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C

c.....See linear eccentricity.

C.....Roman number for 100.

C.....U.S. early designation for Keyhole cameras.

C.....China or Chinese

C band.....Electromagnetic frequencies between 4 to 8 GHZ. See band.

C/NOFS.....U.S., satellite, forecast ionosphere and radio waves scintillations which adversely affects communication satellite signals. Help prevents communication and navigation outages. Built by Spectrum Astro.

C.H. Roan DD 853.....USS C.H. Roan DD 853, recovery ship, part of the fleet which recovered or was on duty and capable of recovering the following: GEMINI 12.

C.R. Ware.....USS C.R. Ware, recovery ship, part of the fleet which recovered or was on duty and capable of recovering the following: GEMINI 2.

C-1.....Russia, launch vehicle. 3000 lbs (1350 kg) LEO. See SL or Kosmos-large, Sheldon Name C-1.

C12.....India, launch vehicle motor, see GS3.

C12H14(ONO2)6O4.....Launch vehicle propellant, solid, double base, see Nitrocellulose.

C2H5OH.....Launch vehicle propellant, liquid, Ethyl Alcohol.

C3H5(ONO2)3.....Launch vehicle propellant, solid, double base, see Nitroglycerin.

C5M.....Russia/Ukraine, launch vehicle, Tsyklon 3 stage 3, uses RD-861 motor.

CA.....Launch vehicle motor, Continental Aviation And Engineering Corp.

Cabana, Robert.....U.S., astronaut, STS-41, 1990/10/06, STS-53, 1992/12/02, STS-65, 1994/07/08, STS-088, 1998/12/16. First launch 1990/10/06

CAJUN.....U.S. sounding rocket, Upper stage of Nike-Cajun solid propellant.

CAKRAWARTA.....Indonesia, satellite, communications. See INDOSTAR

CAL BALLOON.....U.S., satellite, calibration, see S73-7.

CALEB.....U.S., satellite, technology. Air launched satellite by NOTS at Inyokern, CA. Satellite orbit unconfirmed. First launch 1960/07/28

CALIPSO.....U.S. NASA, France, CNS, weather satellite, cloud aerosol Lidar and infrared path finder observer. CLOUD AEROSOL LIDAR AND INFRARED PATHFINDER SATELLITE OBSERVATIONS. Fly in formation called AQUA-train, A-TRAIN., includes AQUA, AURA, CLOUDSAT, PARASOL, ORBITING CARBON OBSERVATORY. Uses Proteus Bus. SS LEO. First launch 2006/04/28

Callisto.....Jupiter moon, one of 16. See also Metis, Adrastea, Amalthea, Thebe, Io, Europa, Ganymede, Callisto, Leda, Sinope, Himalia, Lysithea, Elara, Ananke, Carme, Pasiphae.

Caloosahatchee AO 98.....USS Caloosahatchee AO 98, recovery ship, part of the fleet which recovered or was on duty and capable of recovering the following: GEMINI 8.

CALPOLY CP.....U.S., satellite, technology, picosatellite that is a cubesat. First launch 2006/07/26

CALSPHERE.....U.S., satellite, anti-satellite. At lease five small spacecraft developed jointly by the U.S. Air Force and Navy to be used to destroy enemy satellites. Also known as DRAGSHPERE.

- CALSPHERE 1A, 1962/12/13, Vandenberg, Thor Agena D, FTO.

- CALSPHERE 2, 1964/10/06, Vandenberg, Thor Agena D, LEO.

- CALSPHERE 1, 1964/10/06, Vandenberg, Thor Agena D, LEO.

- CALSPHERE 4A, 1965/08/13, Vandenberg, Thor Burner, LEO.

- CALSPHERE 3, 1971/02/17, Vandenberg, Thor Burner, LEO.

- CALSPHERE 4, 1971/02/17, Vandenberg, Thor Burner, LEO.

- CALSPHERE 5, 02/171/971, Vandenberg, Thor Burner, LEO.

First launch 1964/10/06

CALT.....China, organization. See China Academy of Launch Vehicle Technology or the Chinese Academy of Launcher Technology.

CaLV.....U.S., launch vehicle. Cargo Launch Vehicle, derived from the NASA STS RSRM.

Calypso.....Saturn moon, one of 19. See Prometheus, Pandora, Atlas, Epimetheus, Janus, Mimas, Helene, Enceladus, Tethys, Calypso, Telesto, Dione, Pan, 1995-S4, Rhea, Titan, Hyperion, Laptus, Phoebe.

Camarda, Charles.....U.S., astronaut, STS-114, 2005/07/26. First launch 2005/07/26

Cambria APA 36.....USS Cambria APA 36, recovery ship, part of the fleet which recovered or was on duty and capable of recovering the following: APOLLO 7.

CAMEO.....U.S., satellite, name for NIMBUS 7. See NIMBUS

Cameron, Ken.....U.S., astronaut, STS-37, 1991/04/05, STS-56, 1993/04/08, STS-74, 1995/11/12. First launch 1991/04/05

Camp Cook.....U.S., space vehicle launch facility. First operational USAF missile training base, later renamed Vandenberg Air Force Base.

CAN.....U.S. & Australia, organization. STDN tracking station. See STDN.

CAN X-1.....Canada, satellite, imaging, altitude determination. First launch 2003/06/30

CANADA TARGET ASSEMBLY.....Canada, satellite. See CTA

CANADARM.....Canada, satellite, part of ISS. First launch 2001/04/19

Canadian Space Agency.....Canada, organization. Place Air Canada, 500 René-Lévesque Boulevard West, Montreal, Quebec, H2Z 1Z7, Canada. Also known as CSA. POC for Churchill Research Range.

CANARY BIRD.....U.S., satellite, see ATLANTIC.

Canaveral.....U.S., space vehicle launch facility, see Cape Canaveral Air Force Station.

Canberra Deep Space Communication Complex.....Australia/USA, Canberra, organization, was the location of NASA tracking stations, Tidbinbilla, Orroral Valley (closed) and Honeysuckle Creek (relocated to Tidbinbilla). Now consists of DSS33, DSS34, DSS42, DSS43, DSS45, DSS46, IMP - 8 and GPS. PO Box 4350 Kingston ACT 2604 AUSTRALIA

Canberra tracking station.....Australia, Canberra, organization, location of NASA tracking stations, part of the NASA Deep Space Network (DSN). Part of the Tidbinbilla Complex, See Canberra Deep Space Communication Complex.

Cancer.....Astrological Sign, Crab, 6/21-7/22.

Candra.....India (Brahmic), moon god.

CANEX.....Canada, satellite, CANADA EXPERIMENT. See CTA.

Canisteo AO 99.....USS Canisteo AO 99, recovery ship, part of the fleet which recovered or was on duty and capable of recovering the following: GEMINI 12.

CANNONBALL.....U.S. Satellite, calibration. Launched at the WTR by an Atlas F. Part of a multi satellite launch. First launch 1971/08/07

CANX.....Canada, satellite, technology development, LEO Sun-sync. First launch 2003/06/30

CANYON.....U.S., NSA/Air Force sigint satellite, reconnaissance, also known as Program 827. Higher quasi geostationary orbits than FERRET, for better signal monitoring.

- CANYON 1, 1968/08/06, ETR, Atlas Agena D.

- CANYON 2, 1969/04/12, ETR, Atlas Agena D.

- CANYON 3, 1970/09/01, ETR, Atlas Agena D.

- CANYON 4, 1971/12/04, ETR, Atlas Agena D, FTO.

- CANYON 5, 1972/12/20, ETR, Atlas Agena D.

- CANYON 6, 1975/06/18, ETR, Atlas Agena D.

- CANYON 7, 1977/05/23, ETR, Atlas Agena D.

First launch 1968/08/06

Cape Canaveral.....U.S., space vehicle launch facility. Cape Canaveral Air Force Station (CCAFS). See also Eastern Range. U.S. long range proving ground activated. 1949/10/01

Cape Canaveral Air Station.....U.S., space vehicle launch facility. Launch site for unmanned spacecraft, rockets and missiles. Part of the Eastern Range.

