERONOMY OF THE ICE IN THE MESOSPHERE.....U.S., satellite, see AIM.

AEROS.....U.S. & German, satellite, scientific, LEO. Two satellites launched into polar orbits on a Scout by the U.S. at the VAFB to investigate physical processes in the upper layers of earth's atmosphere. The effort was in cooperation with Germany.

AEROS 1 launched 1972/12/16.

AEROS 2 launched 1974/07/16.

First launch 1972/12/16

Aerospace Ministry.....China, organization. See China Aerospace Ministry.

Aerospace Tsinghua Satellite Technology Co. Ltd.....China, company, Tsinghua University of Beijing and several high-tech companies formed company, focusing on developing microsats and detector technologies.

Aerospatiale.....France, aerospace company. Main contractor for the Ariane Launch vehicles. The satellite division became Alcatel. See Aerospatiale & Dassault.

Aerospatiale & Dassault.....Europe, aerospace company. Aerospatiale and Dassault Aviation joined in 1997. Address: 37 boulevard de Montmornecy, 75781 Paris, Cedex 16, France.

AEROSTATNIY ZOND.....Russia, satellite, part of VEGA 1 and 2. ALSO known as AZ.

Aerozine 50.....Launch vehicle propellant, liquid, 50% UDMH and 50% hydrazine.

Aestus.....ESA, launch vehicle motor, DaimlerChrysler, used on Ariane 5 EPS upper stage, 6,500 lbf (29 kN), 145 psi (10 bar), fuel liquid, MMH/N2O4.

AF.....Orbital elements, see F & G Elements.

Afanasev, Viktor.....Russia, cosmonaut, see Afanasiev, Vikktor.

Afanasiev, Vikktor.....Russia, cosmonaut, SOYUZ TM 29,1999/2/20, SOYUZ TM 033, 2001/10/21. First launch 1999/02/20

Afanasyev, Viktor.....Russia, cosmonaut, SOYUZ TM 11, 1990/12/02, SOYUZ TM 18, 1994/01/08. First launch 1990/12/02

AFCRL.....U.S., USAF, satellite, see CRL.

AFLICT.....Russia, manned, Mars Probe, proposed.

AFMTC.....U.S., space vehicle launch facility. See Air Force Missile Test Center

AFP.....U.S., Air Force, Air Force Program. See DoD Designation.

AFP-1010.....U.S., satellite. See KEYHOLE.

AFP-201.....U.S., Air Force, phase of the SAMOS project which used film return like CORONA without retro fire engines. See also WS-210A.

AFP-206.....U.S. Air Force, satellite, see GAMBIT.

AFP-241.....U.S., satellite. See CORONA.

AFP-313.....U.S., satellite, program, See R&D DATA RELAY, manufactured by Hughes.

AFP-366.....U.S., satellite, program, see CHALET SIGINT Satellite.

AFP-410.....U.S. NASA, program. See Explorer Program.

AFP-417.....U.S. A.F., satellite, classified, launched at the WTR by Thor-Burner II. First launch 1972/11/08

AFP-417.....U.S., satellite, program, Military Meteorological Satellite System, manufactured by RCA. Similar to AFP-417L or Code 417.

AFP-43.....U.S. Air Force, satellite, technology, LEO, Air Force Program 43, Meteorological satellie. Early AFP-417. Launched at Vandenberg by a Thor Agena D. First launch 1964/01/19

AFP-467.....U.S., satellite. See BIG BIRD.

AFP-472.....U.S., satellite, program, Classified Satellite RHYOLITE. Similar to AFP-720.

AFP-476.....U.S.,Air Force Project 467, satellite. See BIG BIRD Satellites

AFP-612.....U.S., satellite, program, precursor to Program 467.

AFP-632.....U.S., satellite, program, DORIAN, KH-10, Manned Orbital Laboratory MOL. See also 287.

AFP-647.....U.S., satellite. See DSP.

AFP-658.....U.S., satellite, program, see SDS-2-2, Communications Satellite.

AFP-675.....U.S., satellite, scientific. Air Force Program-675. Collects infrared data to support the SDIO program. Was the CRYOGENIC INFRARED RADIANCE INSTRUMENT FOR SHUTTLE or CIRRIS.

AFP-706.....U.S., satellite, program. Project SAINT (Co-Orbital Satellite Inspection System). See also 621A, RS-649F.

AFP-711.....U.S., satellite, program, JUMPSEAT ELINT Satellite (World-Wide Radar Mapping Satellite System). See also FERRET.

AFP-720.....U.S. Air Force, satellite, see RHYOLITE or SAMOS.

AFP-720A.....U.S., satellite, program, Advanced SAMOS.

AFP-731.....U.S., satellite, program, IKON" ("Improved CRYSTAL") (KH-12?) Reconnaissance Satellite.

AFP-731.....U.S., USAF, satellite, surveillance, Also known as USA-053. First launch 1990/02/28

AFP-777.....U.S., satellite. See DSCS.

AFP-827.....U.S. Air Force, satellite, see CANYON.

AFP-949.....U.S., satellite, program, Reconnaissance and Early Warning System. Part of AFP-647. Originally 266.

AFRICAN STAR.....U.S. Satellite. See AFRISTAR.

AFRISTAR.....U.S., satellite, communications, Digital Audio Broadcasting (DAB), operated by WorldSpace for African markets. Known as AFRICAN STAR (satellite) Other satellite in series include ASIASTAR and AMERISTAR. Launched at Kourou by an Ariane 44L. See also WORLDSPACE.  First launch 1998/10/28

AFSCN.....U.S., organization. Air Force Satellite Control Network. World wide network of USAF ground tracking stations and control center. Control center located at Onizuka AF Station, Sunnyvale, CA.

afterbody.....A rocket or missile section that continues to trail the nose cone or satellite from which it was separated in orbit.

ag.....Acceleration due to gravity of Earth, 9.978 m/s2, 32.2 ft/s2. See acceleration.

AG.....Orbital elements, see F & G Elements.

Agena.....U.S. launch vehicle. Air Force, second stage of the Thor, Delta, and Atlas Boosters. Liquid fueled engine capable of being restarted. Build by Lockheed Missile and Space Company, now part of Lockheed Martin.

- Agena A. Used Hustler 8048 engine.

- Agena B. Used Hustler 8081 engine. or Hustler 8096.

- Agena D. DoD System Management Codes 648A. First launch 1959/02/28

Agena A.....U.S., launch vehicle, second stage. Agena engine based upon the rocket propelled nuclear warhead for the USAF B-58 Hustler Bomber. Used Hustler 8048 engine.

Agena B.....U.S., launch vehicle, second stage, based upon the Agena A. Used Hustler 8081 engine or Hustler 8096.

Agena D.....U.S., launch vehicle, second stage, based upon the Agena B.

AGENA TARGET DOCKING ADAPTER.....U.S., satellite, technology, LEO. Test docking capability for GEMINI. Faring separation failure prevented use. Also known as ATDA. First launch 1966/06/01

Agencia Espacial Brasileira.....Brazil, organization, also known as AEB. Manages IAE and INPE.

Agency Spatiale European.....Europe, organization. European Space Agency, ESA, Paris, France. See ESA.

Agenzia Spoziale Italiano.....Italy, organization. See ASI.

agila.....Spanish, Eagle.

AGILA.....Philippine, satellite, mobile communications, GEO. Launched by a Long March 3B rocket from Xichang. Owner is Mabuhay Philippines Satellite Corp. Also known as MABUHAY AGILA. AGILA 1 was PALAPA B2P. First launch 1997/08/19

AGILE.....Italy, satellite, astrophysics research. Scan 1/5 of the sky for gamma rays.

AGM.....U.S., Naval Ship, missile range instrumentation ship.

AGNISAT.....India, satellite, direct broadcast TV, GEO.

AGO.....U.S., organization. See NASA STDN tracking station, Santiago, Chile. Transferred to Chilean government under Centro de Estudios Especiales (CEE).

AGORA.....France, satellite, communication. Based upon Alphabus.

AGRANI.....India, satellite, mobile communications, GEO.

Agusta.....Europe, aerospace company, took over Siai Marchetti in 1990, joined with Alenia and Oto Breda to form Finmeccanica in 1995.

AHSK.....U.S. organization. See NASA STDN tracking station, Honeysuckle Creek, Australia. Closed.

AI.....Launch vehicle motor, Astropower, Inc.

AIAA.....U.S., organization. See American Institute of Aeronautics and Astronautics.

AIM.....U.S., satellite, NASA, scientific. SMEX program satellite, AERONOMY OF THE ICE IN THE MESOSPHERE. First launch 2005/00/00

AIMP.....U.S., satellite, see IMP.

air augmented rocket.....See ducted rocket.

Air Force Eastern Space and Missile Test Range.....U.S., space vehicle launch facility. See Eastern Range.

Air Force Missile and Test Center.....U.S., space vehicle launch facility. Established at Cape Canaveral Air Station, FL. The Air Force Missile and Test Center (AFMTC), one of the many early names of the Eastern Range. 1951/04/14

Air Force Reservation.....U.S., space vehicle launch facility. See Cape Canaveral Air Station.

Air Force Satellite Control Network.....U.S., organization. See AFSCN.

Air Fouga.....Europe, aerospace company, became part of Morane-Saulnier in 1965.

AIR DENSITY EXPLORER.....U.S., satellites, scientific. See EXPLORER series. First launch 1963/12/19

Aisa.....Europe, aerospace company, became part Casa in 1990.

AISAT.....Algeria, satellite, imaging. Uses SSTL Microsat 100 bus. First launch 2002/11/28

AJ.....Launch vehicle motor, Aerojet General Corp.

AJ.....U.S., aerospace company, see Aerojet General.

AJ-1200.....U.S., launch vehicle motor. Manufactured by Aerojet.

AJ10-101.....U.S., launch vehicle motor. Thrust 7700 lbf (34 kN), pressure ? psi (? bar), liquid propellant, IWFNA/UDMH. Derived from the Vanguard launch vehicle stage 2. Used on Thor-Able and Atlas-Able launch vehicles. Also known as AJ10-42.

AJ10-101A.....U.S., launch vehicle motor, used on Thor-Able III and IV.

AJ10-104.....U.S., launch vehicle motor. Thrust 7,890 lbf (34 kN), pressure ? psi (? bar), liquid propellant IRFNA/UDMH. Used on Thor-Able-Star, stage 2.

AJ10-118.....U.S., launch vehicle motor, Aerojet. Thrust 7,800 lbf ( 34 kN), pressure ? psi (? bar), liquid propellant IWFNA/UDMH. Used on Thor-Delta stage 2, Delta stage 2.

AJ10-118F.....U.S./Japan, launch vehicle motor. Thrust ? lbf (? kN), pressure ? psi (? bar), liquid propellant N2O4/UDMH-hydrazine. Used on the Japanese N-II, Stage 2, SPSS.

AJ10-118I.....U.S., launch vehicle motor, Aerojet. Thrust 9,850 lbf (43 kN), prssure 827 psi (57 bar), propellant N2O4/Aerozine 50. Used on Delta II stage 2.

AJ10-118K.....U.S., launch vehicle motor, Aerojet. Thrust 9,815 lbf (43 kN), prssure 827 psi (57 bar), propellant N2O4/Aerozine 50. Used on Delta II stage 2.

AJ10-138.....U.S., launch vehicle motor. Thrust 8,000 lbf (35 kN), pressure ? psi (? bar), liquid propellant N2O4/Aerozine-50.

AJ10-37.....U.S., launch vehicle motor, thrust 7600 lbf (33 kN), propellant, IWFNA/UDMH. Manufactured by Aerojet. DoD Rocket Motor Designation LR52. Used on the Vanguard launch vehicle stage 2.

AJ10-42.....U.S., launch vehicle motor. Thrust 7700 lbf (34 kN), pressure ? psi (? bar), liquid propellant, IWFNA/UDMH. Derived from the Vanguard launch vehicle stage 2. Used on Thor-Able launch vehicle. Also known as AJ10-101A.

AJ26-58.....U.S., launch vehicle motor, Aerojet, based upon the ND Kurnestov NK-33 motor, single start. Used on K-1 LAP stage 1. Thrust 340,000 lbf (1512 kN), pressure 2109 psi (145 bar), propellant LOX/RP-1.

AJ26-59.....U.S., launch vehicle motor, Aerojet, based upon the ND Kurnestov NK-33 motor, restart. Used on K-1 LAP stage 1. Thrust 340,000 lbf (1512 kN), pressure 2109 psi (145 bar), propellant LOX/RP-1.

AJ26-60.....U.S., launch vehicle motor, Aerojet, based upon the ND Kurnestov NK-43 motor. Used on K-1 OV stage 2. Thrust 398,000 lbf (1769 kN), pressure 2109 psi (145 bar), propellant LOX/RP-1.

ajisai.....Japan, flower, Hydrangea.

AJISAI.....Japan, satellite. See EGP.

AK.....Russia, Azotna Kislota, Nitric Acid.

AK-27P.....Russia, launch vehicle propellant. 73% nitric acid + 27% N2O4 + unknown additive.

AK20.....Russia, launch vehicle propellant. 80% nitric acid + 20% N2O4.

AK20F.....Russia, launch vehicle propellant. 80% nitric acid + 20% N2O4 + fluorine passivant.

AK20I.....Russia, launch vehicle propellant. 80% nitric acid + 20% N2O4 + iodine passivant.

AK20K.....Russia, launch vehicle propellant. 80% nitric acid + 20% N2O4 + unknown additive.

AK27I.....Russia, launch vehicle propellant. 73% nitric acid + 27% N2O4 + iodine passivant.

AKA.....Also known as.

AKARI.....Japan, satellite, infrared astronomy, elliptical SSO. Also known as ASTRO-F. First launch 2006/02/21

akebono.....Japan, Dawn.

AKEBONO.....Japan, satellite,see EXOS.

Akers, Thomas.....U.S., astronaut, STS-41, 1990/10/06, STS-49, 1992/05/07, STS-61, 1993/12/02, STS-79, 1996/09/16. First launch 1990/10/06

Akiyam, Toyohiro.....Japan, cosmonaut, SOYUZ TM 11, 1990/12/02. First launch 1990/12/02

AKM.....Apogee Kick Motor. Rocket motor ignited when the satellite reaches the Apogee, placing it in a circular orbit.

Aksyonov, Vladimir.....Russia, cosmonaut, SOYUZ 22, 1976/09/15, SOYUZ T2, 1980/06/05.

First launch 1976/09/15

aktivniy.....Russia, active.

Akvamarin.....Russia, launch vehicle. See RIF MA

Al.....Launch vehicle propellant, solid, fuel, Aluminum.

