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B-1.....U.S. Launch Vehicle. See Scout, 315 lbs (143 kg) LEO. First launch 1965/08/10

B-1.....Russia, launch vehicle. See SL-7, 1300 lbs (600 kg) LEO, Kosmos-small, Sheldon Name B-1. Stage 1, Scandal SS-4 IRBM, engine RD-214. Stage 2, RD-119 engine.

B-65.....U.S., launch vehicle, see Atlas.

B-SAT.....Japan, satellite, see BSAT.

BA.....U.S. Launch Vehicle, GEO. Built by Beal Aerospace, Texas and launched from Sombrero Island, British Territory near Anguilla.

- BA-1, 5700 lbs (2600 kg), GEO

- BA-2, 11000 lbs (5000 kg, GEO

First launch 2000/00/00

BA.....Launch vehicle motor, Bell Aerosystems Co.

Baal.....Phoenician, sun god.

Babakin Research Institute.....Russia, organization, NPO Lavochkin.

Baby Sergeant.....U.S. launch vehicle motor, see Sargent.

BACC.....China, organization, see Beijing Aerospace Command and Control Center.

badge.....badge (Fr), namensanstecker (D).

badr.....Pakistan, full moon.

BADR.....Pakistan, satellite, communications, LEO, digital communications experiments. Built by Suparco, Pakistan National Space Agency. Launched at Xichang by CZ-2E. 1990/07/16

BAE Systems PLC.....UK, aerospace company. Address 6 Carlton Gardens, London, SW1Y 5AD, United Kingdom. Was British Aerospace.

Bagian, James.....U.S., astronaut, STS-29, 1989/03/13, STS-40, 1991/06/05. First launch 1989/03/13

Baikanur.....Kazakhstan, space vehicle launch facility. See Baikonur.

Baikonur.....Kazakhstan, space vehicle launch facility, (Was part of the USSR). Was the Tyuratam Cosmodrom. Baikonur Cosmodrom lies north of the town of Tyuratam, east of the Aral Sea, about 370 km from the town of Baikonur in the Republic of Kazakhstan. 45.6o N, 63.4o E. Kazakhstan became the owner following the dissolution of the Soviet Union. The site was named Tyuratam in 1992 and Baikonour 1995/12. Near the town Leninsk, renaimed Baikonour in 1995/12. Krainy airfield is nearby. Traditional recovery zone was in Kazakhstan, new one is in Russia near Orsk. The facility can launch Proton, Zenit, and Energiya for low earth orbit, geosynchronous orbits and sun synchronous Missions. POC The Space Commerce Corporation, 5718 Westheimer, Suite 1515, Houston, TX 77057, U.S. Used by Russia. Cyrillic КОСМОДРОМ БАЙКОНУР, for Kosmodrom Baykonur, or Baikonur Cosmodrom.

Bailey DDR 713.....USS Bailey DDR 713, recovery ship, part of the fleet which recovered or was on duty and capable of recovering the following: MERCURY Atlas 6.

Baker, Ellen.....U.S., astronaut, STS-34, 1989/10/18, STS-50, 1992/06/25, STS-71, 1995/06/27. First launch 1989/10/18

Baker, Mike.....U.S., astronaut, STS-43, 1991/08/02, STS-52, 1992/10/22, STS-68, 1994/09/30, STS-81, 1997/01/12. First launch 1991/08/02

Baker-Nunn Satellite Tracking Camera.....Australia/USA, Island Lagoon Woomera, organization. Part of the Satellite Tracking Network managed by the Smithsonian Astrophysical Observatory, Cambridge, Massachusetts operated by Australian staff. SC-23 Used to track some Woomera launches.

Balandin, Alexander.....Russia, cosmonaut, SOYUZ TM 09, 1990/02/11. First launch 1990/02/11

Balasore Rocket Launching Station.....India, located on India's east cost, south of the city of Calcutta. Balasore's more northern latitude makes it less suitable for orbital launches.

Balder.....Norse, god of sun or light.

Ball 1000.....U.S., satellite bus, Ball Aerospace. Also known as BCP-1000.

Ball 2000.....U.S., satellite bus, Ball Aerospace, commercial platform bus. Also known as BCP-2000.

Ball Aerospace.....U.S. aerospace company. Address: PO Box 1062, Boulder, CO 80396, USA.

Ballistic Missile Defense Organization.....U.S. organization. See BMDO

band.....Letter designation assigned to ranges of electromagnetic frequencies: VHF 136-138 MHz, P 225-1000 MHz, L 1-2 GHZ, S 2-4 GHZ, C 4-8 GHZ, X 8-12 GHZ, Ku 10.7-15.4 GHZ, K 15.4-27.5 GHZ, Ka 27.5-50 GHZ, Millimeter greater than 50 GHZ.

Bar.....Units of measure. Pressure, force/unit area. 1 bar = 0.98 atmospheres = 14.5 lbs/in2 = 1x106 dynes/cm2 = 1.02 kg/cm2.

Barents Sea Launch Area.....Russia, Murmansk, space vehicle launch facility, Barents Sea Launch Area, 35.3 oE 69.3 oN.. See BLA.