- pre 1962 Air Force Reservation, Cape Canaveral existed.

- pre 1962 Port Canaveral existed.

- pre 1962 City of Cape Canaveral existed.

- 1964 Cape Canaveral Auxiliary Air Base renamed Cape Kennedy Air Force Station.

- 1973 Cape Kennedy Air Force Station renamed Cape Canaveral Air Force Station, 1974/04/10

- 1974 U.S. Air Force renamed Cape Kennedy Air Force Station to Cape Canaveral Air Force Station.

Cape Canaveral Air Force Station.....U.S., space vehicle launch facility. Cape Canaveral Air Force Station (CCAFS). Also known as Cape Canaveral Air Station (CCAS). See Eastern Range.

Cape Canaveral Auxiliary Air Base.....U.S., space vehicle launch facility. See Cape Canaveral Air Station.

Cape Canaveral Space Port.....U.S., launch facility. Made up of the 45th Space Wing, CCAFS, Eastern Range, and KSC.

Cape San Blas Launch Operations.....U.S., launch facility, located on the west coast of Florida, U.S. 29.7o N, 85.3o W. The location is on the panhandle of Florida near the Eglin Air Force Base. The facility can launch Microstar for suborbital Missions.

Capricorn.....Astrological Sign, Goat, 12/22-1/19. Constellation.

CAPRICORN.....U.S., NRO, satellite, surveillance. Launch by an Atlas from CC into molniya 12 hr orbit. First launch 1998/01/29

Capricornio.....Spain, launch vehicle, 300 lbs (140 kg), LEO. Cancelled in 1999.

Carboxyl-terminated poloybutadiene.....Launch vehicle propellant, solid, fuel, also known as CTPB. CTPB’s typical formulation is CTPB + AP + Al + small amounts of additives, Is up to 265. See Solid propellant for more information.

Carey, Duane G......U.S., astronaut, STS-109, 2002/03/01 First launch 2002/03/01

Cargo Launch Vehicle.....U.S., launch vehicle. See CaLV.

CARIB.....Caribbean, satellite, communications, direct broadcast satellite. See CARIBSTAR.

CARIBSTAR.....U.S., satellites, communications, operated by WorldSpace for Caribbean markets. CARIBBEAN STAR (satellite). Renamed AMERISTAR.

Carme.....Jupiter moon, one of 16. See also Metis, Adrastea, Amalthea, Thebe, Io, Europa, Ganymede, Callisto, Leda, Sinope, Himalia, Lysithea, Elara, Ananke, Carme, Pasiphae.

Carnarvon tracking station.....Australia/USA, Carnarvon, organization. NASA tracking station operated by Australian staff. Used to track some Woomera launches. A series of HAD rockets were launched in 1964.

Carpenter DD 825.....USS Carpenter DD 825, recovery ship, part of the fleet which recovered or was on duty and capable of recovering the following: APOLLO 4, APOLLO 6, APOLLO 10, APOLLO 14.

Carpenter, Scott.....U.S., astronaut, MERCURY Atlas 7, 1962/05/24. First launch 1962/05/24

Carr, Jerry.....U.S., astronaut, APOLLO/SKYLAB 4, 1973/11/16. First launch 1973/11/16

carrier.....porte-avions (Fr), flugzeugträger (D).

Carrier Rocket Technology Research Institute.....China, organization. See China Carrier Rocket Technology Research Institute.

CART.....China, organization. See China Academy of Rocket Technology.

Carter, Manley.....U.S., astronaut, STS-33, 1989/11/22. First launch 1989/11/22

CARTOSAT.....India, satellite, remote sensing. 3 satellite constellation with RESOURCE SAT. Also known as IRS-P5. First launch 2005/05/05

CARTWHEEL.....France, satellite, scientific, interferometer, microsatellite.

CAS.....U.S., satellite, see CASSINI.

CAS.....China, organization. China Academy of Science. Responsible for space science.

Casa.....Europe, aerospace company, took over Hispano in 1970 and Aisa in 1990. Address: Space Division, Construcciones Aeronautics, S.A., Arda.de Aragon 404, Madrid 28022, Spain.

CASC.....China, aerospace company. China Aerospace Corporation, formed June 1993 as the main entity to manage the Chinese space program.

CASET.....China, organization, see China Academy of Space Electronics Technology.

Casper, John.....U.S., astronaut, STS-36, 1990/02/28, STS-54, 1993/01/13, STS-62, 1994/03/09, STS-77, 1996/05/19. First launch 1990/02/28

CASPER.....U.S., satellite, manned spacecraft APOLLO 16, CSM-113. Launched by Saturn 5 at KSC. CDR John Young, LMP Charles Duke, CMP Thomas Mattingly. LA 1972/04/16, LL 1972/04/20, LF 1972/04/23, R 1972/04/27, PRS U.S.S. Ticonderoga (CVS-14). First launch 1972/04/16

Cassini.....Gian Domenico Cassini,1625-1712, observed Saturn's rings.

CASSINI/HUYGENS.....U.S./ESA satellite, scientific, Saturn orbiter and Titan atmosphere probe. A joint NASA/ESA project designed to accomplish an exploration of the Saturn system with its Cassini Saturn Orbiter and Huygens Titan Probe. The Cassini mission is named for Jean Dominique Cassini (1625-1712), the first director of the Paris Observatory, who discovered several of Saturn's satellites and the major division in its rings. The Titan atmospheric entry probe is named for the Dutch physicist Christiaan Huygens (1629-1695), who discovered Titan and first described the true nature of Saturn's rings.. Also known as MM2.S

Planned mission events:

Launch, ETR, Titan IV/Centaur.

- 1st Venus Flyby 1998/04/21.

- 2nd Venus Flyby 1999/06/20.

- Earth Flyby 1999/08/16;

- Jupiter Flyby 2000/12/30.

- Arrive Saturn 2004/06/25;

- Probe Release 2005/01/09.

- Probe Descent 2005/01/30.

- End of mission 2008/06/05.

First launch 1997/10/06

CASSIOPE.....Canada,satellite, scientific, detect space storms. First launch 2007/00/00

Cassiopea.....Russia, mission title for Soyuz TM-24. First launch 1996/08/17

CASSIOPEE.....France, satellite, scientific.

CAST.....China, organization, see China Academy of Space Technology

CAST 968.....China, satellite bus, developed by the Chinese Academy of Space Technology (CAST). Used on smallsats.

Castor.....U.S., launch vehicle motor, manufactured by Thiokol.

Castor 120.....U.S. launch vehicle motor, Thiokol, 1 segment, thrust 325,000 lbf (1450 kN), pressure 1450 psi (100 bar), propellant HTPB. Manufactured by ATK Thiokol.

Castor 4A.....U.S., launch vehicle motor, see Castor IVA.

Castor I.....U.S., launch vehicle motor, thrust 54,000 lbf (24.5 kN), pressure ? psi (? bar), solid propellant ? Also known as TX-33. Manufactured by Thiokol. Derived from the Sargent Missile. Used on Scout and Delta launch vehicles.

Castor II.....U.S., launch vehicle motor, thrust 52,200 lbf (232 kN), pressure ? psi (? bar), solid propellant ? Also known as TX-354. Manufactured by Thiokol. Derived from the Sargent Missile. Used on Scout launch vehicle.

Castor IIA.....U.S., launch vehicle motor, thrust 60,000 lbf (267 kN), pressure 700 psi (? bar), solid propellant CTPB. Also known as TX-354-3. Manufactured by Thiokol. Used on Scout launch vehicle.

Castor IVA.....U.S., launch vehicle motor, Thiokol, 4 are used on Atlas IIAS and Delta launch vehicles. Thrust 97,500 lbf (433 kN), pressure 691 psi (47.6 bar), propellant HTPB.

Castor IVAXL.....U.S., launch vehicle motor, ATK Thiokol, used on the H-IIA SBB launch vehicle. Thrust 141,000 lbf (630 kN), pressure 780 psi (54 bar), propellant HTPB.