Al Anbar.....Iraq, space vehicle launch facility, 33.5o N, 34.0o E. First launch 1989/12/05

AL'TAIR.....Russia, satellite, see ALTAIR.

Al-Saud, Sultan Saleman Abdelaziz.....Saudi Arabia, astronaut, STS-51G (18), 1985/06/17. First launch 1985/06/17

Alacrity MOS 520.....USS Alacrity MOS 520, recovery ship, part of the fleet which recovered or was on duty and capable of recovering the following: APOLLO 16.

Alan, Andrew.....U.S., astronaut, STS-46, 1992/07/31. First launch 1992/07/31

Alaska Aerospace Development Corp......U.S., company, operator of the Kodiak Launch Site. Also known as AADC.

Alaska Station.....U.S., organization. NASA, STDN, Spaceflight Tracking and Data Network. Alaska Station, P.O. Box 1307, Fairbanks, AK. 99707 US. Started 1963/09/01, Turned over to NOAA 10/01/84.

ALBATROS.....Russia, satellite, reusable orbital space shuttle, renamed BURAN .

ALCA.....Brasil, space vehicle launch facility. See Alcantara.

Alcantara.....Brazil, Maranhao, space vehicle launch facility. Launch site for SONDA and Veiculo Lancador de Satellites (VLS) sounding rockets and low earth orbit Missions (proposed). 2.17 S, 44.23 W. The launch site is located near Sao Luis on the Atlantic Coast. The site is in preparation for launching Brazil's first orbital launch vehicle, VLS. POC Departamento de Pesquisas y Desenvolvimento, Esplanada dos Ministérios-Bloco M, Edifício Anexo do Maer, 3o Andar, 70.045-900-Brasília-DF, Brasil. Its formal opening was 1990/00/00

Alcatel.....France, company, aerospace. Address: 54 Rue le Boètie, 75008 Paris, France. www.alcatel.com. Joint ventures/partnerships: Cyberstar, partner with Loral Space & Communications. Eurasiasat S.A.M. partner Türk Telekom. Europe*Star, partner Loral Space & Communications. SkyBridge, Partner: Loral Space & Communications, others from Belgium, Canada, France, Japan and USA. TE.SA.M (GLOBALSTAR) partner: France Tèlècom. Was Alcatel Alsthom.

Alcatel Alsthom.....Europe, aerospace company, formally Aerospatiale Satellite Div. Address: 33 rue Emeriau, 75015 Paris Cedex France. Became Alcatel.

Alcatel Spacebus 3000B.....France, satellite bus.

Alcatel Spacebus 3000B3S.....France, satellite bus.

Aldrin, Edwin.....U.S., astronaut, GEMINI 12, 1966/11/11, APOLLO 11, 1969/07/16. Also known as Buzz Aldrin. First launch 1966/11/11

Alenia.....Europe, aerospace company, Aeritalia and Selenia joined to become Alenia in 1990. Alenia joined with Agusta and Oto Breda to form Finmeccanica in 1995 and Astrium in 1999.

ALENIA LEONARDO.....Italy, ISA Satellite, LEO, ISS Logistic Module, MPLM-1, launched by STS 105. First launch 2001/08/09

ALEXIS.....U.S. satellite, scientific, ARRAY FOR LOW ENERGY X-RAY IMAGING SENSORS. Used to scan the heavens for low-energy X-ray activity. Launched at EAFB by the Pegasus booster. First launch 1993/04/25

Alexsandrov, Alexander.....Bulgaria, cosmonaut, SOYUZ TM 05, 1988/06/07. First launch 1988/06/07

Alexsandrov, Alexander.....Russia, cosmonaut, SOYUZ T9, 1983/06/27, SOYUZ TM 03, 1987/07/22. First launch 1983/06/27

Alfa Romeo Avio.....Europe, aerospace company, became part Aeritalia in 1985.

Alfex.....Japan, spaceplane, landing tests. Series of about 13 tests of automatic landing system of the Japanese Hope spaceplane at Woomera during July and August 1996. First launch 1996/07/06

Algol.....U.S., launch vehicle motor, manufactured by Aerojet.

Algol I.....U.S., launch vehicle motor. Thrust 68,000 lbf (382 kN), pressure ? psi (? bar), solid propellant ? Also known as XM-68. Manufactured by Aerojet-General Corp. Derived from the Jupiter and Polaris programs.

Algol IC.....U.S., launch vehicle motor. Manufactured by Aerojet-General Corp. Used on the Scout launch vehicle.

Algol ID......U.S., launch vehicle motor. Manufactured by Aerojet-General Corp. Used on the Scout launch vehicle.

Algol IIA.....U.S., launch vehicle motor, thrust ? lbf (? kN), pressure ? psi (? bar), solid propellant ? Manufactured by Aerojet-General Corp. Also known as 40 KS. Used on the Scout launch vehicle.

Algol IIB.....U.S., launch vehicle motor, thrust ? lbf (? kN), pressure ? psi (? bar), solid propellant ? Algol IIA with modified nozzle. Manufactured by Aerojet-General Corp. Used on the Scout launch vehicle.

Algol IIIA.....U.S., launch vehicle motor, thrust 104,500 lbf (464 kN), pressure 450 psi (31 bar), solid propellant PBAN. Manufactured by United Technology Corp. Chemical Systems Division. Used on the Scout launch vehicle.

Algol KA 54.....USS Algol KA 54, recovery ship, part of the fleet which recovered or was on duty and capable of recovering the following: APOLLO 9.

Alice Springs Balloon Launch Station.....Australia/USA, Alice Springs, organization. Launch station for balloons carrying a large variety of scientific payloads.

Allen, Andrew.....U.S., astronaut, STS-62, 1994/03/09, STS-75, 1996/02/22. First launch 1982/11/11

Allen, Joseph.....U.S., astronaut, STS-5, 1982/11/11, STS-51A (14), 1984/11/08. First launch 1982/11/11

Alliant Tech Systems.....U.S., aerospace company, manufacturers solid fuel rocket motors. Buys Thiokol from ALCOA Inc.

Alliant Techsystems.....U.S., aerospace company. Address: PO Box 98, Magna, UT 84044, USA.

almaz.....Russia, diamond, element, crystalline form of carbon, atomic number 6, used as a gem.

ALMAZ.....Russia, satellite, commercial remote sensing, studies geology, cartography, oceanography, ecology, and agriculture. Also known as MECH-KU. First launch 1991/03/31

ALMAZ.....Russia, satellite, Also known as OPS. Launched from Tyuratam by SL-13. Renamed SALYUT after launch, SALYUT 2, 3, and 5. Also known as 11F71. First launch 1973/04/03

ALMAZ-K.....Russia, satellite, see 11F668.

ALOS.....Japan, satellite, observation. ADVANCED LAND OBSERVING SATELLITE. Also known as RIKU IKI KANSOKU GIJUTSU EISEI. Renamed DAICHI, Mother Earth. First launch 2006/01/24

ALOUETTE.....Canada, satellite. Two satellites were launched into polar orbits by the U.S. with a Thor-Agena B at the WTR for Canada to test the effect of the ionosphere on communications.

- ALOUETTE 1 launched 1962/09/29

- ALOUETTE 2 launched 1965/11/29.

First launch 1962/09/29

ALP-SAT.....Switzerland & Austria, satellite, solar activity, Sun/Earth L1.

alpha.....Α, α, alpha, 1, Greek Alphabet.

ALPHA.....U.S., satellite, see ISSA, INTERNATIONAL SPACE STATION ALPHA.

ALPHA FGB.....Russia, satellite, see ZARYA.

Alphabus.....Europe, satellite bus by Alcatel & Astrium. 12-18 kW, 3m x 5 m in size, 6 to 8 tons.

ALPHASAT.....Europe, satellite, communications, based upon the Alphabus.

ALS.....Russia, satellite, see LUNA.

ALSAT.....Algeria, satellite, earth observation, LEO, constellation of 5 satellites with different names. First launch 2002/11/28

ALSOR Viper.....U.S., rocket, Air launched meteorology for X-15. First launch 1962/00/00

Altair.....U.S., launch vehicle motor, manufactured by Thiokol.

Altair.....Russia, mission title for Soyuz TM-17. First launch 1993/07/01

Altair.....U.S., Launch vehicle, 4th stage used on Scout, Thor and Atlas launch vehicles. Derived from the Vanguard 3rd stage.

Altair I.....U.S., launch vehicle motor, thrust 2,760 lbf (12 kN), pressure ? psi (? bar), solid propellant. Also known as X-248. Manufactured by Thiokol. Derived from the Vanguard launch vehicle.

Altair II.....U.S., launch vehicle motor, thrust 5,800 lbf (25.8 kN), pressure ? psi (? bar), solid propellant. Also known as X-248. Manufactured by Thiokol. Used on the Scout and Burner launch vehicles.

Altair IIIA.....U.S., launch vehicle motor, thrust 5,800 lbf (25.8 kN), pressure 670 psi (46 bar), solid propellant CTPB. Also known as TEM-640. Manufactured by Thiokol and United Technologies. Used on the Scout launch vehicle.

ALTAIR.....Russia, satellite, military communication. See LUCH. Also known as AL'TAIR.

ALTAIR.....U.S., satellite. First launch 1960/04/01

Altair-248.....U.S., launch vehicle motor, see ABL-248.

ALTIKA.....France, satellite, CNES, Altimetry measurement.

altitude.....1) height measured from the surface of the Earth or other body.

2) orbital altitude in miles important to Earth satellites orbits;

- 100-300 (170-540 km): shuttles, space stations, spy, navigation, ham (amateur radio)

- 300-600 (540-1000 km): weather, photo

- 600-1,200 (1000-2000 km): spy, military communications, ham, science

- 3,000-6,000 (5100-10,200 km): science

- 6,000-12,000 (10,200-20,400 km): navigation

- 22,300 (38,000 km): stationary, geostationary, geosynchronous, communications, broadcast, weather

- 250-50,000 (425-85,000 km) (Elliptical): early-warning, MOLNIYA, broadcast, communications, spy, ham.

Altman, Scott.....U.S., astronaut, STS 90, 1998/04/17, STS-106, 2000/09/08, STS-109, 2002/03/01. First launch 1998/04/17

Aluminum.....Launch vehicle propellant, solid, fuel. Chemical symbol Al.

Amalthea.....Jupiter moon, one of 16. See also Metis, Adrastea, Amalthea, Thebe, Io, Europa, Ganymede, Callisto, Leda, Sinope, Himalia, Lysithea, Elara, Ananke, Carme, Pasiphae.

AMATEUR SATELLITES.....Satellite. See AMSAT.

AMAZONAS.....Spain, satellite, communication, GEO. Uses Eurostar 3000 bus. First launch 2004/08/04

AMC.....U.S., Europe, satellite, communications, GEO, owned by SES Amreicom. Some GE satellites renamed AMC. First launch 1996/9/8

AMENSTAR.....U.S., satellite, communications, GEO.

America.....Geographical location, northern hemisphere, continent, named after Americus Vespucius.

AMERICA.....U.S. NASA, satellite, manned spacecraft, trans lunar orbit. APOLLO 17, CSM-114. Launched by Saturn 5 at KSC. CDR Eugene Cernan, LMP Harrison Schmitt, CMP Ronald Evans. LA 1972/12/07, LL 1972/12/11, LF 1972/12/14, R 1972/12/19, PRS U.S.S. Ticonderoga (CVS-14). First launch 1972/12/07

American Institute of Aeronautics and Astronautics.....U.S., organization. 1801 Alexander Bell Drive, Suite 500, Reston, VA 20191, USA. Also known as AIAA.

American Mobil Satellite Corp......U.S. aerospace company. Also known as AMSC. Established in 1988. Provides communication services for mobile users. Address: 10802 Parkridge Blvd., Reston, VA 20191. Purchased by Thiokol Propulsion in 2001.

American Rocket Co......U.S., aerospace company. Also known as AMROC. Address: 5126 Ralston St., Ventura, CA 93003, USA. First launch 1989/10/05

American Rocket Society.....U.S., organization. Society which developed liquid fuel rockets in the 1930's. Also known as ARS. Became the American Institute of Aeronautics and Astronautics (AIAA).

AMERICAN MOBIL COMMUNICATIONS SATELLITE CORP.....U.S., satellite. See AMSC.

AMERICAN SATELLITE CORPORATION.....U.S. satellite. See ASC.

AMERISTAR.....U.S., satellite. Was CARIBSTAR.

Ames Research Center.....U.S. NASA, organization. Ames Research Center, Moffett Filed, Mountain View, CA 94035. U.S., Located at Moffett Field, California. ARC is active in aeronautical research, life sciences, space science, and technology research. The Center houses the world's largest wind tunnel and the world's most powerful supercomputer system, specializes in scientific research, exploration and applications aimed toward creating new technology for the nation. Formed in 1940 by NACA.

Améthyste.....France, launch vehicle motor, stretched Emeraude, used a Valios engine, thrust 71,000 lbf (316 kN), pressure psi ( bar), liquid propellant N2O4/UDMH.

AMMA.....Russia, satellite, see 19KA30.

Ammonium dinitramine.....Launch vehicle propellant, solid, oxidizer. NH4N4O4 Also known as ADN.

Ammonium nitrate.....Launch vehicle propellant, solid, oxidizer. Chemical symbol NH4NO3. Also known as AN.

Ammonium perchlorate.....Launch vehicle propellant, solid, oxidizer. Chemical symbol NH4ClO4. Also known as AP.

Amon-Re.....Egypt, ruler god, god of sun, light.

Amos.....Israel, satellite bus, Israel Aircraft Industries. GEO/MEO,

Amos.....Amos of Tekoa, c. 750BC, prophet.

AMOS.....U.S., organization. Air Force. Air Force Maui Optical Site Experiment. An optical tracking site located at Maui, Hawaii to check the Space Shuttle during reentry for the plume phenomena. First used on STS-29. 1989/03/18

AMOS.....Israel, satellite, telecommunications. Launched at Kourou by an Ariane 44L V 86, GEO. First launch 1996/05/15

AMPT-CCE.....U.S., German, UK, satellite. See AMPT

AMPTE.....U.S., Germany, United Kingdom, satellites. AMPTE is named for the ACTIVE MAGNETOSPHERE PARTICLE TRACER EXPLORES. Three satellites were launched on the same Delta booster from Cape Canaveral. Great Britain's satellite in the trio was the UNITED KINGDOM SUB-SATELLITE (UKS), known as AMPTE 3. West Germany's was the ION RELEASE MODULE (IRM), known as AMPTE 2. The U.S. satellite was the CHARGE COMPOSITION EXPLORER (CCE) known as AMPTE 1. The orbits of IRM and UKS took them more than 70,000 miles from Earth. The CCE's orbit carried it 31,000 miles from Earth. The IRM released clouds of lithium and barium to see how they would be affected by the solar wind. UKS observed the artificial clouds from close up, while the CCE studied them from lower in the magnetosphere. First launch 1984/08/16

AMR.....U.S. organization. See Atlantic Missile Range.