BARIUM ION.....U.S./German Cloud, satellite, scientific, produce a 10,000 mile long barium cloud to measure magnetic and electric fields. The satellite was a joint U.S. and German (Max Planck Institute) project. The satellite was launched at Wallops Island, VA using a Scout launcher. First launch 1971/09/21

Barmin KB.....Russia, organization, see Transport Machine Building KB.

Barrera do Inferno.....Brazil, Launch site for SONDA sounding rockets. The Centro De Loncamento da Barrera do Inferno (CLBI) (Barrera de Inferno Rocket Range) is part of the Brazilian Space System, devoted primarily to suborbital space operations. 5.55 S, 35.1 W. The activities are sponsored by the Ministry of Aeronautics. The CLBI works in close cooperation with the Instituto Nacional de Atividades Espaciais (National Institute for Space Research) and local university. The activities were initiated in 1965. The CLBI is located in nearest Brazil, 17 km south of Natal City. The CLBI supports the Ariane Program through radar and telemetry to Centre Spatial Guyanais, and Centre Spatial de Toulouse. POC Departamento de Pesquisas y Desenvolvimento, Esplanada dos Ministérios-Bloco M, Edifício Anexo do Maer, 3o Andar, 70.045-900-Brasília-DF, Brasil.

Barry, Daniel.....U.S., astronaut, STS-72, 1996/01/11 STS-096,1999/5/27. First launch 1996/01/11

Barry DD 933.....USS Barry DD 933, recovery ship, part of the fleet which recovered or was on duty and capable of recovering the following: MERCURY Atlas 6, MERCURY Atlas 8, GEMINI 4.

Barstow Tracking Station.....U.S. organization. See Goldstone Station

Bartoe, John-David.....U.S., astronaut, STS-51F (19), 1985/07/29. First launch 1985/07/29

Barton DD 722.....USS Barton DD 722, recovery ship, part of the fleet which recovered or was on duty and capable of recovering the following: MERCURY Atlas 7.

barycentric.....Orbital component. Orbit around the common center of mass around which two or more bodies revolve

Base 20.....China, space vehicle launch facility, see Jiuquan or Shuang Cheng-Tzu.

Base 25.....China, space vehicle launch facility, see Taiyuan.

Base 26.....China, organization, Xian Satellite Monitor and Control Center (XSCC)

Base 27.....China, space vehicle launch facility, see Xichang.

Basilone DD 894.....USS Basilone DD 894, recovery ship, part of the fleet which recovered or was on duty and capable of recovering the following: GEMINI AGENA 6.

BATSAT.....U.S., satellite, communications. Test payload for Teledesic Communications. BROADBAND ADVANCED TECHNOLOGY SATELLITE. Also known as TELEDISC F1. Launched by Orbital Sciences. First launch 1998/02/26

Baturin, Yuri.....Russia, cosmonaut, SOYUZ TM 28, 1998/08/13, SOYUZ TM 32,2001/4/28. First launch 1998/08/13

Baudry, Patrick.....France, astronaut, STS-51G (18), 1985/06/17. First launch 1985/06/17

BAUMANETS.....Russia, satellite, technology. student satellite from the MGTU (Moskovskiy Gosudarstvenniy Tekhnicheskiy Universitet) in N.E. Baumann, the Bauman Moscow State Technical University. First launch 2006/07/26

BBXRT.....U.S., satellite, telescope. BROAD BAND X-RAY TELESCOPE on board the STS. A x-ray telescope. Launched at KSC on STS-35 into a LEO. First launch 1990/12/02

BCP-1000.....U.S., satellite bus, see Ball 1000.

BCP-2000.....U.S., satellite bus, Ball Aerospace & Technology, LEO.

BCP-3000.....U.S., satellite bus, Ball Aerospace & Technology, LEO.

BCP-4000.....U.S., satellite bus, Ball Aerospace & Technology, LEO.

BCP-5000.....U.S., satellite bus, Ball Aerospace & Technology, LEO.

BE.....U.S., satellite, scientific. BIOLOGICAL EXPLORER or EXPLORER S-66. First launch 1964/03/19

BEACON.....U.S., NASA, satellite, passive communication.

- BEACON 1 1958/10/23, ETR, Jupiter C, FTO

- BEACON 2 1959/08/14, ETR, Juno II, FTO

First launch 1958/10/23

BEACON EXPLORER.....U.S. Satellites, part of the EXPLORER series

BEAGLE 2 MARS.....Europe, ESA, scientific, Mars Lander, part of ESA's MARS EXPRESS. First launch 2003/06/02

Beam Rider.....See Guidance.

Bean, Alan.....U.S., astronaut, APOLLO 12, 1969/11/14, APOLLO/SKYLAB 3, 1973/07/29. First launch 1969/11/14

Bearing Sea.....Russia, launch complex, see Barents Sea Launch Area or BLA.

Bearss DD 654.....USS Bearss DD 654, recovery ship, part of the fleet which recovered or was on duty and capable of recovering the following: MERCURY Atlas 6.