CASTOR.....France, satellite, scientific and technology satellite, launched from Kourou by Diamant B-P4. See D. First launch 1975/05/17

CASTOR POLLUX.....France, satellite, two scientific and technology satellites. See CASTOR and POLLUX.

CAT.....Europe, satellite, technology, experimental. Launched from Kourou by Ariane 1, L.01. First launch 1979/12/24

CAT/THESEE.....Europe, satellite, see CAT.

CAT/VID.....Europe, satellite, see CAT.

Catalog Number.....See Satellite designation.

Catalog Number designation for satellites.....See satellite designation.

CATSAT.....U.S., NASA, scientific, satellite, SSO. COOPERATIVE ASTROPHYSICS AND TECHNOLOGY SATELLITE. CATSAT is a small on-going scientific satellite mission being developed by the University of New Hampshire (UNH) with support from the University of Leicester, UK, through the Universities Space Research Association (USRA)/NASA Student Explorer Demonstration Initiative (STEDI) program. Its scientific mission will be to study the origin and nature of Gamma Ray Bursters, one of the most mysterious astrophysical phenomenon. CATSAT will be designed, built, and operated by student engineering teams with professional staff and teaching faculty as mentors. UNH has the prime responsibility for the entire CATSAT mission. Leicester University in the UK is a collaborating university that will be responsible for the qualification and calibration of the prime Soft X-Ray detector system.

- Launch vehicle Delta II Dual Payload from Vandenberg AFB, CA.

- Orbit is sun synchronous terminator (dawn/dusk) orbit at an altitude of 590 Km (340 mile).

- Mass 170 Kg (370 lbs).

- Operational life greater than 1 year.

CBERS.....China & Brazil, satellite, earth resource. CHINA & BRAZIL, EARTH RESOURCE SATELLITE. Also known as ZIYUAN.

CC.....Roman number for 200.

CC.....U.S., space vehicle launch facility. See CCAFS, Florida.

CCAFS.....U.S., space vehicle launch facility. Cape Canaveral Air Force Station. See Cape Canaveral Air Station.

CCAS.....U.S., space vehicle launch facility. See Cape Canaveral Air Station, part of the Eastern Range.

CCC.....Roman number for 300.

CCCC.....Roman number for 400.

CCCP.....Country, Union of Soviet Socialist Soviet Republic. See CIS.

CCE.....U.S. satellite, scientific. Also known as AMPTE 1, CHARGE COMPOSITION EXPLORER. Launched at the ETR by a Delta. First launch 1984/08/16

CCR.....Canada, rocket launch facility. See Churchill Research Range.

CD RADIO.....U.S., satellite, radio transmission, GEO. See SIRIUS.

CDR.....Commander

CDS.....U.S., satellite, communications. Launched at CC by a Pegasus into LEO. First launch 1993/02/09

CEASAR.....Italy, satellite, scientific. Measures Earths magnetosphere, ionosphere and thermosphere.

CEC.....China, aerospace company, China Electronics Corporation.

Cecil DD 835.....USS Cecil DD 835, recovery ship, part of the fleet which recovered or was on duty and capable of recovering the following: GEMINI 8.

Celestial Navigation.....See Guidance.

CELESTIS.....U.S., satellite, burial. Carries the cremated remains (ashes) of deceased persons into orbit.

- CELESTIS 02, 1998/02/10, Taurus, WTR LEO

First launch 1998/02/10

CELESTRI.....U.S., satellites, communications, high speed data and video. Constellation would consists of 63 LEO satellites in seven planes and one GEO satellite. Contractor Motorola. Scheduled to be in service in 2002.

Cellulose Nitrate.....Launch vehicle propellant, solid, double base, see Nitrocellulose.

CELSTAR.....U.S., satellite, mobile communications, GEO.

CEMD.....China, satellite, remote sensing First launch 2003/00/00

Cenker, Robert.....U.S., astronaut, STS-61C (24), 1986/01/12. First launch 1986/01/12

Centaur.....U.S., launch vehicle stage. Air Force, second stage for Atlas and Titan missile, more powerful than the Agena second stage. Used to place satellites in orbit. DoD designation SSB-8 A/B, used on the Atlas II and Titan IV.

History:

- Centaur (original), Atlas. The Centaur used 2 XLR-115 engines.

- D-1A, Centaur (original) with improved avionics and payload structure, Atlas

- D-1T, Centaur (original) with improved avionics and payload structure, Titan.

- D-1AR, D-1A + reliability performance improvements, Atlas

- Centaur I, D-1AR + modern avionics, Atlas I

- Centaur II, Centaur + lengthen 3 ft, fix foam insulation, Atlas II

- Centaur IIA. used on Atlas IIA, 2 engines. Uses RL10A-4-1, RL10A-4N, or RL-10-4 engine.

- Centaur II/IIAS, Centaur II with RL10-4, RL10A-4N or RL-10-4 engine engines, Atlas IIA/IIAS

- Centaur III. Used on Atlas IIIB and V. Uses RL10A-4-2 engine, with 1 or 2 engines.

- Centaur SEC, Centaur with single RL10-4, Atlas IIIA, Atlas V.

- Centaur DEC, Centaur with 2 RL10-4, Atlas IIIB/V

- Centaur G, D-1A + 14.2 ft diameter, LH2 Tank & Forward structure, STS Shuttle

- Centaur G Prime, Centaur G with longer tanks, STS Shuttle.

- Centaur (Titan IVB), 2 RL10A-3-3A engines.

First launch 1962/04/08

Centaur.....Greek mythology, creature that was half man and half horse.

Centaur.....Constellation.

Centaur DEC.....U.S., launch vehicle stage. See Centaur.

Centaur G.....U.S., launch vehicle stage. See Centaur.

Centaur IIA.....U.S., launch vehicle stage, used on Atlas IIA, 2 engines. Uses RL10A-4-1, RL10A-4N, or RL-10-4 engine.

Centaur IIAS.....U.S., launch vehicle stage, used on Atlas IIAS, 2 engines. Uses RL10A-4-1, RL10A-4N or RL-10-4 engine.

Centaur III.....U.S., launch vehicle stage, used on Atlas IIIB and V. Uses RL10A-4-2 engine, with 1 or 2 engins.

Centaur IIIA.....U.S., launch vehicle stage, used on Atlas IIIA, 2 engines. Uses RL10A-4-1 engine.

Centaur SEC.....U.S., launch vehicle stage. See Centaur.

center.....station (Fr), station (D).

Center for Program Studies.....Russia, organization, TsPI, 84/32, Profsoyuznaya ul., 117810 Moscow, Telephone: (7 095) 429-5311, FAX:(7 095) 420-2275. TSPI was organized to study the use of computer modeling for the problems of global safety, including problems related to asteroid hazards and the contamination of the near-Earth space. Research and development of hardware and software for information systems, development of global and regional monitoring systems, and exploration of methods and means of detection and identification of near-Earth objects are the principal activities. Founded 1989/00/00.

Center for Space Science and Applied Research.....China, Beijing, organization, studies effects of cosmic radiation on human body. Center for Space Science and Applied Research (CSSAR).

Central Specialized Design Bureau.....Russia, organization. TsKB, 18, Pskovskaya ul., 443009 Samara, Telephone:(7 8462) 22-28-14, FAX:(7 8462) 27-20-70. TsKB was founded in 1959 in Samara as a branch of the Special Design Bureau, headed by S.P. Korolev for the stock production of the R-7 intercontinental missile. The R-7 became the basis for the development of middle-class launch vehicles, such as "Vostok", "Soyuz" and "Molniya". At present TsKB is the leading organization for creating space facilities for the national control, global information automatic space systems for Earth remote sensing and space complexes for studies in microgravity and space material sciences, space biology and medicine, astrophysics and nuclear physics. Founded 1959/00/00.

Centre Spatial Guyanais.....Guiana, space vehicle launch facility. Also known as CSG. See Guiana Space Center.