AMRC.....U.S., satellite, communications, GEO.

AMROC.....U.S., aerospace company. See American Rocket Co.

AMSAT - OSCAR.....U.S. Satellite, series of AMATEUR SATELLITES - ORBITING SATELLITE CARRYING AMATEUR RADIO, amateur built and operated satellites carrying an amateur radio and designed to retransmit Mores-code messages. AMSAT, 850 Sligo Avenue, Suite 600, Silver Spring, MD 20910-4703, U.S. See also OSCAR.

- AMSAT-OSCAR 07, 1974/11/15, WTR, Thorad Delta

- AMSAT-OSCAR 08, 1978/03/05, WTR, Delta

- AMSAT-OSCAR 10, 1983/06/16, Kourou, Ariane.

First launch 1978/03/05

AMSAT PHASE 3D.....Germany, satellite, communications, HEO. Also known as AMSAT-OSCAR 40, or AO 40. First launch 2000/11/16

AMSAT-ECHO.....U.S., satellite, amateur radio. First launch 2004/06/04

AMSC.....U.S., aerospace company, see American Mobil Satellite Corp.

AMSC.....U.S., satellite, communications. AMERICAN MOBIL COMMUNICATIONS SATELLITE CORP. Launched at the ETR by an Atlas 2A. Renamed MSAT-2 in 1998 Also known as ACTEL-1. First launch 1995/04/07

AN.....Launch vehicle propellant, solid, oxidizer, Ammonium nitrate.

AN.....Launch vehicle motor, Aeronutronics Corp.

Ananke.....Jupiter moon, one of 16. See also Metis, Adrastea, Amalthea, Thebe, Io, Europa, Ganymede, Callisto, Leda, Sinope, Himalia, Lysithea, Elara, Ananke, Carme, Pasiphae.

ANATOLIA.....Satellite, communications, was HGS, PALAPA.

ANB-3066.....Launch vehicle propellant.

ANDE RISK REDUCTION MISSION.....U.S., satellite, technology, also known as ANDE-MAA , MOCK ANDE ACTIVE (MAA). First launch 2006/12/21

ANDE-MAA.....U.S., satellite, technology, see as ANDE RISK REDUCTION MISSION . First launch 2006/12/21

Anders, William.....U.S., astronaut, APOLLO 8, 1968/12/21. First launch 1968/12/21

Anderson, Michael.....U.S. Astronaut, STS-89,1998/1/22,Wade}STS-107, 2003/01/16. First launch 1998/01/22

Andoya Rocket Range.....Norway, launch facility, see Andøya Rocket Range.

Andøya Rocket Range.....Norway, launch facility, sounding rockets. 69.3o N, 16.0o E. ARR, Norsk Romesnter (Norwegian Space Centre), PO Box 54, Andenes N-8480, Norway, or Hoffsvein 65A, P.O. Box 85 Smestad, N-0309 Oslo 9, Norway.

Andre-Deshays, Claude.....France, cosmonaut, SOYUZ TM 24, 1996/08/17. First launch 1996/08/17

Angara.....Russia, launch vehicle, Khrunichev State Research and Production Center.

- Angara Universal module, 1 Engines RD-191.

- Angara 1.1, 4600 lbs (2,100 kg), LEO, Angara Universal module, with 2nd stage Breeze.

- Angara 1.2, 8300 lbs (3,800 kg), LEO, Angara Universal module, with 2nd stage II LOX/kerosene booster

- Angara A3, 5500 lbm (2500 kg) GTO, Angara 1.2 with 2 Angara Universal modules strapon

- Angara A5, 14,000 lbm (6600 kg) GTO, Angara 1.2 with 4 Angara Universal modules, and KVRB booster.

- Angara A5/HOHM, 16.600 lbm (8000 kg) GTO, Angara 1.2 with 4 Angara Universal modules Stage 2, and KVRB stage.

Angara Stage 2.....Russia, launch vehicle, 1 motor RD-0124A.

Angara Universal module.....Russia, launch vehicle, 1 Engines RD-191.

ANIK.....Canada, satellite, communications, GEO, to reduce the cost of communications with Canadas rural and outlying areas. The ANIK series of satellites have been launched by many different launch vehicles, Delta, STS, and Ariane.

- ANIK A1 1972/11/09 (TELSAT - 1), ETR, Delta.

- ANIK A2 1973/04/20 (TELSAT - 2), ETR, Delta.

- ANIK A3 1975/05/07 (TELSAT - 3), ETR, Delta.

- ANIK B 11978/2/15 (TELSAT - 4), ETR, Delta.

- ANIK C3 1982/11/11 (TELSAT - 6), ETR, Delta.

- ANIK C2 1983/06/16 (TELSAT - 7), ETR, STS-7.

- ANIK C1 1985/04/12 (TELSAT - 9), ETR, STS-51D.

- ANIK D1 1982/08/26 (TELSAT - 5), ETR, Delta.

- ANIK D2 1984/11/08 (TELSAT - 8), ETR, STS-51A.

- ANIK E2 1991/04/04, Kourou, Ariane 44P #43.

- ANIK E1 1991/09/26, Kourou, Ariane 44P #46.

First launch 1972/11/10

ANNA.....U.S. satellite, geodetic satellite (ARMY NAVY NASA AIR FORCE).

- ANNA 1A 1962/05/10, ETR, Thor-Able Star, FTO

- ANNA 1B 1962/10/31, ETR, Thor-Able Star.

First launch 1962/05/10

annäherung.....German for approach.

année.....French for year.

ans.....French for year

ANS.....Holland, satellite, ASTRONOMICAL NETHERLANDS SATELLITE. Launched by the U.S. FTO Launched at the WTR by a Scout. First launch 1974/08/30

Ansari, Anousheh.....U.S., astronaut, SOYUZ TMA 09, 2006/09/18. First launch 2006/09/18

Antares.....Russia, mission title for Soyuz TM-15. First launch 1992/07/27

Antares I.....U.S., launch vehicle motor, thrust 14,500 lbf (64 kN), pressure ? psi (? bar), solid propellant. Manufactured by Hercules. Also known as X-259. Used on Scout launch vehicle.

Antares II.....U.S., launch vehicle motor, thrust lbf ( kN), pressure ? psi (? bar), solid propellant. Also known as X-259. Manufactured by Hercules. Used on Scout launch vehicle.

Antares IIA.....U.S., launch vehicle motor, thrust lbf ( kN), pressure ? psi (? bar), solid propellant. Also known as X-259 Manufactured by Hercules. Used on Scout launch vehicle.

Antares IIB.....U.S., launch vehicle motor, thrust lbf ( kN), pressure ? psi (? bar), solid propellant. Also known as X-259. Manufactured by Hercules. Used on Scout launch vehicle.

Antares IIIA.....U.S., launch vehicle motor, thrust 18,200 lbf (80 kN), pressure 700 psi (48 bar), solid propellant HTPB. Also known as TEM-762. Manufactured by Hercules. Used on Scout launch vehicle.

ANTARES.....U.S., satellite, manned spacecraft, lunar orbit. APOLLO 14, LM-8. See KITTY HAWK CSM-110. First launch 1971/01/31

antenne.....French for aerial.

Antietam CVS 36.....USS Antietam CVS 36, recovery ship, part of the fleet which recovered or was on duty and capable of recovering the following: MERCURY Atlas 6, MERCURY Atlas 8.

Anubis.....Egypt, god of Hell.

AO.....U.S., Naval Ship, oiler.

AO Dvigatel NK.....Russia, Moscow, organization. See OKB-276

AOOT RKK Energiya imeni S.P. Koroleva.....Russia, organization, (1994/07 to present). See OKB-1

AOR-E.....Atlantic Ocean Region-Eastern. The area over the Eastern Atlantic Ocean where GEO satellites are positioned.

AOR-W.....Atlantic Ocean Region-Western. The area over the western Atlantic Ocean where GEO satellites are positioned.

Aoubakirov, Tokhtar.....Kazakhstan, cosmonaut, SOYUZ TM-13, 1991/10/02. First launch 1991/10/02

Aout.....French for August.

AP.....Launch vehicle propellant, solid, oxidizer, Ammonium perchlorate.

AP.....Hong Kong, satellite. See APSTAR

Apache.....U.S., sounding rocket. Solid propellant rocket used with the Nike first stage could carry 10 lbs (24) kg payload to an altitude of 124 miles (210 km). First launch ?

apeks.....Russia, apex.

apex.....Orbital component. The point towards which a body is moving.

APEX.....U.S. satellite, scientific, LEO. Satellite to study the affects of radiation and charged particles on solar panels. ADVANCED PHOTOVOLTAIC AND ELECTRONICS EXPERIMENT. Launched at EAFB by a Pegasus. First launch 1994/08/03

aph-.....Orbital component. Prefix, Away from . Used to describe orbirtal compoents. See also apo-.

aph- (away)

eline (high point (apoapsis) of an orbit around the sun)

 

elion (farthest point of the orbit from the Sun).

Apheline.....Orbital component. The high point (apoapsis) of an orbit around the sun.

aphelion.....Orbital component. The farthest point of the orbit from the Sun.

Aphrodite.....Greece, goddess of love, Venus.

APL.....U.S., organization. See John Hopkins University Applied Physics Laboratory.

APM-600.....Russia/Ukraine, launch vehicle motor, used on Tsyklon 2K stage 3, thrust ?, pressure ?, propellant N2O4/UDMH.

APM-610.....Russia/Ukraine, launch vehicle, uses 4 APM-600 engines. Stage 3 of Tsyklon 2K.

APMT.....Singapore/China, satellite, mobile communications, GEO.

APMT.....China, aerospace company, Asia Pacific Mobile Telecommunications Satellite.

apo-.....Prefix, Away from . Used to describe orbirtal compoents. See also aph-.

Apo-(away)

apsis (point in an

eccentric orbit)

 

center (furthest from a primary, other than the Sun or Earth)

 

centric (furthest from a primary, other than the Sun or Earth)

 

centricity (furthest from a primary, other than the Sun or Earth)

 

cynthion (moon)

 

ge or gee, geal, gean, geic (gaia, earth)

 

geotropism (Tendency to move away from the earth or from the pull of gravity)

 

helion, helio (sun)

 

jove (jupiter)

 

luna (moon)

 

selene (moon)

Apoapsis.....Orbital component. High point of an orbit. Earth - apogee, Jupiter - apojove, moon - aposelene or apolune, sun - apohelion.(Doody}

Apocenter.....Orbital component. The point in an orbit furthest from a primary, other than the Sun or Earth.

Apocentric.....Orbital component. See Apocenter.

Apocentricity.....Orbital component. See Apocenter.

Apocynthion.....Orbital component. Point furthest from the moon in an orbit about the moon.

Apogeal.....Orbital component. See apogee.

Apogean.....Orbital component. See apogee.

apogee.....Orbital component. The point in orbit where a body is farthest from Earth. Potential engery (PE) is at a maximum and kinetic energy (KE) is at a minimum at the apogee. See also elliptical orbit.

Apogee and maneuvering stage.....U.S., launch vehicle. Upper stage, used by STS.

Apogeic.....Orbital component. See apogee.

Apogeotropism.....Orbital component. Tendency to move away from the earth or from the pull of gravity.

Apohelio.....Orbital component. Highest point in an orbit about the Sun.

Apohelion.....Orbital component. See Apohelio.

apojove.....Orbital component. High point (Apoapsis) of an orbit around Jupiter.

Apollo.....Greece, god of Sun, light, Wisdom, knowledge. Roman god of Sun, light.

APOLLO.....U.S. NASA, satellite, manned space vehicle, holds 3 astronauts. The command module (CM) combined with the service module (CS) was known as the command service module (CSM). The program was named after the Greek and Roman god of light, healing, music, poetry, prophecy and manly beauty. APOLLO had designations 1 through 17 (3 and 4 did not exist, however some references use different naming conventions, leading to some confusion). APOLLO 1 ended in a fire on the launch pad, killing all aboard on 1967/01/26. Manned Flights started with APOLLO 7 launched on 1968/10/11 and ended with APOLLO 17 which landed on 1972/12/19, totaling 11 Flights. Additional APOLLO Command Service Modules were used, one for the APOLLO-SOYUZ Test Project and three for the SKYLAB Missions.

- First manned lunar orbit APOLLO 8, 1968/12/24, 10 orbits.

- First lunar landing, APOLLO 11, 1969/07/20.

- First lunar EVA, Neil Armstrong, 1969/07/21.

- Shortest lunar EVA, Neil Armstrong, 1969/07/21.

- Longest lunar EVA, APOLLO 17, 1972/12/13.

Summary of APOLLO Flights:

- APOLLO Transonic Abort. Launched by Little Joe 2. Suborbital unmanned launch at WSMR. LA 05/13/1964.

- APOLLO Max Q Abort. Launched by Little Joe 2. Suborbital unmanned launch at WSMR. LA 12/08/1964.

- APOLLO High Altitude Abort. Launched by Little Joe 2. Suborbital unmanned launch at WSMR. LA 05/19/1965.

- "APOLLO 1", Virgil Grissom, Edward White, Roger Chaffee, died in launch pad fire in APOLLO CSM, 01/27/1967.

- APOLLO Saturn 1 (AS 201, SA 201). Launched by Saturn 1B at KSC. Unmanned. LA 02/26/1966, PRS U.S.S. Boxer (LPH-4).

- APOLLO Saturn 2. Launched by Saturn 1B at KSC. Unmanned. LA 07/05/1966.

- APOLLO Saturn 3 (AS 202, SA 202). Launched by Saturn 1B. Unmanned. LA 08/25/1966, PRS U.S.S. Hornet (CVS-12)

- APOLLO 4 CSM-017 (AS-501), LTA-1R. Launched by Saturn 5 at KSC. Unmanned. LA 11/09/1967, R 11/09/1967, PRS U.S.S. Bennington (CVS-20).

- APOLLO 5. Launched by Saturn 1B at KSC. Unmanned. LA 01/22/1968.

- APOLLO 6 (AS 502) CSM-020, LTA-2R. Launched by Saturn 5 at KSC. Unmanned. LA 04/04/1968, R 04/04/1968, PRS U.S.S. Okinawa (LPH-3).