Beatty DD 756.....USS Beatty DD 756, recovery ship, part of the fleet which recovered or was on duty and capable of recovering the following: MERCURY Atlas 9.

Beaufort.....Beaufort ATS 2, recovery ship, part of the fleet which recovered or was on duty and capable of recovering the following: SKYLAB 3.

Bei Dou.....China, means North Dipper, seven stars in Ursa Major. Two stars pointing to Polaris. In the U.S. it is known as the Big Dipper.

BEI DOU.....China, satellite, navigation, See BEIDOU.

BEIDOU.....China, satellite, navigation, GEO.. Beidou means Northern Dipper. Also known as BNTS, BEIDOU NAVIGATION TESTING SATELLITE. Part of Twin Star Navigation System. Will be a constillation of 35 satellites with 5 satellites in GEO and remaining in MEO. Planned civilian accuracy are 31 ft (10 meters) and 0.6 ft/sec (0.2 m/sec) speed. First launch 2000/10/30

Beijing Aerospace Command and Control Center.....China, organization (BACC). Beijing, China.

Beijing Institute of Spacecraft System Engineering.....China, organization, under control of CAST. Design SHENZHOU capsule. Beijing Institute of Spacecraft System Engineering (BISSE). See Shanghai Institute of Machine and Electrical Design.

Beijing Research Institute of Materials and Technology.....China, organization, provides ablative materials.

Beijing Space Technology Research and Test Center.....China, organization, assembly and test of SHENZHOU.

Beijing Special Equipment Development Institute.....China, organization, also known as BSEDI. See China Satellite Launch and Tracking Control General .

Beijing Wan Yuang Industrial Corporation.....China, organization, renamed the Chinese Academy of Launcher Technology, CALT, in 1967.

BEIJING.....China, satellite, micro-satellite, built by SSTL. Disaster Monitoring, also known as CHINA-DMC. First launch 2005/10/27

Belgium.....1) member of ESA

2) Date format day, month, year

3) Currency - Franc.

Belinda.....Uranus moon, one of 17. See Miranda, Ariel, Umbriel, Titania, Oberon, Puck, Belinda, Rosalind, Portia, Juliet, Dosdemona, Cressida, Bianca, Ophelia, Cordelia, Caliban, Sycorax.

BELKA.....Belarus, satellite, observation. Used Viktoria (Yamal) bus. First launch 2006/07/26

Bell 8048.....U.S., launch vehicle motor, see Hustler 8048.

Bell 8081.....U.S., launch vehicle motor, also known as Hustler 8081.

Bell 8096.....U.S., launch vehicle motor, see Hustler 8096.

Bella, Ivan.....Russia, cosmonaut, SOYUZ TM 29,1999/2/20. First launch 1999/02/20

Belrose Satellite Earth Station.....Australia, Belrose, organization. Main Earth Station for Australian domestic satellites.

Belyayev, Pavel.....Russia, cosmonaut, VOSKHOD 2, (DIAMOND), 1965/03/18. First launch 1965/03/18

Benjamin Staddert DDG 22.....USS Benjamin Staddert DDG 22, recovery ship, part of the fleet which recovered or was on duty and capable of recovering the following: GEMINI 10, APOLLO 3.

Bennington.....USS Bennington, CVS 20, prime recovery ship for APOLLO 4.

Bepi.....See Columbio.

BEPI COLOMBIO.....Europe, ESA, satellite, scientific orbiter and lander, Mercury Orbit. Named after Guiseppe (Bepi) Columbio. Arrive at Mercury after 2013. First launch 2013/00/00

Beppo.....Guiseppe 'Beppo' Occhialini, 1907-1993, discovered cosmic rays.

BEPPO-SAX.....Italy & Norway, satellite, scientific, observe x-rays, LEO SSO, First launch 1996/04/30

Beregovoi, Gerogi.....Russia, cosmonaut, SOYUZ 03, 1968/10/26. First launch 1968/10/26

Berezovoi, Anatoli.....Russia, cosmonaut, SOYUZ T5, 1982/05/13. First launch 1982/05/13

bergun.....German for recovery force.

Bermuda Station.....Bermuda/U.S., organization, NASA, STDN, Spaceflight Tracking and Data Network. Bermuda Station, Attention: Station Director, P.O. Box 7015, FPO, NY, NY 09560.

Berry, Daniel.....U.S., astronaut, STS-104, 2001/07/12 First launch 2001/07/12

Berry DD 858.....USS Berry DD 858, recovery ship, part of the fleet which recovered or was on duty and capable of recovering the following: MERCURY Atlas 7.

Beryllium.....Launch vehicle propellant, solid, fuel. Chemical symbol Be.

beta.....Β, β, beta, 2, Greek Alphabet.

BETA.....France, satellite, see POLLUX/CASTOR.

BG.....Launch vehicle motor, B.F. Goodrich Co. (formerly G).

Bhashkara.....India, c. 650, Indian mathematician.

BHASKARA.....India, satellite, earth resources. Also known as SEO.