Centro de Lançamento de Barreria do Inferno.....Brazil, organization. RN -63, KM 11, Caixa Posta 640, 59150-000-Natal-RN Brasil. Technical information for Barreria do Inferno launch site.

Centro de Lançamento de Alcantara.....Brazil, organization. CEP:65.5250-00 Alceantara-MA Brasil. Technical information for Alcantara launch site.

Centro Italiano Ricerche Aerospaziali.....Italy, aerospace company, see CIRA.

CEP.....U.S., satellite, see CEPE.

CEPE.....U.S., satellite, Also known as CEP. First launch 1970/12/11

Ceres.....Roman, goddess of fertility.

CERES.....Hungary, satellite, direct broadcast TV, GEO, CENTRAL EUROPE REGIONAL COMMUNICATION

SATELLITE.

Cerise.....France, Cherry.

CERISE.....France, satellite, CARACTERISATION DE L'EVIRONMENT RADIOELECTRIQUE PAR INSTRUMENT SPATIALE EMBARQUE. Characterize Earth's radio environment. Launched from Kourou by an Ariane 40. First launch 1995/07/07

Cernan, Eugene.....U.S., astronaut, GEMINI 9, 1966/06/03, APOLLO 10, 1969/05/18, APOLLO 17, 1972/12/07. First launch 1966/06/03

CESAR.....Argentina & Spain, satellite, earth observation.

CEV.....U.S., NASA, Manned vehicle. Renamed ORION. See CREW EXPLORATION VEHICLE.

CF.....Launch vehicle motor, CFM International.

CGM-16.....U.S., launch vehicle, see Atlas.

CGM-16 D/E.....U.S., launch vehicle, see Atlas D or E.

CGRO.....U.S., satellite, COMPTON GAMMA RAY OBSERVATORY. See GRO.

CGWIC.....China, aerospace company. See China Great Wall Industry Corp.

Ch'ang-o.....China, moon goddess.

CH3NHNH2.....Launch vehicle propellant, liquid. See Monomethyl hydrazine, MMH.

(CH3)2NNH2.....Launch vehicle liquid propellant, see Unsymmetrical Dimethyl Hydrazine, UDMH.

CHALET.....U.S. CIA, satellite, signal intelligence, renamed VORTEX, was the successor to CANYON. Launched form the ETR by a Titan III.

- CHALET 1, 1978/06/10, ETR, Titan IIIC.

- VORTEX 2, 1979/10/01, ETR, Titan IIIC.

- VORTEX 3, 1981/10/31, ETR, Titan IIIC.

- VORTEX 4, 1984/01/31, ETR. Titan 34D/Transtage.

- VORTEX 5, 1988/09/02, ETR, Titan 34D/Transtage.

- VORTEX 6, 1989/05/10, ETR, Titan 34D/Transtage.

First launch 1978/06/10

Challenger.....U.S. Launch vehicle stage. Manned Spacecraft Space Shuttle, OV-99. Used on STS. Explosion 1986/01/28 killed all on board. First launch 1983/04/04

CHALLENGER.....U.S., satellite, manned spacecraft APOLLO 17, LM-12 See AMERICA CSM-114. First launch 1972/12/07

CHALLENGER.....U.S., satellite, manned spacecraft Space Shuttle, OV-99,. Explosion 1986/01/28 killed all on board. First launch 1983/04/04

CHAMP.....U.S., satellite, scientific, LEO SSO, COMET HALLEY ACTIVE MONITORING EXPERIMENT. Launched at KSC by STS-61C, part of the Space Shuttle. First launch 1986/01/12

CHAMP.....German, DLR & GFZ, satellite, scientific, LEO Polar orbit. Uses Flexbus. First launch 2000/07/15

CHAMPOLLION.....U.S., NASA, satellite, scientific, comet nucleus sample. Also known as TECHNOLOGY 4, was known as DEEP SPACE 4. First launch 2003/00/00

Chandler DD 717.....USS Chandler DD 717, recovery ship, part of the fleet which recovered or was on duty and capable of recovering the following: GEMINI 11.

CHANDRA.....U.S., satellite, telescope. See AXAF.

CHANDRAYAAN.....India, satellite, scientific, lunar polar orbit, 62 mile (100 km) altitude.. First launch 2007/00/00

CHANDRAYAN.....India, satellite, see CHANDRAYAAN.

chang zheng.....China, means long march . Also see changzheng.

Chang Zheng.....China, launch vehicle. See CZ.

CHANG KONG.....China, satellite, test, known as JI SHU SHIYAN WEIXING.

CHANG’E.....China, satellite, scientific, lunar orbit. First launch 2007/00/00

Chang-Díaz, Franklin.....U.S., astronaut, STS-61C (24), 1986/01/12, STS-34, 1989/10/18, STS-46, 1992/07/31, STS-60, 1994/02/03, STS-75, 1996/02/22, STS-091, 1998/06/02, STS-111, 2002/06/05. First launch 1986/01/12

Changchun.....China, in Jilin province. Satellite tracking stations. See China satellite tracking stations.

Changchun tracking station.....China, organization, tracking station located in Jilin province. See Xian Satellite Monitor and Control Center.

Changsha Institute of Technology.....China, Changsha, organization, study of spacecraft materials.

Changzheng.....China, launch vehicle. See CZ

chaque.....French for each.

charcoal.....Launch vehicle propellant, solid, fuel, used in smaller rockets and fireworks (black powder).   Not used in Spacecraft Launch vehicles.

Charles Ware DD 865.....USS Charles Ware DD 865, recovery ship, part of the fleet which recovered or was on duty and capable of recovering the following: MERCURY Atlas 9.

CHARLIE BROWN.....U.S., satellite, manned spacecraft APOLLO 10 (AS 505), CSM-106. Launched by Saturn 5 at KSC. CDR Thomas Stafford, LMP Eugene Cernan, CMP John Young. LA 1969/05/18, Arrives in lunar orbit 1969/05/21, R 1969/05/26, PRS U.S.S. Princeton (LPH-5). First launch 1969/05/18

Charon.....Pluto moon.

Chatalov, Vladimir.....Russia, cosmonaut, SOYUZ 4, 1969/01/14, SOYUZ 8, 1969/10/13, SOYUZ 10, 1971/04/23. First launch 1969/01/14

Chawla, Kalpana.....U.S., astronaut, STS-087, 1997/11/19, STS-107, 2003/01/16. First launch 1997/11/19

Cheli, Maurizio.....Italy, astronaut, STS-75, 1996/02/22. First launch 1996/02/22

Chelomey.....Russia, organization. Was the NPO Mashinstroyenie and OKB-52.

Chemical rocket propulsion.....Chemicals combine in an exothermic reaction in the combustion chamber, resulting in teh heating of the combustion productrs (2500o C to 4100o C)(4500o F to 7400o F). The hot gases are expanded through the nozzle and accelerated to high velocities (1800 to 4300 m/s)(5400 to 14,000 ft/sec).

CHEMISTRY.....U.S., satellite, renamed AURA.

chi.....Χ, χ, chi, 22, Greek Alphabet.

Chiao, Leroy.....U.S., astronaut, STS-65, 1994/07/08, STS-72, 1996/01/11, STS-092, 2000/10/11. SOYUZ TMA 5, 2004/10/14. First launch 1994/07/08

CHIBIS.....Russia, satellite, microsatellite, Earth science.

Chikaskia AO 54.....USS Chikaskia AO 54, recovery ship, part of the fleet which recovered or was on duty and capable of recovering the following: GEMINI 9, APOLLO 6.

Chile Station.....Chile/U.S., organization, NASA, STDN, Spaceflight Tracking and Data Network. Chile Station, Sucursal, Chile.

Chilton, Kevin.....U.S., astronaut, STS-49, 1992/05/07, STS-59, 1994/04/09, STS-76, 1996/03/31. First launch 1992/05/07

Chilton LPA 38.....USS Chilton LPA 38, recovery ship, part of the fleet which recovered or was on duty and capable of recovering the following: APOLLO 10.