- APOLLO 7 (AS 205) CSM-101. Launched by Saturn 4 at KSC. CDR Walter Schirra, Walter Cunningham, CMP Donn Eisele. LA 10/11/1968, R 10/22/1968, PRS U.S.S. Essex (CVS-9). SRS: USS Arned AKA 56, USS Cambria APA 36, USS Vanguard T. AGM 19.

- APOLLO 8 (AS 503) CSM 103, LTA-B. Launched by Saturn 5 at KSC. CDR Frank Borman, LMP William Anders, CMP, James Lovell. LA 12/21/1968, R 12/27/1968, PRS U.S.S. Yorktown (CVS-10). SRS: USS Chipola AO 63, USS Chukawan AO 100, USS Cochrane DDG 21, USS F. Marion LPA 249, USS Guadalcanal LPH 7, USS Mercury AGM 21, USS Nicholas DD 449, USS Rankin AKA 103, USS Rupertus DD 851, USS Sandoval LPA 194.

- APOLLO, 09 (AS 504) CSM-104, , 03/03/1969, KSC, Saturn 5, Lunar, 3/13/1969, PRS U.S.S. Guadalcanal (LPH-7), Crew; CDR James McDivitt, LMP Russell Schweickart, CMP David Scott.

- APOLLO 10 (AS 505) CSM-106, 05/18/1969, KSC, Saturn 5, Lunar 05/26/1969, PRS U.S.S. Princeton (LPH-5), Crew; CDR Thomas Stafford, LMP Eugene Cernan, CMP John Young. Mission; Arrives in lunar orbit 05/21/1969

- APOLLO, 11 (AS 506) CSM-107, , 07/16/1969, KSC, Saturn 5, Lunar, 07/24/1969, PRS U.S.S. Hornet (CVS-12), Crew; CDR Neil Armstrong, LMP Edwin Aldrin, CMP Michael Collins. Mission; First lunar landing 07/20/1969, Lunar liftoff 07/21/1969

- APOLLO 12 CSM-108, 11/14/1969, KSC, Saturn 5, Lunar, 11/24/1969, U.S.S. Hornet (CVS-12), Crew; CDR Charles Conrad, LMP Alan Bean, CMP Richard Gordon. Mission LL 11/19/1969, LF 11/20/1969

- APOLLO, 13 CSM-109, , 04/11/1970, KSC, Saturn 5, Lunar, 04/17/1970, PRS U.S.S. Iwo Jima (LPH-2), Crew; CDR James Lovell, LMP Fred Haise, CMP Jack Swigert. Mission, aborted lunar landing

- APOLLO, 14 CSM-110, , 01/31/1971, KSC, Saturn 5, Lunar, 02/09/1971, PRS U.S.S. New Orleans (LPH-11), Crew; CDR Alan Shepard, LMP Edgar Mitchell, CMP Stuart Rossa. Mission; Lunar Landing 02/04/1971, Lunar Liftoff 02/06/1971

- APOLLO, 15 CSM-112, , 07/26/1971, KSC, Saturn 5, Lunar, 08/07/1971, PRS U.S.S. Okinawa (LPH-3), Crew; CDR David Scott, LMP James Irwin, CMP Alfred Worden. Mission; Lunar Landing 07/30/1971, Lunar Liftoff 08/02/1971

- APOLLO, 16 CSM-113, , 04/16/1972, KSC, Saturn 5, Lunar, 04/27/1972, PRS U.S.S Ticonderoga (CVS-14), Crew; CDR John Young, LMP Charles Duke, CMP Thomas Mattingly. Mission; Lunar Landing 04/20/1972, Lunar Liftoff 04/23/1972

- APOLLO, 17 CSM-114, , 12/07/1972, KSC, Saturn 5, Lunar, 12/19/1972, PRS U.S.S Ticonderoga (CVS-14), Crew; CDR Eugene Cernan, LMP Harrison Schmitt, CMP Ronald Evans. Mission; Lunar Landing 12/11/1972, Lunar Liftoff 12/14/1972

The following are call signs or nicknames given to spacecraft. The naming started with APOLLO 9 and ended with APOLLO 17.

- AMERICA, U.S. NASA, manned spacecraft APOLLO 17, CSM-114. Launched by Saturn 5 at KSC. CDR Eugene Cernan, LMP Harrison Schmitt, CMP Ronald Evans. LA 1972/12/07, LL 1972/12/11, LF 1972/12/14, R 1972/12/19, PRS U.S.S. Ticonderoga (CVS-14).

- ANTARES, U.S. Manned spacecraft APOLLO 14, LM-8. See KITTY HAWK CSM-110

- AQUARIUS, U.S. Manned spacecraft APOLLO 13, LM-7. See ODYSSEY CSM-109

- CASPER, U.S. Manned spacecraft APOLLO 16, CSM-113. Launched by Saturn 5 at KSC. CDR John Young, LMP Charles Duke, CMP Thomas Mattingly. LA 1972/04/16, LL 1972/04/20, LF 1972/04/23, R 1972/04/27, PRS U.S.S. Ticonderoga (CVS-14).

- CHALLENGER, U.S. Manned spacecraft APOLLO 17, LM-12 See AMERICA CSM-114.

- CHARLIE BROWN, U.S. Manned spacecraft APOLLO 10 (AS 505), CSM-106. Launched by Saturn 5 at KSC. CDR Thomas Stafford, LMP Eugene Cernan, CMP John Young. LA 1969/05/18, Arrives in lunar orbit 1969/05/21, R 1969/05/26, PRS U.S.S. Princeton (LPH-5).

- COLUMBIA, U.S. Manned spacecraft APOLLO 11 (AS 506), CSM-107. Launched by Saturn 5 at KSC. CDR Neil Armstrong, LMP Edwin Aldrin, CMP Michael Collins. LA 1969/07/16, LL 1969/07/20, LF 1969/07/21, R 1969/07/24, PRS U.S.S. Hornet (CVS-12).

- EAGLE, U.S. Manned spacecraft APOLLO 11, LM-5 See COLUMBIA CSM-107.

- ENDEAVOR, U.S. Manned spacecraft APOLLO 15, CSM-112. Launched by Saturn 5 at KSC. CDR David Scott, LMP James Irwin, CMP Alfred Worden. LA 1971/07/26, LL 1971/07/30, LF 1971/08/02, R 1971/08/07, PRS U.S.S. Okinawa (LPH-3).

- FALCON, U.S. Manned spacecraft APOLLO 15, LM-10. See ENDEAVOR CMS-112.

- GUMDROP, U.S. Manned spacecraft APOLLO 9 (AS 504), CSM-104. Launched by Saturn 5 at KSC. CDR James McDivitt, LMP Russell Schweickart, CMP David Scott. LA 1969/03/03, R 1969/03/13, PRS U.S.S. Guadalcanal (LPH-7).

- INTREPID, U.S. Manned spacecraft APOLLO 12, LM-6. See YANKEE CLIPPER, CSM-108.

- KITTY HAWK, U.S. Manned spacecraft APOLLO 14, CSM-110. Launched by Saturn 5 at KSC. CDR Alan Shepard, LMP Edgar Mitchell, CMP Stuart Rossa. LA 1971/01/31, LL 1971/02/04, LF 1971/02/06, R 1971/02/09, PRS U.S.S. New Orleans (LPH-11).

- ODYSSEY, U.S. Manned spacecraft APOLLO 13, CSM-109. Launched by Saturn 5 at KSC. CDR James Lovell, LMP Fred Haise, CMP Jack Swigert. LA 1970/04/11, R 1970/04/17, PRS U.S.S. Iwo Jima (LPH-2).

- ORION, U.S. Manned spacecraft APOLLO 16, LM-11. See CASPER CMS-113.

- SNOOPY, U.S. Manned spacecraft APOLLO 10, LM-4. See CHARLIE BROWN CMS-106.

- SPIDER, U.S. Manned spacecraft APOLLO 9, LM-3. See GUMDROP CSM-104.

- YANKEE CLIPPER, U.S. Manned spacecraft APOLLO 12, CSM-108. Launched by Saturn 5 at KSC. CDR Charles Conrad, LMP Alan Bean, CMP Richard Gordon. LA 1969/11/14, LL 1969/11/19, LF 1969/11/20, R 1969/11/24, U.S.S. Hornet (CVS-12).

- "APOLLO 1", Virgil Grissom, Edward White, Roger Chaffee, died in launch pad fire in APOLLO CSM, 1967/01/27.

APOLLO LES.....U.S., rocket, test of APOLLO launch escape system (LES). First launch 1965/00/00

APOLLO SUBSATELLITE.....U.S., satellite, launched with APOLLO 15 and 16.

APOLLO-SOYUZ.....U.S. and Russia, satellite, manned space vehicles linked in space. U.S. used APOLLO CSM-119 and Russia used SOYUZ 19. APOLLO launched by a Saturn 1B from KSC, astronauts Vance Brand, Donald Slayton, Tom Stafford, recovered on 1975/07/24 by the PRS U.S.S. New Orleans (LPH-11). SOYUZ, also known as 7K, launched by SL-4 at Tyuratam, cosmonauts Alexei Leonov, Valaeri Kubasov, landed on 1975/07/21. SRS: USS Courageous WMEC 622, USS Preserver ARS 8, USS Vanguard T. AGM 19. First launch 1975/07/15

apolune.....Orbital component. High point (Apoapsis) of an orbit around the moon. See also aposelene.

aposelene.....Orbital component. High point (Apoapsis) of an orbit around the moon. See also apolune.

APPLE.....India, satellite, communications. Ariane Passenger Payload Experiment, Launched at Kourou by an Ariane 1, L.03, GEO First launch 1981/06/19

APPLICATIONS TECHNOLOGY SATELLITE.....U.S., satellite, see ATS.

approach.....approche (Fr),, annäherung (D).

approche.....French for approach.

APR.....U.S., satellite, communications, Intelsat. APR 3 was INTELSAT K-TV. To be renamed NSS-6.

APRIZESAT.....Brazil, satellite, see LATINSAT.

APS.....U.S., satellite. Advanced Polar Satellite.

APStar.....China, aerospace company, Asia Pacific Telecommunications Satellite Company.

APSTAR.....Hong Kong, satellite, communications, GEO, for APT (Asia Pacific Telecommunication) Satellite Company, Hong Kong Limited. The satellites were built by Hughes Aircraft Company and launched by China. ASIA PACIFIC STAR (satellite) Abbreviation AP.

- APSTAR 1 1994/07/21, Xi Chang, CZ-3, GEO, AP-1.

- APSTAR 2 1995/01/26, Xi Chang, CZ-2E, FTO.

- APSTAR 1A 1996/07/03, Xi Chang, CZ-3, GEO, AP-1A.

- APSTAR 2R, 1997/10/17, Xi Chang, CZ-3B.

First launch 1994/07/21

Apt, Jay.....U.S., astronaut, STS-37, 1991/04/05, STS-47, 1992/09/12, STS-59, 1994/04/09, STS-79, 1996/09/16. First launch 1991/04/05

APT.....Hong Kong, satellite. See APSTAR.

AQILA.....China, satellite, communications, GEO. Launched at Xichang by CZ-3B. First launch 1997/08/19

AQUA.....U.S., NASA, satellite, earth observation, LEO. Uses TRW T-330/AB1200 bus. Was the EOS PM. Part of A-TRAIN. First launch 2002/05/04

AQUA-Train.....U.S. NASA, satellite constellation, weather. Composed of AQUA, AURA, CLOUDSAT, PARASOL, ORBITING CARBON OBSERVATORY. Also known as A-Train. SS LEO. First launch

AQUACADE.....U.S. satellite. See RHYOLITE.

Aquarius.....Astrological Sign, Water Bearer, 1/20-2/18.

Aquarius.....Constellation.

AQUARIUS.....U.S. satellite, manned spacecraft, APOLLO 13, LM-7. See ODYSSEY CSM-109. First launch 1970/04/11

AQUARIUS.....U.S., NASA, satellite, global maps of salt concentrations of the ocean surface. Part of Earth System Science Pathfinder small-satellite program.

AQUILA.....U.S., satellite, data relay, classified, GEO. First launch 2001/10/10

AR.....France, launch vehicle. See Ariane.

AR.....U.S., launch vehicle. See Atlas.

AR.....Launch vehicle motor, Atlantic Research Corp.

AR-1000.....U.S., launch vehicle motor. Thrust lbf ( kN), pressure psi ( bar), liquid propellant LOX/Kerosene. Manufactured by Pratt & Whitney. Derived from the RD-180.

Arab Satellite Communication Organization.....Saudi Arabia, aerospace company, commercial satellite operator, ARABSAT. Address: PO Box 1038, Riyadh 11431, Saudi Arabia. www.arabsat.com

ARAB SATELLITE.....Saudi Arabia satellite. See ARABSAT.

ARABSAT.....Saudi Arabia, satellite, GEO. ARAB SATELLITE Communication Organization, and Arab League group based in Riyadh, Saudi Arabia, commissions the building and launching of ARABSAT communications satellites. ARABSAT relays telephone conversations and broadcast radio and television program to the 21 states in the Arab League, as well as central and southern Europe, India and South Asia.(LAUWERS 05/999} Also known as BADR First launch 1985/02/08

ARAKS.....U.S., Russia, satellite, see ARKON.

ARAKS KONVERSION.....Russia, satellite, see ARKON.

ARC.....U.S., aerospace company. See Atlantic Research Corporation.

Arcas.....U.S. rocket, upper atmosphere meteorology (30 miles, 48 km with a payload of 4.5 lbs, 2 kg). First launch 1958/00/00

Archimedes.....Greece, mathematician and physicist, 287-212 B.C.

ARCHIMEDES.....Europe, satellite, mobile communications, Elliptical orbit.

ARCOS.....Russia, satellite. See MARATHON.

ARD.....ESA, satellite, technology, HEO. ATMOSPHERIC RE-ENTRY VEHICLE DEMONSTRATOR. First launch

Arecibo.....U.S. Radio Telescope Observatory, largest astronomical radio telescope in the world, located in Puerto Rico.

Areocentric Orbit.....Orbit with Mars as its center.

Ares.....Greece, god of Mars and war.

Ares.....U.S., NASA, launch vehicle.

- Ares I, manned launch vehicle to replace the Space Shuttle (STS). Ares I will carry the Crew Exploration Vehicle ORION. The 1st stage be a 5 segment SRB. The 2nd stage will use the J-2X liquid propellant LOX/LH2 engine. The ‘I’ pays homage to the Saturn I launch vehicle.

- Ares V, unmanned launch vehicle, to replace the Space Shuttle (STS). Will use the STS fuel tank with 5 RS-68 engines for the 1st stage. The 2nd stage will use the J-2X liquid propellant LOX/LH2 engine. Will place 286,000 lbs (130,000 kg) into LEO.