- BHASKARA 1, 1979/06/07, Kapustin Yar, SL-8

- BHASKARA 2, 1981/11/20, Kapustin Yar, SL-8

First launch 1979/06/07

Bianca.....Uranus moon, one of 17. See Miranda, Ariel, Umbriel, Titania, Oberon, Puck, Belinda, Rosalind, Portia, Juliet, Dosdemona, Cressida, Bianca, Ophelia, Cordelia, Caliban, Sycorax.

Big Joe.....U.S., Atlas test rocket, launched boiler-plate MERCURY capsule. See MERCURY. First launch 1959/09/09

Big LEO.....Big low earth orbit. Satellites provide real-time voice communications as well as data communication.

BIG BIRD.....U.S., Air Force, CIA/NRO, satellite, reconnaissance, officially known as BROAD COVERAGE PHOTO RECONNAISSANCE satellites (Code 467) and 1900. Series of classified spacecraft built for the U.S. Air Force for imaging reconnaissance, surveillance satellite, using the KH-9 camera, equipped to conduct both television and radio surveillance and talking high resolution photographs. Photographs are returned via recoverable film-return capsules. BIG BIRD was also known as HEXAGON, which had Twenty launches between 1971 and 1986 from the WTR, using the Titan IIID, Titan 23D and Titan 34D. Similar to the newer KH-11 reconnaissance satellites. All launches were at Vandenberg.

- BIG BIRD 1, 1971/06/15.

- BIG BIRD 2, 1972/01/20.

- BIG BIRD 3, 1972/07/07.

- BIG BIRD 4, 1972/10/10.

- BIG BIRD 5, 1973/03/09.

- BIG BIRD 6, 1973/07/13.

- BIG BIRD 7, 1973/11/10.

- BIG BIRD 8, 1974/04/10.

- BIG BIRD 9, 1974/10/29.

- BIG BIRD 10, 1975/06/08.

- BIG BIRD 11, 1975/12/04.

- BIG BIRD 12, 1976/07/08.

- BIG BIRD 13, 1977/06/17.

- BIG BIRD 14, 1978/03/16.

- BIG BIRD 15, 1979/03/16.

- BIG BIRD 16, 1980/06/18.

- BIG BIRD 17, 1982/05/11.

- BIG BIRD 18, 1983/06/20.

- BIG BIRD 19, 1984/06/25.

- BIG BIRD 20, 1986/04/18, WTR, Titan 34D, FTO.

First launch 1971/06/15

Bigelow DD 942.....USS Bigelow DD 942, recovery ship, part of the fleet which recovered or was on duty and capable of recovering the following: GEMINI 3.

BILSAT.....Turkey, satellite, monitoring, disaster, SSO, 3 satellite constellation, including UK-DMC and NIGERIASAT-1. Also known as DMC-TURKEY. First launch 2003/09/27

BIOLOGIC EXPLORER.....U.S., NASA, satellite, scientific, study the organic atmosphere of Titan. First launch ?

BION.....Russia, satellite, scientific, LEO, 12KS. A series of Russian biological satellites with European Space Agency and U.S. NASA participation. Launched by Russia from Plesetsk. First launch 1970/10/08

BIOSATELLITE.....U.S., satellite, scientific. Three satellites were intended to study the effects of a space environment on living organisms.

- BIOSATELLITE 1 1966/12/14, ETR, TAD, Re-entry 1967/02/15.

- BIOSATELLITE 2 1967/09/07, ETR, TAD, Recovery 1967/09/09.

- BIOSATELLITE 3 1969/06/29, ETR, LTTA-Delta N, Recovery 1969/07/07, Macaque Monkey.

First launch 1966/12/14

BIRD.....Germany, satellite, earth observation, SSO LEO. BISPECTRAL IR DETECTOR. First launch 2001/10/22

BIRD-RUBIN.....Germany, satellite, earth observation, LEO SSO. See RUBIN.

BISPECTRAL IR DETECTOR.....Germany, satellite, see BIRD.

BISSE.....China, organization, see Beijing Institute of Spacecraft System Engineering.

BLA.....Russia, Murmansk, space vehicle launch facility, See Barents Sea Launch Area.

Black Arrow.....UK, launch vehicle, low earth orbit, launched only UK satellite. Stage 1, Back Night stage 1, used 4 Gamma engines. Stage 2, Black Night stage 2, used a Gamma engine. Stage 3, solid fuel motor. First launch 1970/09/02

Black Brant.....Canada, sounding rocket. Capable of carrying 40 to 200 lg payload to an altitude of 305 to 900 km. Developed in 1939. First launch ?

Black Brant II.....Canada, rocket, upper atmosphere geophysics. First launch 1960/00/00

Black Brant III.....Canada, rocket, upper atmosphere meteorology. First launch 1962/00/00

Black Brant IV.....Canada, rocket, upper atmosphere geophysics. First launch 1964/00/00

Black Brant V.....Canada, rocket, upper atmosphere geophysics. Also launched from Woomera, Australia including one launch in 1976, six launches from 1987/11/15 to 1988/03/12 to study Super Nova 1987A (there may have been up to Five more). Another six launches between 1995/10/25 and 1995/11/21 (seven were planned). - Launch Cosray 75, 1976/11/10

- Launch CB09/1, 1987/11/15.