China.....1) space industry brought together under the China Aerospace Corp., CASC, in 1993. Two space agencies PCA, and CNSA.

2) Launch sites: Jiuquan, Shuang Cheng Tzo, Taiyuan, Xichang.

3) Launch vehicles: Changzheng or CZ (long march)

4) Date convention: Year, Month, day.

5) Currency: (¥) RMB (RENMINBI)

6) First satellite: DFH-1 1970/04/20.

China 2nd Research Institute of Space Industry Corporation.....China, organization. See 2nd Research Institute of China Space Industry Corporation.

China Academy of Science.....China, organization. See CAS.

China Academy of Launch Vehicle Technology.....China, Nan Yuan, Beijing, organization. Principal responsibility for the design and production of the CZ family launch vehicles lies with the China Academy of Launch Vehicle Technology (CALT) and the Shanghai Academy of Spaceflight Technology (SAST), both of which belong to the China Aerospace Corporation. China, Academy of Rocket Technology (CART) and other related technical institutes are the main departments in the rocket and satellite researching and manufacturing field in China. Address ?

China Academy of Space Technology.....China, Beijing, organization, also known as the 5th Academy, Fifth Academy or CAST. Part of the China Aerospace Corporation. The SIMED joined the 5th Academy in 1962. CAST created as a working group in 1968/02/20. Became the Seventh Ministry in 1964. Originally formed 1956/10/08.

China Academy of Solid Rocketry.....China, organization. Part of the CASC.

China Academy of Space Electronics Technology.....China, organization, also known as the 9th Academy, CASET, China Academy of Space Electronics Technology. Part of the China Aerospace Corporation.

China Aerospace Corporation.....China, aerospace company, China Aerospace Corporation (CASC) is responsible for Chinese missile and space activities, including satellites, launch vehicles and ground support system. It is also engaged in a variety of civilian products such as automobiles and computer applications. The origins of CASC date to the October 1956 establishment of Military Academy 5, a specialized research organization for China's missiles and launch vehicles, which became Ministry 7 in 1964. This ministry was subsequently renamed the Ministry of Aerospace Industry [MOA]. CASC was established in 1993, incorporating the:

- No.5 Research Academy of the Ministry of National Defense,

- Seventh Ministry of Machine Building Industry,

- the Ministry of Astronautics Industry

- and, the Ministry of Aerospace Industry. composted of:

- 1st Academy, CALT, China Academy of Launch Vehicle Technology, or Academy of Launcher Technology (CALT), Nan Yuan, Beijing.

- 5th Academy, CAST, China Academy of Space Technology, Beijing.

- 7th Academy, China Space Civil and Building Engineering,

- 8th Academy, SAST, Shanghai Academy of Spaceflight Technology, (SAST), Shanghai

- 9th Academy, CASET, China Academy of Space Electronics Technology, Beijing.

- Sanjiang Space Group,

- CLTC, China Satellite Launch and TT&C General,

- HIT, Harbin Institute of Technology.,

- Academy of Mechanical and Electriacl Engineering (CCF), Beijing

- Electromechanic Technology Academy (CHETA), Haiying

- Academy for Solid Rocket Motors (ARMT), Xian

- Shanghai Academy fo Space Technology.

- Industrial group:

- China Jiangman Space Industry Company Group

- Sichuan Sanjiang Space Group

- Shaanzi Lingman Machinery Co

- China Great Wall Industry Corp. (CGWIC)

China, astronaut.....See Yuhangyuan. See also astronaut.

China Aviation Supplies Corporation.....China, aerospace company. China, purchasing arm.

China Electronics Corporation.....China, aerospace company, also known as CEC.

China Great Wall Industry Cooperation.....China, company. Point of contact for China satellite launch operations, Jiuquan Satellite Launch Center, Taiyuan Satellite Launch Center, and Xichang Satellite Launch Center. Part of the Ministry of Astronautics. Address: China Great Wall Industry Corporation,30 Haidian Nanlu, Beijing, 100080, P.R. China or GW Aerospace, Inc., 21515 Hawthorne Blvd. #1065, Torrance, CA 90503, U.S. (Also known as GWIC or CGWIC) Part of the China Aerospace Corporation.

China Jiangnan Space Industry Company Group.....China, aerospace company, part of the China Aerospace Corporation.

China Jiuquan Satellite Launching Center.....China, space vehicle launch facility, 40.6o N, 99.8o E, Ministry of Astronautics. An abbreviation often used is CJSLC, China Jiuquan Satellite Launching Center or JSLC. Previously referred to as Shauang Chen-Tse or (Shuang Ch'eng Tzu or Shuang Cheng Tzu) or "East Wind Center" is in northwest China, in Gansu province, near the boarder with Mongolia, in the Gobi desert, about 1000 miles west of Beijing. First used in the late 1960's to launch military rockets. China first attempt to launch a satellite SKW, FTO. Most launches are toward the southwest. Tracking ships are sent out into the Pacific.

China Manned Space Project.....China, Project 921. See Taikonaut, Yuhangyuan.

China Manned Space Flight.....See Project 921.

China Military Command.....China, organization. Also known as CMC.

China National Space Administration.....China, organization. Also known as CNSA. Responsible for the three launch centers: Jiuquan, Taiyuan, and Xichang. Equivalent to NASA and RKA for civil and scientific projects. Formed 1993/00/00.

China Orient Telecommunications Satellite Company.....China, aerospace company, also known as COTS or ChinaStar.

China Satellite Launch and Tracking Control General.....China, organization. Abbreviated CLTC for China Launch and Tracking Control. Manages the 3 launch centers Jiuquan, Xichang and Taiyuan, the Xian Satellite Monitor and Control Center (XSCC) with a network of 10 terrestrial stations and 3 ships, the INMARSAT tracking station at Beijing. In addition, it operates two research institutes: Luoyang Institute of Tracking and Telecommunications Technology and Beijing Special Engineering & Design Institute. It is under the Commission of Science, Technology and Industry for National Defense [COSTIND]. It provides commercial satellite launch and tracking control services. Its scope of business includes launch and tracking control of satellites for foreign countries; design and manufacture of satellite tracking, control, monitoring and display equipment; launch site construction; and sales of aerospace products and communication. The CLTC tracking network was created in 1966 by Department 701 with the participation of the Southwest Institute of electronics Technology (SWIET) of the Ministry of Electronics Industry [China Electronics Corporation]. Part of the China Aerospace Corporation.

China Space Civil and Building Engineering.....China, organization, also known as the 7th Academy. Part of the China Aerospace Corporation.

China Taiyuan Satellite Launch Center.....China, space vehicle launch facility. Taiyuan Satellite Launch Center (TSLC) Launch Site, is located in the Shanzi Province in northeastern China, south of Beijing. Location 37.8o N, 112.5o E. The location was chosen initially to provide China with domestic sun synchronous and polar satellite launch capability. The site is currently offered as a commercial launch facility for the Long March 4 launcher used by Great Wall Industry Corporation. POC. See Great Wall Industry Corporation.

China Telecommunications Broadcast Satellite.....China, aerospace company, also known as Chinasat.

China Tracking Ship.....A ship used for tracking the satellite during launch or splashdown/landing. See also tracking ships.

       Yuan Wang 1

       Yuan Wang 2

       Yuan Wang 3

China Tracking Stations.....China, see Xian Satellite Monitor and Control Center.

China Xi'an Institute of Radio Technology.....China, Xi'an, organization, specialized in spacecraft communications. Also known as XIRT, Xi'an Institute of Radio Technology.


China Xi'an Satellite Control Center.....China, organization see Xian Satellite Monitoring and Control Center. Also known as the Xi'an Satellite Testing and Monitoring Center.

China Xi'an Satellite Testing and Monitoring Center.....China, organization. See Xian Satellite Monitoringing and Control Center.

China Xiamen tracking station.....China, organization, tracking station located in Sechuan province. See Xian Satellite Monitor and Control Center.