Argatz.....Russia, mission title for Soyuz TM-4. First launch 1988/12/21

Argo Systems.....U.S., aerospace company. Became part of Boeing in 1989.

Argon.....Element, inert gas, Atomic number 18.

ARGON.....U.S. Army, satellite, imaging reconnaissance, obtained geodetic information for accurate ICBM targeting, used Keyhole cameras. First launch as, DISCOVERER XX. 1961/02/17

ARGON.....Russia, satellite, see ZENIT 6.

Argos.....Geographical location, ancient city in Greece.

ARGOS.....U.S., satellite, research. ADVANCED RESEARCH AND GLOBAL OBSERVATION SATELLITE. Global imaging of the ionosphere. First launch 1999/02/23

argument of perigee.....Orbital component, Keplerian element. The angular measurement of satellite travel, to the point of perigee on the orbit path. This the angle ω from the ascending nodes to perigee point, measured along the orbit in the direction of the satellites motion, usually the perigee. This orients the orbit within the orbital plane. Symbol ω.

ole.gifFigure 1 ω argument of perigee. View of Earth, looking down on the North Pole.

ARIA.....U.S., APOLLO Range Instrumentation Aircraft. USAF RC-135, used for tracking the APOLLO capsule during recovery.

ARIABATA.....Russia, atmospheric research satellite. Launched at Kapustin Yar by SL-8. First launch 1975/04/19

Ariane.....France, Ariadne Ariane derives its name from Greek mythology, Ariadne, the daughter of Minos who gave Theseus the thread with which to bind his way out of the Minotau's labyrinth. Ariane is the French translation for Ariadne.

Ariane.....Europe, launch vehicle. Space launch vehicle developed by the Europeans through the European Space Agency (ESA), the Centre Naional d'Etudes Spatiales (CNES), and Arianespace. The Ariane is launched from Kourou, French Guiana, on the east coast of South America, near the equator. The first Ariane launch Ariane 1, was in 1979. The number designates the launch vehicle type. The current configuration is Ariane 4. Ariane launches are number, starting with #1. The first 9 launches L 1 o 9. The remaining Ariane launches using Ariane 1 through 4 Boosters start with V 10. Ariane 5 launches start with the number 5 followed by the number of the launch using the Ariane 5, e.g. 502 is the second launch using the Ariane 5 booster.

- Ariane 1, GTO 4070 lbs (1850 kg), First launch 1979/12/24

- Ariane 2, GTO 4800 lbs (2175 kg), increased thrust, First launch 1986/03/28

- Ariane 3, GTO 5690 lbs (2580 kg), Ariane 2 with solid strap ons, First launch 1984/05/23

- Ariane 40, GTO 4190 lbs (1900 kg), strengthened tanks, First launch 1990/01/22

- Ariane 42P, GTO 5730 lbs (2600 kg), Fist launch 1990/11/29

- Ariane 44P, GTO 6610 lbs (3000 kg), First launch 1995/08/29

- Ariane 42L, GTO 7050 lbs (3200 kg), First launch 1993/05/12

- Ariane 44LP, GTO 8160 lbs (3700 kg), First launch 1988/05/17

- Ariane 44L, GEO 9260 lbs (4200 kg), First launch 10/271989

Description of nomenclature of Ariane 4 series

- 1st digit - Ariane 4. Stage 1 (L220). Stage 2 (L33) Stage 3 (H10-3 + VEB).

- 2nd digit - Boosters 0, 2 or 4

- 3rd digit - P solid P9.5 or PAP, L liquid L40 or PAL.

- 4th digit - Spelda, 0 no Spelda, 1 Spelda 13.5 ft (4.1 m), 2 Spelda 16.7 ft (5.1 m) (Spelda is the area between the vehicle equipment bay and the fairing which covers the payload)

- 5th digit - 1 fairing 28.2 ft (8.6 m), 2 31.5 ft (9.6 m), 3 36.4 ft (11.1 m)

- 6th digit - Sylda, 0 no sylda, 1 sylda 4400. (internal covering of lower payload and support for upper payload, used in multi satellite launches)

Example of a designation is Ariane 44L011.

- Ariane 5 - GTO 13,000 lbs (5900 kg), First launch 1996/06/04

- Ariane 5-2000, GTO, 14000 lbs (6400 kg)

- Ariane 5-2000/C, GTO, 18700 lbs (8500 kg)

- Ariane 5ES, GTO, 16700 lbs (7575k kg), EAP Booster P240, EPC core H173, Upper Stage EPS L9.

- Ariane 5E/ECA, GTO, 23150 lbs (10500 kg), EAP Booster P240, EPC core H173, Upper Stage ESC-A

- Ariane 5E/ECB, GTO, 26500 lbs (12000 kg), EAP Booster P240, EPC core H173, Upper Stage ESC-B.

- Ariane 5G, GTO, 14,770 lbm (6700 kg), EAP Booster P230, EPC Core H158.

Ariane 1 first launch 1979/12/24

Ariane 1.....Europe, launch vehicle, GEO 4070 lbs (1850 kg). See Ariane. First launch 1979/12/24

Ariane 2.....Europe, launch vehicle, GTO 4800 lbs (2175 kg), increased thrust. See Ariane. First launch 1986/03/28

Ariane 3.....Europe, launch vehicle, GTO 5690 lbs (2580 kg), Ariane 2 with solid strap-ons. See Ariane. First launch 1984/05/23

Ariane 40.....Europe, launch vehicle, GTO 4190 lbs (1900 kg), strengthened tanks. See Ariane. First launch 1990/01/22

Ariane 42L.....Europe, launch vehicle, GTO 7050 lbs (3200 kg). See Ariane. First launch 1993/05/12

Ariane 42P.....Europe, launch vehicle, GTO 5730 lbs (2600 kg). See Ariane. First launch 1990/11/29

Ariane 44L.....Europe, launch vehicle, GEO 9260 lbs (4200 kg). See Ariane. First launch 1989/10/27

Ariane 44LP.....Europe, launch vehicle, GTO 8160 lbs (3700 kg). See Ariane. First launch 1988/05/17

Ariane 44P.....Europe, launch vehicle, GTO 6610 lbs (3000 kg). See Ariane. First launch 1995/08/29

Ariane 5.....Europe, launch vehicle, GTO 13,000 lbs (5900 kg). FTO. See Ariane. First launch 1996/06/04

Arianespace.....Europe, aerospace company. Manufactures launch vehicle for the Ariane launches. Address: Boulevard de l'Europe, BP177, F-91006 Evry Cedex, France www.arianespace.com Includes partnership with EADS.

Ariel.....Uranus moon, one of 17. See Miranda, Ariel, Umbriel, Titania, Oberon, Puck, Belinda, Rosalind, Portia, Juliet, Dosdemona, Cressida, Bianca, Ophelia, Cordelia, Caliban, Sycorax.

ARIEL.....Great Britain, satellite, measure space physics, LEO. They were launched by the United States.

ARIEL 1 1962/04/26, 1962 015A, (UK-1), ETR, Delta.

ARIEL 2 1964/03/27, 1964-015A, (UK-2), WI, Scout.

ARIEL 3 1967/05/05, 1967-042A, (UK-3), WTR, Scout.

ARIEL 4 1971/12/11, 1971-109A, (UK-4), WTR, Scout.

ARIEL 5 1974/10/15, 1974-077A, (UK-5), San Marco, Scout.

ARIEL 6 1979/06/02, 1979-047A, (UK-6), WI, Scout.

First launch 1962/04/26

Aries.....Astrological Signs, Ram, 3/21-4/19.

Aries.....U.S., sounding rocket, near space astronomy, geophysics. First launch 1973/00/00

ARIES.....U.S. satellite.

ARIES/ECCO.....U.S., satellite, telecommunications, LEO. Constellation of 11 satellites.

ARIRANG.....Korea, satellite, remote sensing. ARIRANG 1 was KOMSAT 2. Alternate spelling IRIRANG. First launch 2006/07/28

ARIZONA STATE UNIVERSITY SATELLITE.....U.S., satellite. See ASUSAT.

Arkalyk.....Russia, landing site for SOYUZ manned flights.

ARKON.....Russia, satellite, photo reconnaissance, MEO, 2-5 meter resolution. Also known as 11F664, ARAKS KONVERSION. Derived from Mars/Venera Probe. First launch 1997/06/06

Arlington A. GMA 2.....USS Arlington A. GMA 2, recovery ship, part of the fleet which recovered or was on duty and capable of recovering the following: APOLLO 10, APOLLO 11.

Armstong, Neil.....U.S., astronaut, GEMINI 8, 1966/03/16, APOLLO 11, 1969/07/16. First launch 1966/03/16

Army Ballistic Missile Agency.....U.S., organization. See ABMA.

ARMY NAVY NASA AIR FORCE SATELLITE.....U.S. satellite. See ANNA.

Arned AKA 56.....USS Arned AKA 56, recovery ship, part of the fleet which recovered or was on duty and capable of recovering the following: APOLLO 7.

ARPA.....U.S. DoD, organization. Advanced Research Projects Agency, funded classified satellite programs. Defense Advanced Research Projects Agency, 701 North Fairfax Drive, Arlington, VA 22203-1714, http://www.arpa.mil/, (703) 526-6630

ARR.....Sweden, rocket launch site. See Andoya Rocket Range.

ARRAY FOR LOW ENERGY X-RAY IMAGING SENSORS.....U.S. Satellite, see ALEXIS.

ARRL.....U.S.,aerospace company. Address: American Radio Relay League Inc., 225 Main St., Newington, CT 06111.

ARS.....U.S., Naval Ship, salvage.

ARS-2.....U.S., rocket, liquid fuel development. Developed and manufactured by the American Rocket Society. First launch 05/14/1933

Arsenal NPO.....Russia, organization, St. Petersburg. Manufactures naval surveillance satellites and other satellite components, RORSATR, EORSAT.

ARSENE.....France, satellite, built by the European Space Industry for the Radio Amateur Club de L'Espace, launched by an Ariane booster.

- ARSENE, 1993/05/12, 1993-031B,Ariane 42L V56, CSG ELA2.

See OSCAR. First launch 1993/05/12

Artemis.....Greece, moon goddess.

ARTEMIS.....Europe, satellite, Data relay, GEO. ADVANCED RELAY AND TECHNOLOGY MISSION SATELLITE. Launched by Japan H-2A. First launch 2001/07/21

ARTEMIS JAK.....U.S., satellite, scientific, GEO SSO. Also known as JAK.

ARTES.....Europe, ESA, satellite, ADVANCED RESEARCH IN TELECOMMUNICATIONS SYSTEMS.

Article Number.....Russia, also known as model number, design designation, or index number. See Russia spacecraft and launch vehicle designation.

Articulation control subsystem.....See Space vehicle.

artificial satellite.....See satellite, artificial.

Artificial satellite designation.....See Satellite designation.

Artificial satellite name.....See satellite designation.

Artificial Satellite Design Academy.....China, organization, established by the Chinese Academy of Sciences, in 1965/09/00.

ARTIFICIAL PLANET.....U.S., satellite, see PIONEER 4. First launch 1959/03/03

Artioukhine, Yuri.....Russia, cosmonaut, see Artyukhin

Artsebarski, Anatoli.....Russia, cosmonaut, see Artsebarski, Anatoly.

Artsebarski, Anatoly.....Russia, cosmonaut, SOYUZ TM 12, 1991/05/18. First launch 1991/05/18

Artyukhin, Yuri.....Russia, cosmonaut, SOYUZ 14, 1974/07/03. First launch 1974/07/03

Aryabhata.....c. 450, Indian mathematician.

ARYABHATA.....India, satellite, scientific astronomical. First India satellite launched by Russia, at Kapustin Yar by SL-8.

- ARYABHATA, 1975/04/19, 1975-033A, Kosmos 11K65M 53731-279, GTsP-4 LC107.

First launch 1975/04/19

AS.....Launch vehicle motor, Astrosystems, Inc.

AS.....U.S., launch vehicle. See Atlas

AS 201.....U.S., satellite, see APOLLO Saturn 1.

AS 202.....U.S., satellite, see APOLLO Saturn 3.

AS 205.....U.S., satellite, see APOLLO Saturn 7.

AS 501.....U.S., satellite, see APOLLO Saturn 4.

AS 502.....U.S., satellite, see APOLLO Saturn 6.

AS 503.....U.S., satellite, see APOLLO Saturn 8.

AS 504.....U.S., satellite, see APOLLO Saturn 9.

AS 505.....U.S., satellite, see APOLLO Saturn 10.

AS 506.....U.S., satellite, see APOLLO Saturn 11.

AS0.....India, launch vehicle motor, thrust 95,000 lbf (422 kN), pressure 640 psi (44 bar), launch vehicle propellant HTPB.

AS1.....India, launch vehicle motor, thrust 158,000 psi (702 kN), pressure 640 psi (44 bar), launch vehicle propellant HTPB.

AS2.....India, launch vehicle motor, thrust 68,000 lbf (340 kN), pressure 555 psi (38 bar), launch vehicle propellant HTPB.

AS3.....India, launch vehicle motor, thrust 20,000 lbf (91 kN), pressure 640 psi (44 bar), launch vehicle propellant HEF-20.

AS4.....India, launch vehicle motor, thrust 7.900 lbf (35 kN), pressure 426 psi (29 bar), launch vehicle propellant HEF-20.

ASA.....Austria, organization. Austrian Space Agency. Österreichische Gesellschaft für Weltraumfragen Ges.m.b.H.Garnisongasse 7, Postfach 53, 1096 Vienna, Tel.: +43-1-403 81 770, Fax: +43-1-405 8228, e-mail:mgitsch@asaspace.at, http://www.asaspace.at/

ASAT.....Russia, satellite, anti-satellite, LEO. ANTI-SATELLITE, also known as IS for ISTREBITEL SPUTNIKOV (Russian for fighter satellite), and 14F10.

IS-A, upgraded IS, used target IS-P. Used ASAT TARGET.

- POLYOT 1, 1963 043A, 1963/11/01, Tyuratam, SL-5 (Sputnik), LEO.

- POLYOT 2, 1964 019A, 1964/04/12, Tyuratam, SL-5 (Sputnik), LEO.

- COSMOS 185, 1967/10/27, Baikonur, Sputnik, LEO, I2P.

- COSMOS 217, 1968/04/24, Baikonur, Tsyklon 2, LEO, I2M.

- COSMOS 249, 1968/10/20, Baikonur, Tsyklon 2, LEO, I2P.

- COSMOS 252, 1968/11/01, Baikonur, Tsyklon 2, LEO, I2P.