- Launch CB10/1, 1987/11/19.

- Launch CB11/1, 1987/12/05.

- Launch CB12/1, 1988/02/17.

- Launch CB13/1, 1988/02/29.

- Launch CB14/1, 1988/03/12.

- Launch 1995-1, 1995/10/25.

- Launch 1995-2, 1995/10/29.

- Launch 1995-3, 1995/11/06.

- Launch 1995-4, 1995/11/15.

- Launch 1995-5, 1995/11/20.

- Launch 1995-6, 1995/11/21.

First launch 1964/00/00

Black Brant VIII.....Canada, rocket, upper atmosphere geophysics. First launch 1975/00/00

Black Brant X.....Canada, rocket, upper atmosphere geophysics. First launch 1981/00/00

Black Knight.....UK, rocket, upper atmosphere reentry. Also launched from Woomera Australia. First launch 1958/00/00

BLACK KNIGHT.....UK, satellite. See PROSPERO.

BLACK SPHERE.....U.S., satellite. First launch 1962/12/13

BlackBird.....Germany, satellite bus, Kayser-Threde, Micro satellites.

Blackburn.....Europe, aerospace company, became part English Electric in 1960.

Bladislav Volkov.....Russia, tracking ship. See also tracking ships.

Blaha, John.....U.S., astronaut, STS-29, 1989/03/13, STS-33, 1989/11/22, STS-43, 1991/08/02, STS-58, 1993/10/18, STS-79, 1996/09/16. First launch 1989/03/13

Blandy DD 943.....USS Blandy DD 943, recovery ship, part of the fleet which recovered or was on duty and capable of recovering the following: MERCURY Atlas 6, GEMINI 4.

BLMIT.....China, satellite, disaster monitoring, part of Surrey Satellite Technology Disaster Monitoring Constellation. First launch 2005/10/00

Block.....Russia, rough translation from the Russian Blok, meaning stage.

Block A.....Russia, see Soyuz launch vehicle, Stage 2 central sustainer of the R-7 launch vehicle.

Block B.....Russia, see Soyuz launch vehicle, Stage 1.

Block D.....Russia, launch vehicle stage. The D is for the stage 5 used on the N-1 lunar launch vehicle, D being the 5th letter in the Cyrillic alphabet. The letter M is for modernized. Used on the Proton, Zenit. Block D deep space, block DM Earth orbit.

- D, 11S824, used 11D58 engine.

- D-1,11S824M, used upgrade 11D58 engine

- D-2, 11S824F, similar to Block D-1.

- DM, 11S86, similar to Block D-1, with onboard avionics.

- DM-2, 11S861, Similar to Block DM with improved guidance.

- DM-2M, 11S861-01, Similar to block DM-2 but modified for heavier payloads.

- DM-5, 17S40, modified for heavier payloads.

- DM1, 8K82K, 11S861, commercial, same as Block DM-2 with Saab payload adapter.

- DM2, 8K82K, 117S40, Variation of Block DM-5 with IRIDIUM dispenser.

- DM3, 8K82K,11S861-01, variation of Block DM-2M with Saab payload adapter for BSS601 payloads.

- DM4, 8K82K, 11S861-01, similar to DM-2M with Saab adapter for FS-1300 payloads.

- DM-SL, modification of Block DM upper stage for use on Sea Launch Zenit.

Block DM-SL.....Russia, launch vehicle motor, uses 11D58M engine. Used on Zenit launch vehicle.

Block G.....Russia, see Soyuz launch vehicle, Stage 1.

Block I.....Russia, launch vehicle, 8K78 Stage 3

Block L.....Russia, launch vehicle, 8K78, Molniya M Stage 4. 11D33 or S1-5400, engine with 4 verniers.

Block M.....Russia, launch vehicle, 8K78 Stage 3, used liquid hydrogen.

Block N.....Russia, launch vehicle, 8K78 Stage 4, used liquid hydrogen

Block V.....Russia, see Soyuz launch vehicle, Stage 1.

Blok.....Russia, means stage. See Block.

Bloomfield, Michael.....U.S., astronaut, STS-086, 1997/09/25, STS-097, 2000/12/1, STS-110, 2002/04/08. First launch 1997/09/25

Blue Knight.....UK, rocket, anti-missile physics tests, Launched from Woomera, Australia, Gaslight 1 program of 6 launches (1960-1961). First launch 1960/05/24

Blue Streak.....European rocket, development tests, Launched from Woomera, Australia by ELDO. First stage of the 3-stage Europa Rocket.

ELDO Europa 1-F1 1964/06/05.

ELDO Europa 1-F2 1964/10/20.

ELDO Europa 1-F3 1965/03/22.

First launch 1964/06/05

BLUEBELL.....U.S., satellite, calibration. First launch 1966/02/15

Bluford, Guy.....U.S., astronaut, STS-8, 1983/08/30, STS-39, 1991/04/28, STS-53, 1992/12/02, STS-61A (22), 1985/10/30. First launch 1983/08/30

BMDO.....U.S., organization. DoD Ballistic Missile Defense Organization. Was the SDIO. Address: Pentagon, Washington, D.C. 20301-7100.