China Xian Satellite Monitor and Control Center.....China, organization, includes a tracking station and is China's central satellite tracking and control center to monitor satellites and control the satellite launch. Located in Weinan County, Shaanxi Province, China. Xian Satellite Monitor and Control Center is also known as (XSCC), the Xian Satellite Testing and Monitoring Center XSTMC, and Base 26. The spelling varies between Xian and Xi'an. The following are tracking stations:

- Satellite Maritime Tracking and Control (SMTC).

- Yuan Wang tracking ships #1, #2, and #3.

- Changchun tracking station, Jilin province.

- Guiyang tracking station.

- Khashi tracking station, Xinjiang province.

- Minxi tracking station, Fujian province.

- Nanning tracking station, Guanxi province.

- Weinan tracking station, Sechuan province.

- Xiamen tracking station, Sechuan province.

- Yilan tracking station.

China Xichang Satellite Launch Center.....China, space vehicle launch facility. Parent organization is the Ministry of Astronautics. Early designation was Chengdu, but was changed to Xichang Satellite Launch Center (XSLC). Location 28.1o N, 102.3o E. The site is more suitable for launches to geosynchronous orbits then Jiuquan. Xichang is being expanded to launch Long March 2 and 3. Founded in 1970 and located in Mianning County of the Liangshan Yi Autonomous Prefecture, Sichuan (Szechwan) Province, is the biggest launching center opened to the outside world.

China Xichang Satellite Launch Center.....China, organization. See Xichang Satellite Launch Center.

China Xichang Satellite Launch Center.....China, space vehicle launch facility. Parent organization is the Ministry of Astronautics. Early designation was Chengdu, but was changed to Xichang Satellite Launch Center (XSLC) It is located in China's Szechwan (Sichuan) province, 28.1N, 102.3E. The site is more suitable for launches to geosynchronous orbits then Jiuquan. Xichang is being expanded to launch Long March 2 and 3. Founded in 1970 and located in Mianning County of the Liangshan Yi Autonomous Prefecture, Sichuan Province, is the biggest launching center opened to the outside world.

CHINA 1.....China, satellite. See MAO. Sheldon Designation for the first 6 Chinese satellites, China 1, 2.

CHINA-DMC.....China, satellite, Disaster Monitoring, see BEIJING.

Chinasat.....China, aerospace company, China Telecommunications Broadcast Satellite.

CHINASAT.....China, satellite. See DONG FANG HONG

ChinaStar.....China, aerospace company, China Orient Telecommunications Satellite Company (COTS).

CHINASTAR.....China, satellite, mobile communications, GEO.

- CHINASTAR 1, 1998/05/30, Long March, ZHONGWEI.

First launch 1998/05/30

Chinese Academy of Launcher Technology.....China, organization, was the Beijing Wan Yuang Industrial Corporation. Also known as the China Academy of Launch Vehicle Technology Technology, CALT.

CHIP.....U.S. NASA, satellite, scientific. COSMIC HOT INTERSTELLAR PLASMA SPECTROMETER. See CHIPSET.

Chipola AO 63.....USS Chipola AO 63, recovery ship, part of the fleet which recovered or was on duty and capable of recovering the following: APOLLO 8, APOLLO 10.

CHIPSat.....U.S., NASA, satellite, scientific. California - Berkeley COSMIC HOT INTERSTELLAR PLASMA SPECTROMETER SATELLITE. Part of NASA's university class explorers (UNEX) program. CHIPSat is a University-Class Explorer (UNEX) mission funded by NASA. It will carry out all-sky spectroscopy of the diffuse background at wavelengths from 90 to 260 Å. CHIPS data will help scientists determine the electron temperature, ionization conditions, and cooling mechanisms of the million-degree plasma believed to fill the local interstellar bubble. The majority of the luminosity from diffuse million-degree plasma is expected to emerge in the poorly-explored CHIPSat band, making CHIPSat data of relevance in a wide variety of Galactic and extra galactic astrophysical environments. The CHIPS spectrograph will be fabricated at the Space Sciences Laboratory of the University of California, Berkeley, CA. Boeing’s Delta II will be launched from Cape Canaveral, FL., with its primary payload being a Global Positioning System (GPS) satellite to be placed into a 37° inclination orbit to replace a current GPS at its end of life. CHIPSat will attach to the 2nd stage of the Delta II. After the 3rd stage with the GPS has ``spun up'' and separated, the remaining fuel aboard the 2nd stage will be used to circularize the orbit at an altitude of about 600 km (370 miles). CHIPSat will then separate from the second stage and begin autonomous operations.

- spacecraft to be built by SpaceDev, Inc.,

- launch of the Delta rocket in 2002.

First launch 2003/01/13

Chonine, Gueorgui.....Russia, cosmonaut. See Shonin

Chretien, Jean-Loup.....Russia, cosmonaut, SOYUZ T6, 1982/06/24, SOYUZ TM 07, 1988/11/26, STS-086, 1997/09/25. First launch 1982/06/24

Chrysler Crop......U.S., aerospace company. Joined Daimler-Benz in 1998 to form Daimler Chrysler.

Chrysler defense electronics.....U.S. aerospace company. Became part of Raytheon in 1995.

CHUANG XING.....China, satellite, see CX.

Chukawan AO 100.....USS Chukawan AO 100, recovery ship, part of the fleet which recovered or was on duty and capable of recovering the following: MERCURY Atlas 6, GEMINI 4, APOLLO 8.

Churchill Research Range.....Canada, launch site for sounding rockets. Also known as CCR, location 58.5o N, 93.5o W.

CIA.....U.S., organization, federal government, Central Intelligence Agency, McLean, VA, http://www.cia.gov/.

CIBOLA.....U.S. satellite, technology. Test a reconfigurable processor package against real-world phenomena such as lighning. Built by Surrey Satellite Technology LTD, for Los Alamos National Laboratory. First launch 2006/00/00

CIEL.....Canada, satellite, communications. Means sky in french. Owned by Ciel. CIEL 2, 4000 C4 satellite bus. First launch 2008/00/00

Cinetheodolite.....Guyana & ESA organization. Ariane tracking station, Kourou, Guyane

CIRA.....Italy, aerospace company. CIRA (Centro Italiano Ricerche Aerospaziali) (Itallian Space Research Center), is a joint-stock consortium Company, that was incorporated in July 1984 by the main Italian aerospace companies and the "Regione Campania" with the institutional purpose to design, build and manage the Italian Aerospace Research Centre.. Created 1984/07/00

Circular orbit.....Orbit. The orbit has the same altitude above the Earth everywhere along the orbit. Equal apogee and perigee. The orbit of one object around another, forms a circle, where the radius (r) = constant (c), and excentricity (e) = 0. Earth (m), the velocity (V) of a spacecraft orbiting around earth. A perfictly circular orbit of a spacecraft around a planet is very unlikly. See Keplers Laws.

ole4.gifFigure 15 Circular Orbit

Circular Orbit

value

A = semimajor axis

A > 0

c = 1/2 distance between foci

c = 0

e = eccentricity

e = 0

ε = specific mechanical energy

ε = -

CIRRIS.....U.S. satellite. See AFP-675

CIS.....Confederation of Independent States. Russia, Trukmenistan, Uzbekistan, Belarus, Kazakhstan, Kyrgyzstan, Armenia, Ukraine, Azerbaijan, Moldova, Georgia. Was the Union of Soviet Socialist Republics until 1991/12/25

CIS spacecraft and launch vehicle designation.....See Russia spacecraft and launch vehicle designation.

CITIZEN EXPLORER.....U.S., satellite, technology development, LEO SSO. CX-1 is the first in a series of the Earth orbiting satellites from Colorado Space Grant Consortium. It is designed, built and operated by college students. This project involves K-12 schools all over the world as ground stations, bringing space one step closer to the classroom.

city.....ville (Fr), stadt (D).

CJSLC.....China, space vehicle launch facility. See China Jiuquan Satellite Launching Center.

Clark, Laurel.....U.S., astronaut, STS-107, 2003/01/16. First launch 2003/01/16

Clark Orbit.....Named for Author C. Clark, the science fiction author, who predicted, in 1945, communication satellites in geostationary orbits. See geostationary orbit.