- COSMOS 374, 1970/10/22, Baikonur, Tsyklon 2, LEO, I2P.

- COSMOS 375, 1970/10/30, Baikonur, Tsyklon 2, LEO, I2P.

- COSMOS 397, 1971/02/25, Baikonur, Tsyklon 2, LEO, I2P.

- COSMOS 404, 1971/04/04, Baikonur, Tsyklon 2, LEO, I2P.

- COSMOS 462, 1971/12/03, Baikonur, Tsyklon 2, LEO, I2P.

- COSMOS 804, 1976/02/16, Baikonur, Tsyklon 2, LEO, IS-A, 4Ya11.

- COSMOS 814, 1976/04/13, Baikonur, Tsyklon 2, LEO, IS-A.

- COSMOS 843, 1976/07/21, Baikonur, Tsyklon 2, LEO, IS-A.

- COSMOS 886, 1976/12/28, Baikonur, Tsyklon 2, LEO, IS-A.

- COSMOS 910, 1977/05/23, Baikonur, Tsyklon 2, LEO, IS-A.

- COSMOS 918, 1977/06/17, Baikonur, Tsyklon 2, LEO, IS-A.

- COSMOS 961, 1977/10/26, Baikonur, Tsyklon 2, LEO, IS-A.

- COSMOS 970, 1977/12/21, Baikonur, Tsyklon 2, LEO, IS-A.

- COSMOS 1009, 1978/05/19, Baikonur, Tsyklon 2, LEO, IS-A.

- COSMOS 1174, 1980/04/18, Baikonur, Tsyklon 2, LEO, IS-A.

- COSMOS 1243, 1981/02/02, Baikonur, Tsyklon 2, LEO, IS-A.

- COSMOS 1258, 1981/03/14, Baikonur, Tsyklon 2, LEO, IS-A.

- COSMOS 1379, 1982/06/18, Baikonur, Tsyklon 2, LEO, IS-A.

First launch 1963/11/01

ASAT.....U.S. Anti-satellite rocket weapon fired from the ground. First launch 1986/09/30

ASAT TARGET.....Russia, satellite, anti-satellite, LEO. ADVANCED SATELLITE TARGET. Also known as TYULPAN or 11F631.

- COSMOS 248, 1968/10/19, Baikonur, Tsyklon 2, LEO, I2P.

- COSMOS 291, 1969/08/06, Baikonur, Tsyklon 2, LEO, I2M, malfunction.

- COSMOS 373, 1970/10/20, Baikonur, Tsyklon 2, LEO, I2M.

- COSMOS 394, 1971/02/09, Plesetsk, Kosmos, LEO, DS-P1-M.

- COSMOS 400, 1971/03/19, Plesetsk, Kosmos, LEO, DS-P1-M.

- COSMOS 459, 1971/11/30, Plesetsk, Kosmos, LEO, DS-P1-M.

- COSMOS 521, 1972/09/29, Plesetsk, Kosmos, LEO, DS-P1-M, malfunction.

- COSMOS 803, 1976/02/12, Plesetsk, Kosmos, LEO, IS-P, 5V91T, URAN.

- COSMOS 839, 1976/07/09, Plesetsk, Kosmos, LEO, IS-P, 5V91T, URAN.

- COSMOS 880, 1976/12/09, Plesetsk, Kosmos, LEO, IS-P, 5V91T, URAN.

- COSMOS 909, 1977/05/19, Plesetsk, Kosmos, LEO, IS-P, 5V91T, URAN.

- COSMOS 959, 1997/10/21, Plesetsk, Kosmos, LEO, IS-P, 5V91T, URAN.

- COSMOS 967, 1977/12/12, Plesetsk, Kosmos, LEO, IS-P, 5V91T, URAN.

- COSMOS 1171,1980/04/3, Plesetsk, Kosmos, LEO, IS-P, 5V91T, URAN.

- COSMOS 1241, 1981/01/21, Plesetsk, Kosmos, LEO, IS-P, 5V91T, URAN.

- COSMOS 1375, 1982/06/06, Plesetsk, Kosmos, LEO, IS-P, 5V91T, URAN.

First launch 1970/10/20

ASAT TARGET BALLOON.....U.S. Air Force, satellite, technology development, LEO. ADVANCED SATELLITE. Launched at Wallops Island by a Scout G. Two were launched at the same time. Also known as USA 13 and USA 14, ITV 1, US ASAT. First launch 1985/12/13

ASB-11 A.....U.S., launch vehicle, DoD designation, see Pegasus.

ASC.....U.S., satellite, communications, serving the U.S. and Puerto Rico for the AMERICAN SATELLITE CORPORATION. Later ASC merged with GTE Spacenet and the satellite was renamed SPACENET.

ASC, 1, 1985/08/27, 1985-076C, STS 51-I

First launch 1985/08/27

ASC Enterprises Ltd......India, aerospace company, satellite communications. Address: 5A Link Rd., Jangpura Extension, New Delhi, 140014 India.

ASCA.....Japan/U.S., ISAS/NASA, satellite, scientific, solar physics, LEO. ADVANCED SATELLITE FOR COSMOLOGY AND ASTROPHYSICS, formerly ASTRO-D. Launched Kagoshima, Nu-3S. Was ASTRO-D. First launch 1993/02/20

ascending node.....Orbital component. The point in an orbit (longitude) at which a satellite crosses the equatorial plane from south to north. See right ascension of the ascending node.

Ascension Island Station.....U.S., organization, NASA, STDN, Spaceflight Tracking and Data Network. Ascension Island Station, for MERCURY, GEMINI, APOLLO. Also functions as an ESA tracking station. Ascension Island, P.O. Box A, Patrick Air Force Base, FL 32925,

ASCONT.....Russia, organization, address, 84/32, Profsoyuznaya ul.,117810 Moscow, Telephone: (7 095) 333-2445, FAX: (7 095) 330-1200. ASCONT is a public, non-commercial organization, with the task to promote the preservation and further development of Russia's space science and technology during the transfer to a market economy. Friends

Ashby, Jeffrey S......U.S., astronaut, STS-093,1999/7/23, STS-100, 2001/04/19, STS-112, 2002/10/07. First launch 1999/7/23

Ashtar.....Mesopotamian, Venus god.

ASI.....Italy, organization. Agenzia Spoziale Italiano, Via di Villa Patrizi 13, 00161 Rome, Italy or 250 E St., SW, Suite 30, Washington, D.C. U.S. Italian Space Agency, POC for the San Marco Equatorial Range.

Asia Broadcasting and Communications Network Public Co. Ltd......Thailand, aerospace company, commercial satellite communications, L-STAR. Address: SM Tower, 979/66-70, Phaholythin Rd., Phayathai, Bangkok, 10400 Thailand.

Asia Pacific Mobile Telecommunications Satellite.....China, aerospace company, also known as APMT.

Asia Pacific Telecommunications Satellite Company.....China, aerospace company, also known as APStar.

Asia Satellite Telecommunications Company.....China, aerospace company, also known as AsiaSat.

ASIA Cellular Satellite.....Indonesia, see ACeS ASIA Cellular Satellite.

ASIA CELLULAR SATELLITE.....Indonesia, satellite. See ACES.

ASIA PACIFIC STAR.....Hong Kong, satellite. See APSTAR.

ASIA PACIFIC TELECOMMUNICATION.....Hong Kong, satellite. See APSTAR.

AsiaSat.....China, aerospace company, commercial satellite operator, ASIASAT. Address: Asia Satellite Telecommunications Co., Ltd. 23/F East Exchange Tower, 38-40 Leighton Road Hong Kong, People's Republic of China. www.asiasat.com

ASIASAT.....China, satellite, telecommunications, for the ASIA SATELLITE Telecommunications Co., Ltd.

ASIASAT 1 1990/04/07, Xichang, CZ-3. Was originally WESTAR 6, which was launched in 1984 but did not go into correct orbit and was rescued by STS 51A. First satellite to be launched twice, by two different launch vehicles.

- ASIASAT 2 1995/11/28, Xichang, CZ-2E.

- ASIASAT 3 became HGS-1.

First launch 1990/04/07

ASIASTAR.....U.S., satellite, communications, operated by WorldSpace for Asian markets. ASIA STAR (Satellite). First launch 2000/03/20

Asimuth.....Orbital component. The angle measured in the plane of the horizon from the north clockwise to the vertical plane through the satellite.

ASLV.....India, launch vehicle. Augmented Satellite Launch Vehicle, ISRO. 330 lbs (150 kg) into LEO. See SLV. First launch 1979/08/10

Asp.....U.S., rocket, probe into nuclear test cloud. Atmosphere sounding projectile. First launch 12/27/1955

asphalt.....Launch vehicle propellant, solid, fuel. Bituminous hydrocarbon, used in smaller rockets. Not used in Spacecraft Launch vehicles. Asphalt + AP, Is up to 200.

ASRM.....U.S., launch vehicle motor, stage 1, STS. Advanced Solid Rocket Motor. Thrust ? lbf (? kN), pressure ? psi (? bar), solid propellant HTPB.

ASSEMBLY CONCEPT FOR CONSTRUCTION OF ERECTABLE SPACE STRUCTURES.....U.S. Satellite. See ACCESS.

ASSET.....U.S., Air Force, Series of glider tests. ASSET is aero-thermodynamic-elastic structural systems environmental tests. Part of the Start program (Technology and Advanced Re-Entry Tests).

- ASSET 1    1963/09/18.

- ASSET 2    1964/02/24.

- ASSET 3    1964/07/22.

- ASSET 4    1964/10/28.

- ASSET 5    1964/12/09. 

- ASSET 6    1965/02/23.

First launch 1963/09/18

Assurance MSO 521.....USS Assurance MSO 521, recovery ship, part of the fleet which recovered or was on duty and capable of recovering the following: APOLLO 17.

ASSURESAT.....U.S., satellite, communications, GEO. First launch 2002/00/00

Astarte.....Mesopotamian, Venus god.

ASTD.....U.S., satellite, see ASTRO-D.

asterix.....Small cartoon character, a very petulant and famous personage. It is a hero in most humorous French cartoons.

ASTERIX.....France, satellite, scientific. First French satellite launched by Diamant A French booster as A-1, from Hammaguir, Algeria. The satellite was renamed ASTERIX after launch. First launch 1965/11/26

asteroid.....astéroides (Fr), asteroid (D).

Asteroid Belt.....A ½-AU-wide region between the orbits of Mars and Jupiter where the most asteroids are found.

astéroides.....French for asteroid.

ASTP.....U.S. & Russia, satellite, see APOLLO-SOYUZ.

astra.....Latin, Star.

ASTRA.....Luxembourg, satellite, television broadcasting satellite for Western Europe, using the Ku band. The signals can be received directly by homes. Also known as ASTRONAUTIQUE. The satellites series is a project of Luxembourg's Societe Europenne des Satellites (SES). First launch 1988/12/11

Astrid.....Astrid, Ericsson Lindgren, b. 1907, author.

ASTRID.....Sweden, satellite, ultraviolet imaging of the aurora and investigation of neutral particles in the magnetosphere.

- ASTRID 2, 1998/12/10, Kosmos

First launch 1995/12/24

Astrium.....UK & Netherlands, company, aerospace, partnership between European Aeronautic Defense and Space Company N.V. and BAE Systems. Bought German company Bosch Satcom, which designs and manufacturers payload equipment for comsats.

Astrium N.V......France & Sweden, aerospace company, owned by Aerospatiale Matra, Daimler Chrysler Aerospace, and BAE Systems. Formed in 2000.

astro.....From Greek, meaning star.

ASTRO.....Japan, satellite, ASTRO is a series of Astronomy satellites built by Japan's Institute of Space and Astronautical Sciences (ISAS) and launched from the Kagoshima Space Center. The satellites are renamed after reaching orbit.

- ASTRO A 1981/02/21, Uchinora, Mu-3, 56.02.21 (Emperor Date), HINOTORI, SS-07

- ASTRO B 1983/02/20, Kagoshima, Mu-3S, 58.02.20 (Emperor Date), TENMA, SS-08

- ASTRO C 1987/02/05, Kagoshima, Mu-3S, 62.02.05 (Emperor Date),GINGA, SS

- ASTRO D 1993/02/20, Kagoshima, Mu-3S, 05.02.20 (Emperor Date), ASUKA, SS or ASCA

- ASTRO E 2000/02/10, , FTO

- ASTRO EII, 2005/07/10, Kagoshima, M-V, SUZAKU or ASTRO E2

- ASTRO F, 2006/02/21, Kagoshima, M-V, AKARI.

First launch 1981/02/21

ASTRO.....U.S. DARPA, satellite, technology, LEO. AUTONOMOUS SPACE TRANSPORT AND ROBOTIC ORBITER. Part of 2 satellite system to test satellite refueling in space. Other satellite is NEXTSAT. First launch 2005/00/00

ASTRO.....U.S. & German, satellite, a series of Astronomy instruments flown on the space shuttle (STS). Also known as ASTRO-SPAS, ASTRONOMY PLATFORM SHUTTLE PALLET SATELLITE. See also SPACELAB.

- ASTRO 1 1993/09/11, KSC, STS-51, Returned 1983/09/22.

- ASTRO 2 1995/03/03, KSC, STS-67, Returned 1995/03/18.

First launch 1993/09/11

ASTRO-SPAS.....U.S. & German, satellite. see ASTRO.

Astrobee 1500.....U.S., rocket, upper atmosphere geophysics. First launch 1961/08/01

Astrobee 200.....U.S., rocket, upper atmosphere geophysics. First launch 1961/00/00

Astrobee 500.....U.S., rocket, high altitude flares for geodesy. First launch 1960/00/00

Astrobee D.....U.S., rocket, upper atmosphere meteorology. First launch 1970/06/08

Astrofizika.....Russia, Astrophysics.

ASTROFIZIKA.....Russia, satellite, Astronomy. Also known as 11F653, KOSMOS 1066.

ASTROLINK.....U.S. satellite, Broadband communications, GEO. Contractor, Lockheed Martin. Requires 9 active satellites. Cancell2001/ed 11.

Astrological Signs.....

Aries, Ram, 3/21-4/19

Taurus, Bull, 4/20-5/20

Gemini, Twins, 5/21-6/20

Cancer, Crab, 6/21-7/22

Leo, Lion, 7/23-8/22

Virgo, Virgin, 8/23-9/22

Libra, Scales, 9/23-10/22

Scorpio, Scorpion, 10/23-11/21

Sagitattus, Archer, 11/22-12/21

Capricorn, Goat, 12/22-1/19

Aquarius, Water Bearer, 1/20-2/18

Pisces, Fish, 2/19/3/20.