BMFT.....Germany, organization. Bundesministerium fur Forschung und Technologie (Ministry of Science and Technology).

BNSC.....UK, organization. British National Space Center. Centre, 151 Buckingham Palace Road, London SW1W 9SS, Great Britain.


BNTS.....China, satellite, see BEIDOU.

Bobko, Karol.....U.S., astronaut, STS-6, 1983/04/04, STS-51D (16), 1985/04/12, STS-51J (21), 1985/10/03. First launch 1983/04/04

Boeing.....U.S., aerospace company, bought Rockwell's aerospace and defense units in 1966, bought McDonnell Douglas in 1996. Address: The Boeing Co., 100 N. Riverside, Chicago, IL 60606-1596 USA. Formed Boeing Satellite Systems (BSS) IN 2000/10 with the acquisition of Hughes Space and Communications. Joint Partnerships: Sea Launch: partners: Kvaerner A/S, RSC-Energia, NUP Yuzhnoye. United Space Alliance: partners Lockheed Martin. Old address: 7755 East Marginal Way South, Seattle, WA 98108, USA.

Boeing 376.....U.S., satellite bus, spin stabilized. Was the HS 376.

Boeing 376HP.....U.S., satellite bus, spin stabilized. Was the HS 376.

Boeing 376W.....U.S., satellite bus, spin stabilized. Was the HS 376.

Boeing 601.....U.S., satellite bus, body stabilized for telecommunications satellites, MEO. Was the HS 601. Also known as BSS-601.

Boeing 702.....U.S., satellite bus, body stabilized, was HS-702.

Boeing Geosynchronous Mobil Spacecraft Bus.....U.S., satellite bus, Boeing Geosynchronous Mobil Spacecraft Bus, GEM. Based upon the Boeing 702 bus.

Boeing MDO-EELV.....U.S., launch vehicle. See Delta

Boeing Satellite Systems.....U.S., company, see BSS.

Boelkow.....Europe, aerospace company, became part of Messerschmitt in mid 1970's.

boilerplates.....Research and development vehicles that simulate production modules.

Bolden, Charles.....U.S., astronaut, STS-61C (24), 1986/01/12, STS-31, 1990/04/24, STS-45, 1992/03/24, STS-60, 1994/02/03. First launch 1986/01/12

Bole DD 755.....USS Bole DD 755, recovery ship, part of the fleet which recovered or was on duty and capable of recovering the following: MERCURY Atlas 9.

BOLIVARSAT.....Bolivia, satellite, communications, GEO, for ANDESAT Corp. First launch 2003/00/00

Bolster ARS 38.....USS Bolster ARS 38, recovery ship, part of the fleet which recovered or was on duty and capable of recovering the following: SKYLAB 3.

Bondar, Roberta.....Canada, astronaut, STS-42, 1992/01/22. First launch 1992/01/22

Bonum.....Russia, aerospace company, subsidiary of Media Most, privately owned Russian media group.

BONUM.....Russia, satellite, communications, direct to home television, БОНУМ. Launched at CC by a Delta 2 into GEO. Names after the Bonum subsidiary of Media Most, privately owned Russian media group. First launch 1998/11/22

Booster.....See Launch Vehicle.

BOR.....Russia, satellite, lifting body, BOR 4 derived from MIG 105-11, similar to U.S. M2F2. BOR 5, 1/8 scale of BURAN, suborbital Flights. Also known as URAGAN SPACE INTERCEPTOR

- COSMOS 1374, 1982/06/04, Kosmos, Kapustin Yar, LEO, BOR 4.

- COSMOS 1445, 1983/03/16, Kosmos, Kapustin Yar, LEO, BOR 4.

- COSMOS 1517, 1983/12/22, Kosmos, Kapustin Yar, LEO, BOR 4.

- COSMOS 1614, 1984/12/19, Kosmos, Kapustin Yar, LEO, BOR 4.

First launch 1982/06/04

Bordelon DD 881.....USS Bordelon DD 881, recovery ship, part of the fleet which recovered or was on duty and capable of recovering the following: GEMINI 9.

BOREAS.....Europe, satellite see ESRO. First launch 1969/10/01

Borie DD 704.....USS Borie DD 704, recovery ship, part of the fleet which recovered or was on duty and capable of recovering the following: GEMINI AGENA 6.

Borman, Frank.....U.S., astronaut, GEMINI 7, 1965/12/04, APOLLO 8, 1968/12/21. First launch 1965/12/04

Borovichi.....Russia, tracking ship. See also tracking ships.

Bortinzhener.....Russia, flight engineer.

Boston CAG 1.....USS Boston CAG 1, recovery ship, part of the fleet which recovered or was on duty and capable of recovering the following: GEMINI 3.