CLARK.....U.S. NASA, satellite, Earth observation technology demonstration. Part of LEWIS and CLARK satellite program. Was to be launched at the WTR by a LMLV-1 into a LEO. NASA cancelled CLARK satellite.

CLASSE.....Brazil/France, satellite, mobile communications, GEO. First launch 1997/00/00

Classified.....Satellite, where some of the data about the satellite is not released to the public. Also known as spy, surveillance, reconnaissance, and espionage.

U.S. classified satellites: ARGON, CANYON, CORONA, CRYSTAL, DISCOVERER, DSCP, FERRETS, GAMBIT, HEXAGON, JUMPSEAT, KENNAN, LACROSS, LANYARD, MAGNUM, MIDAS, NOSS, PARCAE, RHYOLITE, SAMOS, VEGA, VORTEX.

Cleave, Mary.....U.S., astronaut, STS-61B (23), 1985/11/26, STS-30, 1989/05/04. First launch 1985/11/26

CLEMENTINE.....U.S. DoD, satellite, technology. A lightweight demonstration spacecraft, also known as the Deep Space Program Science Experiment. It served to space qualify small imaging sensors and component technologies for future low-cost Missions flown by Department of Defense spacecraft. The spacecraft was built by the Naval Research Laboratory for the Ballistic Missile Defense Organization.. Also known as DSPSE.

- Launched toward Moon, 1994/02/03, Vandenberg AFB, Titan 2.

- Arrived Moon orbit 1994/02/19;

- Launched toward asteroid 1620 Geographos 1994/05/03;

- Computer malfunction, uncontrolled spin, returned to earth orbit 1994/05/07;

- Batteries failed to adequately charge 1994/07/20;

First launch 1994/01/25

Clervoy, Jean-François.....France, astronaut, ESA, STS-66, 1994/11/03, STS-084, 1997/05/15, STS-103, 1999/12/19. First launch 1994/11/03

Clifford, Michael.....U.S., astronaut, STS-53, 1992/12/02, STS-59, 1994/04/09, STS-76, 1996/03/31. First launch 1992/12/02

Clipper Graham.....U.S., launch test vehicle, DC-XA, renamed Clipper Graham for Lt. Gen. Daniel Graham.

- First test flight    1996/05/18, WSMR.

- Second test flight      1996/06/07, WSMR.

- Third test flight   1996/06/08, WSMR.

- Fourth test flight        1996/00/00, WSMR, fire destroyed vehicle.

First launch 1996/05/18

CLIPPER.....Russia, satellite, manned, 6 passengers, to replace the SOYUZ. First launch 2012/00/00

CLIPPER BOW.....U.S. DOD/USN, satellite, surveillance. Ocean surveillance satellite with active radar.

CLOUD AEROSOL LIDAR AND INFRARED PATHFINDER SATELLITE OBSERVATIONS.....U.S. NASA, CNS, weather satellite, see CALISPO.

CLOUD COVER SATELLITE.....U.S., satellite, see VANGUARD satellite.

CLOUDSAT.....U.S., Canada, satellite, weather. Part of A-TRAIN. Build by Ball Aerospace. First launch 2006/04/28

CLST.....U.S., satellite, see CLUSTER.

CLTC.....China, organization, see China Satellite Launch and Tracking Control General.

CLUSTER.....ESA, satellite. Multiple spacecraft mission to study the Earth's plasma environment. Launched by Ariane 5. FTO. CLUSTER II, launched 2000/07/15, HEO Polar. Named RUMBA, SALSA, SAMBA, and TANGO, and First launch 1996/06/04

CLV.....U.S., launch vehicle, see Crew Launch Vehicle.

CM.....U.S., NASA, satellite, manned. APOLLO, COMMAND MODULE. The command module combined with the service module was known as the command service module (CSM). See APOLLO.

CM.....Roman number for 900.

CMC.....China, organization. See China Military Command

CMDB.....Launch vehicle propellant, composite modified double base. See Solid Propellant.

CMP.....U.S., Command Module Pilot, see APOLLO satellite.

CNES.....France, organization. Centre Naional d'Etudes Spatiales (CNES), National Center for the Space Studies, is the French Space Agency, established in 1961. Address, CNES, DGA/S/DA, 2 Place Maurice Quentin, Paris, Cedex 01 75039, France.

CNES Tracking stations.....France, organization.

- Pretoria, South Africa, 260 S, 28 E0.

- Kourou, Guyana, 50 N, 530 W.

- Bretigny sur Orne, France 490 N, 20 E.

- Ouagadougou, Hautevolta, 130 N, 10 W.

- Brazzaville, Congo, 40 S, 150 E.

CNSA.....China, organization. See China National Space Administration.

Coats, Michael.....U.S., astronaut, STS-41D (12), 1984/08/30, STS-29, 1989/03/13, STS-39, 1991/04/28. First launch 1984/08/30

COBE.....U.S. satellite, scientific. COSMIC BACKGROUND EXPLORER. New series of astrophysical satellites for NASA, launched from the WSMC by a Delta. First launch 1989/11/18

COBRAS-SAMBA.....ESA, satellite, astronomical observation. First launch 2005/00/00

Cochrane DDG 21.....USS Cochrane DDG 21, recovery ship, part of the fleet which recovered or was on duty and capable of recovering the following: GEMINI 6, GEMINI 7, GEMINI 8, APOLLO 8, APOLLO 9.

Cockatoo.....Australia, rocket, sounding, upper atmosphere geophysics. Named after an Australian bird. Replaced HAD but had greater capacities. Over sixty launched between 1970 and 1975. First launch 1970/00/00

Cockrell, Ken.....U.S., astronaut, STS-56, 1993/04/08, STS-69, 1995/09/07, STS-80, 1996/11/19, STS-098 2001/02/07, STS-111, 2002/06/05. First launch 1993/04/08

CODE.....See AFP or Program.

Coleman, Catherine.....U.S., astronaut, STS-73, 1995/10/20, STS-093,1999/7/23. First launch 1995/10/20

Collet DD 730.....USS Collet DD 730, recovery ship, part of the fleet which recovered or was on duty and capable of recovering the following: GEMINI 10.

Collins, Eileen.....U.S., astronaut, STS-63, 1995/02/03, STS-084, 1997/05/15, STS-093,1999/7/23, STS-114, 2005/07/26. First launch 1995/02/03

Collins, Michael.....U.S., astronaut, GEMINI 10, 1966/07/18, APOLLO 11, 1969/07/16

First launch 1966/07/18

Colouls Bechar Missile Range.....France & Algeria, space vehicle launch facility. Located at Hammaguir, Algeria.

Columbia.....U.S., Geographical location, America, river that form the border between the states of Washington and Oregon.

Columbia.....U.S. Launch vehicle stage. Manned Spacecraft Space Shuttle, OV-102. Damaged during liftoff, burned up in reentry 2003/02, killed all on board. Used on STS. First launch 1981/04/12

COLUMBIA.....U.S., satellite, manned spacecraft APOLLO 11 (AS 506), CSM-107. Launched by Saturn 5 at KSC. CDR Neil Armstrong, LMP Edwin Aldrin, CMP Michael Collins. LA 1969/07/16, LL 1969/07/20, LF 1969/07/21, R 1969/07/24, PRS U.S.S. Hornet (CVS-12). First launch 1969/07/16

COLUMBIA.....U.S., satellite, communications, GEO. COLUMBIA 515 was INTELSAT 515. First launch 1989/01/27

COLUMBIA.....U.S., satellite and launch vehicle, manned spacecraft Space Shuttle, OV-102. See Columbia, launch vehicle.

Columbio.....Italy, Guiseppe (Bepi) Columbio, space scientist 1920-1984.

Columbus.....Cristoforo Colon (Columbus), 1451-1506 A.D., explorer.