ASTRON.....Russia, satellite, Russia/French scientific satellite, astronomical observatory. Launched at Tyuratam by a SL-12. First launch 1983/03/23

astronaut.....A person who has flown or is preparing to fly in space on a U.S. vehicle. See also cosmonaut, Euronaut Hang Tian Yuan, Spationautes, taikonaut, yuhgangyuan, Космонвт.

astrojap.gifFigure 2 Astronaut: uchu-hikoshi (Japan) astronau.gifFigure 3 Astronaut: "extreme vacuum person" (China).

astronaut, first.....China. Ching, Wan Hu, first Astronaut. Attempted to fly to the Moon in a chair propelled by 47 rockets, but the blast killed him. First launch 1600/00/00

astronautics.....The science or art of travel beyond the Earth's atmosphere.

ASTRONAUTIQUE.....France, satellite. See ASTERIX

Astronavigation.....See guidance.

astronom.....German for astronomer.

astronomer.....astronomes (Fr), astronom (D).

astronomes.....French for astronomer.

Astronomical Unit.....Average distance between the Earth and the Sun. 1 Astronomical Unite (AU) is 149,597,870 km or 92,081,000 miles.

ASTRONOMICAL NETHERLANDS SATELLITE.....Holland satellite. See ANS.

Asuka.....Geographical location, Japan, district.

ASUKA.....Japan, satellite. See ASTRO.

ASUSAT.....U.S., nano satellite, amateur radio satellite, LEO SSO. ARIZONA STATE UNIVERSITY SATELLITE. First launch 2000/01/26

ATDA.....U.S., satellite. See AGENA TARGET DOCKING MODULE.

Aten.....Egypt, sun god.

ATEX.....U.S., NRL, satellite, experimental tether satellite. First launch 1998/10/03

Athena.....Greece, goddess of wisdom, knowledge, creativity.

Athena.....U.S., launch vehicle. Manufactured by Lockheed Martin. Also known as LLV & LLMV. Renamed Athena in 1997.

- 1, 1805 lbs (820 kg), LEO. Stage 1 Castor 120 motor. Stage 2 Orbus 21 D or G. Stage 3 OAM.

- 2, 4300 lbs (1800 kg), LEO. Stage 1 and 2 Castor 120 motor. Stage 3 Orbus 21 D or G. Stage 4 OAM. First launch 1998/01/06.

- 3, 5000 lbs (2500 kg), LEO.

First launch 1995/08/15

ATHENA.....U.S., NASA, satellite, scientific, mars landing rover.

ATHOS.....France, experimental communications satellite.

ATK.....U.S., aerospace company, combination of Alliant and Thiokol, in 2001.

Atkov, Oleg.....Russia, cosmonaut, SOYUZ T10, 1984/02/08. First launch 1984/02/08

Atlantic Missile Range.....U.S. launch facility, located at Cape Canaveral. Renamed Eastern Test Range (ETR) 1964/05/15 and later changed to the Eastern Range (ER). Bumper 8, first launch. 1950/07/24

Atlantic Ocean Eastern Region.....See AOR-E

Atlantic Ocean Western Region.....See AOR-W

Atlantic Research Corporation.....U.S., aerospace company. Also known as ARC. Address: 5945 Wellington Rd., Gainesville, VA 20155. Purchased British Aerospace Royal Ordnance (RO) liquid engine business in 1998.

ATLANTIC.....U.S. Comsat, communication satellite. Also known as CANARY BIRD. Launched at the ETR by TAD. First launch 1967/03/23

ATLANTIC BIRD.....Europe, satellite, earth observation. Uses Alenia Spazio (Torino) GoeBus. First launch 2002/08/28

Atlantis.....U.S. Launch vehicle stage, Manned Spacecraft Space Shuttle, OV-104. Used on STS. First launch 1985/09/20

ATLANTIS.....U.S., satellite, manned spacecraft Space Shuttle, OV-104. First launch 1985/10/03

Atlas.....Saturn moon, one of 19. See Prometheus, Pandora, Atlas, Epimetheus, Janus, Mimas, Helene, Enceladus, Tethys, Calypso, Telesto, Dione, Pan, 1995-S4, Rhea, Titan, Hyperion, Laptus, Phoebe.

Atlas.....U.S. Air Force, Intercontinental Ballistic Missile (ICBM) and launch vehicle. Also used to place satellites in orbit. Built by Convair (Consolidated Vultee Aircraft Corp), named for Convair's parent company Atlas Corporation. Atlas was a Greek god of mythology who supported the world on his shoulders. DoD designation pre 1963, B-65. DoD System Management Code MX-1593, WS-107A-1. The project started as MX-774 in 1946. DoD Rocket Motor Designation LR89.

- A, ICBM single stage test vehicle.DoD designation pre 1963, SM-65A. Stage 1, MA-1 w/o sustainer, rocket engine.

- B, ICBM 1½ stage test vehicle. DoD designation pre 1963, SM-65B, Stage 1, MA-1, rocket engine.

- Atlas Able, 2nd stage used Vanguard 2nd stage.

- C, ICBM 1½ stage test vehicle. DoD designation pre 1963, SM-65.

- D, ICBM, later converted to space launch vehicle. DoD designation CGM-16 D, CTM 16D. DoD designation pre 1963, SM-65D, USM-65. First launch 1965/01/21

- E, ICBM, later converted to space launch vehicle. Stage 1, MA-3 engine. DoD designation CGM-16, ECTM-16E, SB-1 A. DoD designation pre 1963, SM-65E, USM-65E First launch 1980/12/08

- F, ICBM, 2,800 kg, ballistic to 8,000 km, later converted to space launch vehicle. DoD designation HGM-16F. DoD designation pre 1963, SM-65F. First launch 1968/04/06

- Atlas-Able. Stage 1, MA-2 engine. Stage 2, Able, AJ10-101 engine. Stage 2, Able, X-248 motor.

- Atlas-Agena A. 4500 lbs (2000 kg) LEO. Stage 1, MA-2 engine + 2 LR-101-5 verniers. Stage 2, Hustler 8048 engine.

- Atlas-Agena B. Stage 1, MA-3 engine. Stage 2, Hustler 8081 engine.

- Atlas-Score. Stage 1, MA-2 engine.

- Atlas-Centaur. 1200 lbs (545 kg) GEO.Stage 1, MA-3 engine. Stage 2, Centaur with 2 XLR-115 engines.

- MERCURY, 3000 lbs (1368 kg) to LEO. Stage 1, MA-2 engine. See LV-3B.

- LV-3A, D + Agena upper stage, GTO 1900 lbs. First launch 1958/12/18

- LV-3B, D + man rated. First launch 1959/09/09

- LV-3C, D + Centaur upper stage. First launch 1962/05/08

- SLV-3, LV-3A + reliability improvements. First launch 1964/08/14

- SLV-3C, LV-3A + lengthened 51 in., GTO 4000 lbs., Centaur 11,000 lbs (5,000 kg) to LEO. First launch 1967/09/08

- SLV-3A, LV-3A + lengthened 117 in., GTO 2000 lbs. First launch 1968/03/04

- SLV-3D, SLV-3C + Centaur upper stage and electronic changes, GTO 4000 lbs. First launch 1973/04/05

- G, SLV-3D + lengthened by 81 in. First launch 1984/06/09

- H, SLV-3D no Centaur upper stage. First launch 1983/02/09

- I, G + strengthened for 14 ft payload fairing, GTO 5000 lbs (2250 kg). Stage 1, MA-5 engine, 3 thrust chambers, 2 verniers. Stage 2, Centaur, 2 RL10A-3-3A engines. First launch 1990/07/25

- II, I + lengthened 108 in. and additional improvements, GTO 5800 lbs (2680 kg). Stage 1, MA-5A engine. Stage 2, Centaur, 2 RL10A-3-3A engines. DoD designation SB-2 A. First launch 1991/12/07

- IIA, II + Centaur engines up rated, GTO 6760 lbs (3070 kg). Stage 1, MA-5A engine. Stage 2, Centaur, 2 RL10A-3-3A engines. DoD designation SB-2 B. First launch 1992/06/10

- IIAS, IIA, MA-5A motor + Castor IVA strap-ons, Centaur IIA/IIAS, 2 RL10A-4N engines. GTO 8200 lbs (3700 kg). DoD designation SB-2 B. First launch 1993/12/16

- IIAR, uses Russian RD-180 rocket engine, developed by Russia's NPO Energomash, built by U.S. Pratt & Whitney..

- IIIA/B, NPO Energomash RD 180 engine, Centaur III or IIIA, 9920 lbs (4500 kg) GTO, 6200 (2800 kg) escape. First launch 2000/05/24.

- 5, NPO Energomash RD 180 engine, Centaur III, 10,000 lbs (4500 kg) GTO.

- 5, NPO Energomash RD 180 engine, Centaur III, 16,800 lbs (7600 kg) GTO, 3 SRB's.

- 5, NPO Energomash RD 180 engine, Centaur III, (400 Series), 16800 lbs (7600 kg) GTO. First launch 2002/00/00.

- 5, NPO Energomash RD 180 engine, Centaur III, (500 Series), 19100 lbs (8680 kg) GTO, 5 SRB's. First launch 2002/00/00.

- EELV-light, Evolved expanded launch vehicle.

- EELV-medium, Evolved expanded launch vehicle.

- EELV-heavy, Evolved expanded launch vehicle.

- Heavy Atlas 4 MLV-D, 8500 lbs (3900 kg), LEO

- Heavy Atlas 4 MLV-A, 16000 lbs (7300 kg), LEO

- Heavy Atlas 4 Commercial, 37000 lbs (18000 kg), LEO

- Heavy Atlas 5 HLV-L, 40000 lbs (18600 kg), LEO

- Heavy Atlas 5 HLV-G, 33000 lbs (15000 kg), GTO.

Atlas V designation: Atlasx xyz

- x approximate payload fairing diameter in meetes (4 or 5)

- y Number of strap-on booster ( 0 to 5)

- z number of engines on centaur upper stage, 0 = unspecified, 1 = single engine Centaur (SEC), 2 = double engine Centaur (DEC).

First launch 1957/06/11

Atlas 1.....U.S., launch vehicle. Also known as Atlas I.

Atlas 2.....U.S., launch vehicle. Also known as Atlas II.

Atlas 2A.....U.S., launch vehicle. Also known as Atlas IIA

Atlas 2AS.....U.S., launch vehicle. Also known as Atlas IIAS

Atlas 3.....U.S., launch vehicle. Also known as Atlas III

Atlas 4.....U.S., launch vehicle, see Atlas.

Atlas 5.....U.S., launch vehicle, see Atlas.

Atlas A.....U.S., ICBM single stage test vehicle.

Atlas Able.....U.S., test vehicle, 2nd stage used Vangurad 2nd stage. First launch 1959/11/26

Atlas B.....U.S., ICBM 1½ stage test vehicle.

Atlas C.....U.S., ICBM 1½ stage test vehicle.

Atlas D.....U.S., ICBM, later converted to space launch vehicle. First launch 1965/01/21

Atlas E.....U.S., ICBM, later converted to space launch vehicle. First launch 1980/12/08

Atlas F.....U.S., ICBM, later converted to space launch vehicle. First launch 1968/04/06

Atlas G.....U.S., launch vehicle. Atlas SLV-3D + lengthened by 81 in. First launch 1984/06/09

Atlas H.....U.S., launch vehicle. Atlas SLV-3D no Centaur upper stage. First launch 1983/02/09

Atlas Hustler.....U.S., launch vehicle. See Atlas Agena A.

Atlas I.....U.S., launch vehicle. Atlas G + strengthened for 14 ft payload fairing, GTO 5000 lbs (2250 kg). First launch 1990/07/25

Atlas II.....U.S., launch vehicle. Atlas I + lengthened 108 in. and additional improvements, GTO 5800 lbs (2680 kg). First launch 1991/12/07

Atlas IIA.....U.S., launch vehicle. Atlas II + Centaur engines up rated, GTO 6000 lbs (2810 kg). First launch 1992/06/10

Atlas IIAR.....U.S., launch vehicle. Atlas II, uses Russian RD-180 rocket engine, developed by Russia's NPO Energomash, built by U.S. Pratt & Whitney..

Atlas IIAS.....U.S., launch vehicle. Atlas IIA + Castor IVA strap-ons added, GTO 7800 lbs *3490 kg). First launch 1993/12/16

Atlas III.....U.S., Lockheed Martin, launch vehicle, also known as Atlas 3. See Atlas.

Atlas IIIA/B.....U.S., launch vehicle, see Atlas.

Atlas LV-3A.....U.S., launch vehicle. Atlas D + Agena upper stage, GTO 1900 lbs. First launch 1958/12/18

Atlas LV-3B.....U.S., launch vehicle. Atlas D + man rated. First launch 1959/09/09

Atlas LV-3C.....U.S., launch vehicle. Atlas D + Centaur upper stage. First launch 1962/05/08

Atlas SLV-3.....U.S., launch vehicle. Atlas LV-3A + reliability improvements. First launch 1964/08/14

Atlas SLV-3A.....U.S., launch vehicle. Atlas SLV-3A + lengthened 117 in., GTO 2000 lbs. First launch 1968/03/04

Atlas SLV-3C.....U.S., launch vehicle. Atlas LV-3A + lengthened 51 in., GTO 4000 lbs. First launch 1967/09/08

Atlas SLV-3D.....U.S., launch vehicle. Atlas SLV-3C + Centaur upper stage and electronic changes, GTO 4000 lbs. First launch 1973/04/05

Atlas V.....U.S., Lockheed Martin, launch vehicle, also known as Atlas 5. See Atlas.

ATLAS.....U.S. NASA, satellite, ATMOSPHERIC LABORATORY FOR APPLICATIONS AND SCIENCE. Series of SPACELAB Flights that measure the long term variability on the total energy radiated by the Sun and determine the variability in the Solar spectrum.

- ATLAS-1, none, 1992/03/24, KSC, STS-45.

- ATLAS-2, none, 1993/04/08, KSC, STS-56.

- ATLAS-3, none, 1994/11/03, KSC, STS-66.

First launch 1992/03/24

Atlas-Agena.....U.S. Air Force, launch vehicle. Atlas first stage with the Agena second stage. Also used to place satellites in orbit. See Atlas LV-3A.

Atlas-Centaur.....U.S., launch vehicle, GEO, interplanetary. Atlas first stage with Centaur second stage. See Atlas LV-3C.