Boudarine, Nikolai.....Russia cosmonaut,, STS-71, 1995/06/27, SOYUZ TM-27,1998/1/29, STS-113, 2002/11/24. First launch 1995/06/27

Bourn DD 846.....USS Bourn DD 846, recovery ship, part of the fleet which recovered or was on duty and capable of recovering the following: GEMINI 12.

Bowersox, Ken.....U.S., astronaut, STS-50, 1992/06/25, STS-61, 1993/12/02, STS-73, 1995/10/20, STS-82, 1997/02/11, STS-113, 2002/11/24. First launch 1992/06/25

Boxer.....USS Boxer LPH 4 (CV 21), recovery ship, part of the fleet which recovered or was on duty and capable of recovering the following: GEMINI 8. Prime recovery ship for APOLLO 1.

BP.....Boiler plate.

Brady, Charles.....U.S., astronaut, STS-78, 1996/06/20. First launch 1996/06/20

Bragi.....Norse, god of wisdom, knowledge.

Brand, Vance.....U.S., astronaut, APOLLO-SOYUZ APOLLO CSM-119, 1975/07/15, STS-05, 1982/11/11, STS-41B (10), 1984/02/03, STS-35, 1990/12/02. First launch 1975/07/15

Brandenstein, Daniel.....U.S., astronaut, STS-8, 1983/08/30, STS-51G (18), 1985/06/17, STS-32, 1990/01/09, STS-49, 1992/05/07. First launch 1983/08/30

BRASIL 1 (T).....Brasil, satellite, communications, GEO. Was ANIK 1C.

BRASILSAT.....Brazil, satellite, communications, GEO, used the Hughes 376 bus. BRASIL SATELLITE. Also known as BRAZILSAT.

- BRASILSAT 1, 1985/02/08, Kourou, Ariane 3, (BRASILSAT A1).

- BRASILSAT 2, 1986/03/28, Kourou, Ariane 3, (BRASILSAT A2).

- BRASILSAT B1, 1994/08/10, Kourou, Ariane 44LP.

- BRASILSAT B2, 1995/03/28, Kourou, Ariane 44LP.

- BRASILSAT B3, 1998/02/04, Kourou, Ariane 44LP.

- BRASILSAT B4, 2000/08/17, Kourou, Ariane 44LP.

First launch 1985/02/08

Brazil.....1) National Institute for Space Research (INPE)

2) two launch sites, Alcantara and Barrera do Inferno.

3) launch vehicles, SONDA and Veiculo Lancador de Satellites (VLS) sounding rockets.

4) date format day/month/year

5) Currency - Real

BRAZILIAN.....Brazil, satellite. See SCD

BRAZILSAT.....Brazil, satellite, communications, See BRASILSAT.

Brazzaville.....Congo, organization. Location 40 S, 150 E. See CNES Tracking stations

Breeze.....Russia, gentle wind. Also known as Briz. ВЕТЕРК

Breeze KM.....Russia, launch vehicle stage, uses, S5.98 engine with 11D458 verniers.

Breeze M.....Russia, launch vehicle, stage, uses S5.98 main engine and 4 each 11D458 verniers, liquid propellant N2O4/UDMH.

Breguet.....Europe, aerospace company, joined by m. Dassault in 1970 to become Dassault Aviation in 1970.

BREMSAT.....German, satellite, scientific, launched by U.S. Space Shuttle, measure heat conductivity, the density and distribution of micrometeorites and dust at low Earth orbit. University of BREMEN SATELLITE launched at KSC by STS-60. First launch 1994/02/09

Bretigny sur Orne.....France, organization. 490 N, 20 E. See CNES Tracking stations.

Bridges, Roy.....U.S., astronaut, STS-51F (19), 1985/07/29. First launch 1985/07/29

Bristol.....Europe, aerospace company, became part British Aircraft Crop. in 1965.

British Aerospace.....UK, aerospace company. Purchased Marconi Electronics (MEC) in 1999 from General Electric Corporation(UK) (GEC). Was British Aircraft Corp., became British Aerospace (BAe) in 1995 after joining with Hadley Page.

British Aircraft Corp......Europe, aerospace company, became part British Aerospace in 1985 after being joined by Hadley Page. Address: Lancaster Houre, PO Box 87, Farnborough, Hampshire GU14 6YU, United Kingdom.

British Interplanetary Society.....UK, organization. BIS 27/29 South Lambeth Road, London, SW8 1SZ, England. Publishes Spaceflight.

British National Space Center.....UK, organization. See BNSC.


Briz.....Russia, gentle wind. See also Breeze.


Broadband LEO.....Broadband low earth orbit. Also known as Mega LEO. Satellites provide real-time data communication for computer networks and voice communication.


Broadcasting Satellite Systems Corp......Japan, aerospace company, commercial satellite communications, BSAT, BS-3N. Address: Parkside Yamamoto Kan, 1-16-4, Tomigaya, Shibnya-ku, Tokyo 151, Japan.

Brown, Curtis.....U.S., astronaut, STS-047, 1992/09/12, STS-066, 1994/11/30, STS-077, 1996/05/19, STS-085, 1997/08/07, STS-095, 1988/10/29, STS-103, 1999/12/19. First launch 1992/09/12

Brown, David.....U.S., astronaut, STS-107, 2003/01/16. First launch 2003/01/16

Brown, Mark.....U.S., astronaut, STS-28, 1989/08/08, STS-48, 1991/09/12. First launch 1989/08/08

Brownson.....USS Brownson, recovery ship, part of the fleet which recovered or was on duty and capable of recovering the following: MERCURY Atlas 6.

BS.....Japan, NASDA, satellite, communications. BS for BROADCAST SATELLITES is Japan's direct broadcast satellite series. It is intended to broadcast television directly to the home. Yuri means lily in Japan.

- BSE 1978/04/07, ETR, Delta, 53.4.8 (Emperor) YURI 1 (BROADCAST SATELLITE EXPERIMENTAL).

- BS 2A 1984/01/23, Tanegashima, N-2, 59.1.23 (Emperor Date) YURI 2A.

- BS 2B 1986/02/12, Tanegashima, N-2, 61.2.12 (Emperor Date) YURI 2B.

- BS 3A 1990/08/28, Tanegashima, H-1, 2.8.28 (Emperor Date).

- BS 3X 1990/02/22, Kourou, Ariane 4, 2.2.22 (Emperor Date), FTO. YURI 3A.

- BS 3B 1991/08/25, Tanegashima, H-1, 3.8.25 (Emperor Date), YURI 3B.

- BS 3N 1994/07/08, Kourou, Ariane 44, 6.7.8 (Emperor Date).

First launch 1978/04/07

BSAT.....Japan, satellite, direct broadcast TV, GEO. BROADCAST SATELLITE.

- BSAT 1A, 1997/04/16, Kourou, Ariane 44LP V, GEO.

- BSAT B, 1998/04/28, Kourou, Ariane 4 (V108), GEO

- BSAT 2A, 2001/03/10, Pegasus.

- BSAT 2B, 2001/07/12, Ariane, launch failure.

First launch 1997/04/16

BSB.....Great Britain, satellite, communications. BRITISH SATELLITES BROADCASTING. Two communications satellites have been launched to provide high-power direct broadcast signals to the United Kingdom users with antennas as small as 0.3 m. The high power satellites were built by Hughes. Also known as MARCOPOLO.

- BSB-1 1989/08/27, KSC, Delta 1, MARCOPOLO-1.

- BSB-2 1990/08/17, KSC, Delta 2, MARCOPOLO-2.

First launch 1989/08/27

BSE.....Japan, satellite. See BS (YURI) Satellite

BSEDI.....China, organization, known as Beijing Special Equipment Development Institute. See China Satellite Launch and Tracking Control General.

BSS.....U.S., company, Boeing Satellite Systems, part of Boeing, was Hughes Space & Communications.

BSS-376HP.....U.S. satellite bus, see Boeing-376HP, HS-376HP

BSS-601.....U.S. satellite bus, see Boeing-601, HP-601.

BSS-702.....U.S. satellite bus, see Boeing-702, HS702.

BUC.....U.S. organization. See NASA STDN tracking station, Buckhorn, CA. Closed.

Buchli, James.....U.S., astronaut, STS-51C (15), 1985/01/24, STS-61A (22), 1985/10/30, STS-29, 1989/03/13, STS-48, 1991/09/12. First launch 1985/01/24

Buckhorn Lake.....U.S., organization, NASA, STDN Tracking Station, Attn: Station Dir., PO Box 128, Edwards, CA 99707.

Budarin, Nikolai .....Russia, cosmonaut, see Boudarine

BULGARIA.....Russia, satellite, scientific, ionospheric and magnetospheric research.

- BULGARIA 1300, 1981/08/07, Plesetsk, SL-3, INTERKOSMOS 22, 11F65.

First launch 1981/08/07

Bumper.....Germany/U.S., rocket, two stage, upper atmosphere development. Combined a V-2 with Wac corporal. First launch 1948/00/00

Bundesministerium fur Forschung und Technologie.....Germany, organization. See BMFT.

buran.....Russia, means snowstorm.

BURAN.....Russia, satellite, reusable orbital space shuttle. Earlier names were KOSMOLJOT, RAKETOPLAN, and ALBATROS.

- BURAN 1, 1988/11/15, Tyuratam, SL-17, landed Baikonur Cosmodrom, 1988/11/15.

First launch 1988/11/15

Burbank, Daniel C......U.S., astronaut, STS-106, 2000/09/08, STS-115, 2006/09/09. First launch 2000/9/8

Burlak.....Russia, launch vehicle. air launch. Changed to Diana-Burlak. Also known as Borurlak.

Bursch, Daniel.....U.S., astronaut, STS-51, 1993/09/12, STS-68, 1994/09/30, STS-77, 1996/05/19, Expedition 4, 2001/12/05. First launch 1993/09/12

bus.....See satellite bus.

Bykovshy, Valeri.....Russia, cosmonaut, VOSTOK 5 (HAWK), 1963/06/14, SOYUZ 22, 1976/09/15, SOYUZ 31, 1978/08/26. First launch 1963/06/14

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Updated 2007/2/01