Atlas-SCORE.....U.S., launch vehicle, ICBM adapted to LEO. Carried a prerecorded Christmas message from the President of the U.S. Dwight D. Eisenhower transmitted to the world. The message was the first human voice heard from space. Launched at the ETR by an Atlas B. First launch 1958/12/18

ATMOS.....U.S. Atmospheric Trace Molecule Spectroscopy Experiment on SL-3. Launched at KSC by STS-51B. First launch 1985/04/29

ATMOS.....India, satellite, remote sensing.

ATMOSPHERE EXPLORER.....U.S. Satellites, scientific, part of the EXPLORER series. Abbreviation AE. See EXPLORER.

atmospheric drag.....The resistance to motion caused by atmospheric gasses. See drag.

ATMOSPHERIC DENSITY EXPLORER.....U.S., satellite, scientific. 12 Ft. diameter balloon.

- ADE A, 1963/12/19, Scout, Vandenberg, EXPLORER 19.

- ADE B, 1964/11/21, Scout, Vandenberg, EXPLORER 24.

- ADE C, 1968/08/08, Scout, Vandenberg, EXPLORER 39.

First launch 1963/12/19

ATMOSPHERIC LABORATORY FOR APPLICATIONS AND SCIENCE.....U.S., satellite. See ATLAS

Atomic Energy Commission.....U.S. organization. See AEC, or Department of Energy.

ATS.....U.S., Naval Ship, salvage and rescue ship.

ATS.....U.S. satellites, technology, ADVANCE TECHNOLOGY SATELLITE is a series of satellites to test new communications techniques for stationary (geosynchronous) orbit as well as meteorology and navigation satellite systems. In 1966, ESSA had to opportunity to try weather observation from a geostationary platform on the Advance Technology Satellite (ATS). The ATS was a series of satellites to test new communications and navigation techniques for stationary (geosynchronous) orbit. Room for meteorology instrumentation became available on ATS 1 through 5, and ESSA took the opportunity to evaluate the feasability of a geostationary weather satellite. Previous environmental satellites were launched into a polar sun synchronous orbits or low earth orbits.

       On ATS 1, ESSA/NASA placed two meteorological experiments on board:

- One was a spin scan cloud camera which provided continuous, full-disk hemispheric images of the Sun-lit Earth every half hour. The spinning motion of the satellite generated line scans with a spatial resolution of 1.5 miles (3.2 km). This process took approximately 20 minutes for the full image, and then 10 minutes to reset the camera for a new image.

- The second experiment was Weather Facsimile (WEFAX), a data relay and re-transmission instrument. This instrument relayed data from the central ESSA data processing facility to APT ground stations located around the western hemisphere.

       ATS 1 was a cylinder 56 inches (1.4 m) in diameter, 57 inches (1.45 m) high and weighed 750 pounds (280 kgs). A phased array of eight whip antennas extended from the top, and a phased array of 8 VHF antennas extended from the base. The sides of the cylinder were covered by 23,870 solar cells which, along with nicad batteries, provided the power for the craft. The satellite was placed in a geosynchronous orbit by an Atlas Agena launched from Cape Canaveral, Florida. Useful data was gathered by ATS 1 for 6 years. ATS 2 was similar to ATS 2, but was placed in the wrong orbit and was deactivated.

       ATS 3 was larger, 60 inches(1.52 n) in diameter and 72 inches (1.83 m) long, and weighed 805 lbs (365 kgs). It carried 3 meteorological instruments:

- The spin scan cloud camera was modified to produce color images.

- The WEFAX was the same.

- The additional instrument was an Image Dissector Camera which scanned the hemispheric images of the Sun-lit Earth electronically rather than mechanically. The satellite collected useful data for 8 years.

       Alas, ATS 4 and ATS 5 were not as fortunate as ATS 3. ATS 4 was slightly heaver 750 lbs. (391 kgs), which required a heaver launch vehicle. The Centaur failed to re-ignite, and both eventually made a multi million dollar fiery reentry and becomeg someones UFO. ATS 5 was a good news/bad news story, it made it to orbit but the satellite was spinning in the wrong direction, and was deactivated. ATS 6 did not carry any meteorological instrumentation. ATS 1 through 5 were built by Hughes.

       The ATS successfully demonstrated the value to ESSA/NOAA of geosynchronous meteorological satellites. NOAA subsequently, initiated its own geosynchronous meteorological satellite program, called Synchronous Meteorological Satellite (SMS).

- ATS 1 1966/12/07, ETR, Atlas-Agena D.

- ATS 2 1967/04/06, ETR, Atlas-Agena D.

- ATS 3 1967/11/05, ETR, Atlas-Agena D.

- ATS 4 1968/08/11, ETR, Atlas-Centaur.

- ATS 5 1969/08/12, ETR, Atlas-Centaur.

- ATS 6 (F) 1974/05/30, ETR, Titan IIIC.

First launch 1966/12/07

Attar.....Mesopotamian, Venus god.

attente.....French for waiting.

attitude.....The orientation of the spacecraft relative to a defined set of references.

Attitude and Vernier Upper Module.....Italy, launch vehicle stage, see AVUM.

Attitude control subsystem.....See Space vehicle.

Atum.....Egypt, sun god.

ATV.....Europe, satellite, ISS, resupply for the ISS, reusable. AUTOMATED TRANSFER VEHICLE. Will consist of 3 modules, cargo carrier, avionics, and propulsion. The first will be named the JULES VERNE. First launch 2007/10/00

AU.....Astronomical Unit. See Astronomical Unit.

Aubakirov, Takhtar.....Russia, cosmonaut, SOYUZ TM 13, 1991/10/02. First launch 1991/10/02

Aucilla AO 56.....USS Aucilla AO 56, recovery ship, part of the fleet which recovered or was on duty and capable of recovering the following: GEMINI 6, GEMINI 7.

Augmented Satellite Launch Vehicle.....India, also known as ASLV. See SLV.

Ault DD 698.....USS Ault DD 698, recovery ship, part of the fleet which recovered or was on duty and capable of recovering the following: GEMINI 3.

AURA.....France, satellite, astronomy, LEO. CNES launched small astronomy satellites at Kourou on Diamant B-P4 rockets. First launch 1975/09/27

AURA.....U.S., NASA, satellite, scientific earth observation, LEO SSO. Uses the TRW T-330 bus. Was CHEMISTRY, EOS CHEMISTRY. Part of A-TRAIN. First launch 2004/07/15

Aureole.....France, halo.

AUREOLE.....France, satellite. See OREL

Aurora.....Roman goddess of dawn, similar to the Greeks goddess Eos. Also the name of radiant emission the occur in the upper atmosphere.

AURORA.....Europe, ESA, Europe GPS.First launch

AURORA.....U.S., satellite, telecommunications, GEO, owned by Alascom (Alaska Communications)

AURORA 1, 1967/06/29, ETR, Thor-Burner II.

AURORA 2, 1991/05/29, ETR, Delta 2, was SATCOM 5, GE.

First launch 1967/06/29

AURORA 7.....U.S., satellite, manned spacecraft MERCURY, MA-7. First launch 1962/05/24

AURORAE.....Japan, satellite, see ESRO.

AURORAL PROBE.....Russia, satellite. See INTERBALL.

AUS-51.....Israel, launch vehicle motor, thrust ? lbf (? kN), pressure ? psi (? bar), solid propellant HTPB. Manufactured by Rafael. Used on Shavit launch vehicle.

Ausroc.....Australia, rocket, amateur, proposed version Ausroc IV capable of satellite launch. Australia Rocket.

- Ausroc I 1989/02/09.

- Ausroc II 1992/10/22 launch failure.

- Ausroc II-2 1995/05/26.

First launch 1989/02/00

AUSSAT.....Australia, satellite, communication. AUSTRALIA, SATELLITES for a wide range of domestic services to all of Australia, its offshore islands and Papua New Guinea, New Zealand and Pacific islands, GEO.

AUSSAT A1 1985/08/27, KSC, STS 51I.

AUSSAT A2 1985/11/27, KSC, STS 61B.

AUSSAT A3 1987/09/16, Kourou, Ariane 3.

AUSSAT B1 1992/03/22, CZ-2E, Aborted launch.

AUSSAT B1 1992/08/14, Xi-chang, CZ-2E, GEO, OPTUS - B1.

AUSSAT B2 1992/12/21, Xi-chang, CZ-2E, FTO, OPTUS - B2.

AUSSAT B3 1994/08/28, Xi-chang, CZ-2E, GEO, OPTUS B3.

First launch 1985/08/27

AUSSAT Pty. Ltd.....Australia, aerospace company. Former owner and operator of AUSSAT A1 - A3 satellites. No longer exists.

Austin LPD 4.....USS Austin LPD 4, recovery ship, part of the fleet which recovered or was on duty and capable of recovering the following: APOLLO 4, APOLLO 6, APOLLO 6, APOLLO 12, APOLLO 15.

Australia.....1) Small launch facility at Woomera. It has launched one satellite WRESAT, using a modified Redstone C in 1967/11/29 and another on 10/28/71 using a Black Arrow launch vehicle.

2) Launch Vehicles: Europa 1, Black Arrow, Redstone C.

3) Date format: day, month, year, Arabic number day, Roman letter abbreviation month (e.g., MR for March), and Arabic number for year, (e.g. 82 for 1982). Example, 02OC89 is the second day of October 1989.

4) Currency - Dollar, Australian (Pound, Australian before February 14, 1966)

5) First launch 1957/02/13

AUSTRALIA SATELLITES.....Australia, satellite, see AUSSAT.

Australian Space Council.....Australia, organization. Formally the Australian Space Office. Terminated late 1996 with COSSA given expanded responsibilities. See COSSA.

Australian Space Office.....Australia, organization. P.O. Box 269 Civic Square, Canberra, ACT. 2608, Australia. POC for Woomera Rocket Range. Renamed Australian Space Council.

Australian Space Research Institute.....Australia, organization. Address PO Box 20, Elizabeth, South Australia, 5112 Australia. A not-for-profit company formed to develop and advance space science and technology.

Australis.....Geographical location, country of Australia.

AUSTRALIS-OSCAR.....Australia, satellite amateur radio. First launch 1970/01/23

Austria.....Member of ESA.

Austrian Space Agency.....Austria, organization. See ASA

Austromir.....Russia, mission title for Soyuz TM-13. First launch 1988/12/21

AUTOMATED TRANSFER VEHICLE.....Europe, satellite, see ATV.

AUTONOMOUS SPACE TRANSPORT AND ROBOTIC ORBITER.....U.S. DARPA, satellite, technology, see ASTRO.

Avdeyev, Sergei.....Russia, cosmonaut, SOYUZ TM 15, 1992/07/27, SOYUZ TM 22, 1995/09/03, TM-28, 1998/08/13. First launch 1992/07/27

AVL.....U.S., satellite, see GRID SPHERE or MYLAR SPHERE.

AVOS.....Russia, satellite, technology. Test new technology. Small satellite MAGION separates from main satellite.

- INTERKOSMOS 15, 1976/06/19, Kosmos, Plesetsk, LEO.

- INTERKOSMOS 17, 1977/09/24, Kosmos, Plesetsk, LEO.

- INTERKOSMOS 18, 1978/10/24, Kosmos, Plesetsk, LEO, MAGIC.

- INTERKOSMOS 19, 1979/02/24, Kosmos, Plesetsk, LEO.

- INTERKOSMOS 20, 1979/11/01, Kosmos, Plesetsk, LEO.

- INTERKOSMOS 21, 1981/11/06, Kosmos, Plesetsk, LEO.

- INTERKOSMOS 24, 1989/09/28, Tsyklon 3, Plesetsk, HEO.

- INTERKOSMOS 25, 1991/12/18, Tsyklon 3, Plesetsk, HEO.

- INTERKOSMOS 26, 1994/03/02, Tsyklon 3, Plesetsk, HEO, CORONAS-I.

First launch 1976/06/19

Avro.....Europe, aerospace company, became part Hawker Siddeley in early 1960s.

AVUM.....Italy, launch vehicle stage, uses the RD-869 engine. Attitude and Vernier Upper Module. Used on the Vega launch vehicle stage 4.

AXAF.....U.S. NASA satellite, telescope, HEO, ADVANCED X-RAY ASTROPHYSICS FACILITY. One of four Great Observatories to be placed in Earth orbit, 320 miles altitude. Uses high resolution mirror and four instruments for measuring x-rays. Renamed CHANDRA for Nobel Laureate Scbrahmanyan Chandreskhar. The other three great observatories are HUBBLE SPACE TELESCOPE (HST), GAMMA RAY OBSERVATORY (GRO) and THE SPACE INFRARED TELESCOPE FACILITY (SIRFT) to be launched in 1999. The Chandra X-ray Observatory (formerly the Advanced X-ray Astrophysics Facility, or AXAF) is built around a high-resolution grazing incidence X-ray telescope which makes astrophysical observations in the 0.09 to 10.0 keV energy range. The principal science objectives of the mission are to determine the nature of celestial objects from normal stars to quasars, to understand the nature of physical processes that take place in and between astronomical objects, and to generally study the history and evolution of the universe. Observations are made of X-rays from high energy regions such as supernova remnants, X-ray pulsars, black holes, neutron stars, and hot galactic clusters. The spacecraft has a cone-shaped body with an octagonal structure surrounding the wide end. Two solar panel wings extend from opposite sides of the structure. The main opening is at the wide end covered by a sunshade door with a contamination cover. An aspect camera and stray light shades are mounted near the opening, and two low gain antennas and two fine Sun sensors are affixed to the outside structure. Thermal control is maintained by a radiator, insulators, heaters, and thermostats. Power generated by the solar panels is stored in three banks of batteries. The X-ray telescope consists of four nested paraboloid-hyperboloid X-ray mirror pairs, arranged in concentric cylinders within the cone. The four instruments are located near the focus at the narrow end of the cone. The satellite was named in honor of the late Indian-American Nobel Laureate Subrahmanyan Chandrasekhar.

       Chandras Inertial Upper Stage (IUS) fired perfectly one hour after launch, placing the satellite in a highly elliptical orbit. The telescope’s onboard thrusters were used in tweaking the orbit into its final version, between 10,000 and 140,000 km (6,200 and 87,000 miles) above the Earth. First launch 1999/07/23

Ayame.....Japan, Iris.

AYAME.....Japan, satellite. See ECS.

AZ.....Russia, satellite, part of VEGA 1 and 2. ALSO known as AEROSTATNIY ZOND.

Azimuth.....Orbital component. Compass direction, usually at launch, measured clockwise with 0o at north, 90o at east. The angle measured in the plane of the horizon from the north clockwise to the vertical plane through the satellite.

azur.....Germany, blue.

AZUR GRS.....German, satellite, scientific, to study the Van Allen belts as solar particles. Launched at WTR by a Scout. First launch 1969/11/07

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Updated 2007/2/01