COLUMBUS.....Europe, satellite, laboratory module for ISS, LEO. Also see 1E. First launch 2007/00/00

Comet.....A small body of ice and dust in orbit around the Sun. While passing near the sun, a comet's vaporized ice become its "tail"

Comet encounter, first.....First comet encounter, VEGA satellite. 1986/03/06

COMET HALLEY ACTIVE MONITORING EXPERIMENT.....U.S., satellite. See CHAMP.

COMET HALLEY OBSERVATION.....Europe, satellite. See GIOTTO.

COMET NUCLEUS TOUR.....U.S., satellite, see CONTOUR.

cometa.....Russia, Comet.

COMETS.....Japan, satellite, communications. COMMUNICATIONS AND BROADCASTING ENGINEERING TEST SATELLITE. See KAKEHASHI. First launch 1998/02/21

comint.....Communications intelligence.

Comision Nacional de Actividades Espaciales.....Argentina, organization. Also known as CONAE. Develops micro and mini satellites.

Command guidance.....See Guidance.

Command Radio Guidance.....See Guidance.

commander.....Russia, komandir (Russia).

Commercial Spaceport.....See Licensed Commercial Spaceport or space vehicle launch facility.

Commission of Science Technology and Industry for National Defense.....China, see Committee on Science, Technology and Industry for National Defense.

Committee on Science, Technology and Industry for National Defense.....Argentina, organization, see Comision Nacional de Actividades Espaciales.

Committee on Science, Technology and Industry for National Defense.....China, Beijing, organization, (COSTIND) includes the Aerospace Sector and CNSA. Sponsored SHENZHOU project. Also known Commission of Science Technology and Industry for National Defense. See China Satellite Launch and Tracking Control General.

Committee on Space Research.....U.S., organization, see COSPAR.

Commonwealth Scientific and Industrial Research Organization.....Australia, organization. CSIRO, Bag 10, Clayton South VIC 3169 AUSTRALIA, Fax: +61 3 9545 2175,

communications satellite.....Receives electromagnetic signals from Earth stations or other spacecraft and retransmits to specific parts of the Earths surface or other satellites. Signals include voice (telephone), data, facsimile (fax), and Video (Television).

COMMUNICATIONS AND BROADCASTING ENGINEERING TEST SATELLITE......Japan, satellite, see COMETS.

COMO.....Russia, satellite, navigation.

COMPASS.....Russia, satellite, scientific, LEO Syn-sync. COMPLEX ORBITAL MAGNETO-PLASMA AUTONOMOUS SMALL SATELLITE. Russian spelling is KOMPAS First launch 2001/12/10

COMPLEX ORBITAL MAGNETO-PLASMA AUTONOMOUS SMALL SATELLITE.....Russia, satellite, see COMPOS or KOMPOS.

COMPOSIT.....U.S. Satellite, Navy.

- COMPOSIT-1, 1962/01/24, ETR, Thor-Able Star. FTO.

First launch 1962/01/24

Composite modified double base.....Launch vehicle propellant, typical formulation is NG + Al, AP, KP + plasticizers + additives, Is up to 265. Also knwon as CMDB. See Solid Propellant.

Compton.....Arthur Compton, 1892-1962, studied gamma rays.

Compton DD 705.....USS Compton DD 705, recovery ship, part of the fleet which recovered or was on duty and capable of recovering the following: MERCURY Atlas 9.

COMPTON GAMMA RAY OBSERVATORY.....U.S., satellite. See GRO.

COMS.....South Korea, satellite, ocean OBSERVATION, METEOROLOGY, AND COMMUNICATIONS SATELLITE.

COMS.....South Korea, satellite, meteorlogical, oceanography, experimental communication, GEO. First launch

Comsat.....U.S., aerospace company. Address: Comsat Corp., 6560 Rock Springs Dr., Bethesda, MD, 20817, USA. Phone 301-214-3000., USA. Established by the Communications Act of 1962, to provide worldwide communications. Several communications satellite owned by COMSAT are named COMSAT. Purchased by Lockheed Martin Corp. in 1998.

COMSAT.....U.S. satellite, communications. COMMUNICATIONS SATELLITE Corporation which is the owner and operator of the COMSTAR, INTELSAT, and MARISAT satellites.

COMSTAR.....U.S., satellite, communications. Domestic communications satellites owned by Comsat General Corp. and leased to AT&T and GTE telephone companies. COMSAT STAR (satellite)

- COMSTAR 1, 1976/05/13, ETR, Atlas-Centaur, D1.

- COMSTAR 2, 1976/07/22, ETR, Atlas-Centaur, D2.

- COMSTAR 3, 1978/06/29, ETR, Atlas-Centaur, D3.

- COMSTAR 4, 1981/02/21, ETR, Atlas-Centaur, D4.

First launch 1976/05/13

Cone D 866.....USS Cone D 866, recovery ship, part of the fleet which recovered or was on duty and capable of recovering the following: MERCURY Atlas 6.

CONEEXPRESS.....UK, satellite. A robotic space tug for rescuing stranded telecom satellites. First launch 2007/00/00

Conestoga.....U.S., launch vehicle, development of booster. Space Services Inc. of America, launch vehicle. Conestoga is a two stage Aries, first stage a modified Minuteman booster, used to test components of a proposed private satellite launch vehicle. The first stage was the second stage of the Minuteman I missile.

- Percheron rocket. First launch 1981/08/05, Matagorda Island, TX.

- Conestoga 1. First launch 1982/09/09, at Rockport, TX 78382

- Conestoga 1, 1620 lbs (740 kg), LEO,

First launch 1982/09/09

CONEXPRESS ORBITAL LIFE EXTENSION VEHICLE.....Europe, satellite, see CX OLEV.

Confederation of Independent States.....Union of Soviet Socialist Republics, became the Confederation of Independent States. See CIS. Created 1991/12/25

CONQUEST.....U.S. commercial research payload, launched by EER Systems with Starfire rocket. Sub orbit trajectory. First launch 1996/04/03

Conrad, Pete.....U.S., astronaut, GEMINI 5, 1965/08/21, GEMINI 11, 1966/12/09, APOLLO 12, 1969/11/14, APOLLO/SKYLAB 2, 1973/05/22. First launch 1965/08/21

Consolidated Vultee.....U.S., company. Also known as Convair (Consolidated Vultee Aircraft Corp) Became part of General Dynamics in 1954. Developed the Atlas Launch Vehicle.

Consolidated Vultee Aircraft Corporation.....U.S., aerospace company, also known as Consolidated Vultee and Convair. See Consolidated Vultee.

Consort.....U.S., Space Services Inc. of America Launch Vehicle, modified Terrier-Black Brant sounding rocket. Address ? WSMR First launch 1989/03/29

Constant energy.....Orbital component, see Orbit total energy.

Constella.....England, satellite bus for micro satellites, Surry Satellite Technology, LTD (SSTL).

constellation.....A group of stars that make a shape, often named after mythological characters, people, animals, and things. Also used to describe a group of satellites, i.e. IRIDIUM.

Constellation.....U.S., satellite bus, Orbital Sciences Corp. LEO.

Constellation CVA 64.....USS Constellation CVA 64, recovery ship, part of the fleet which recovered or was on duty and capable of recovering the following: MERCURY Atlas 6, MERCURY Atlas 7, MERCURY Atlas 8.

CONSTELLATION.....U.S., NASA, satellite, scientific, perform high-resolution x-ray spectroscopy.. First launch 2005/00/00

CONSTELLATION OBSERVING SYSTEM FOR METEOROLOGY, IONOSPHERE AND CLIMATE.....Taiwan, satellite, see COSMIC.

CONTOUR.....U.S. NASA, satellite, scientific. Heliocentric orbit. Failed to reach proper orbit. COMET NUCLEUS TOUR. Produce spectral maps of three comet nuclei. The CONTOUR mission is timed to encounter and study at least three comets as they make their periodic visits to the inner solar system. At each comet flyby, the spacecraft will take high-resolution pictures and perform high-resolution analyses of its composition, as well as determine the comet's precise orbit. The science objectives are to dramatically improve our knowledge of key characteristics of comet nuclei and to assess their diversity. According to NASA “Current plans are for a July 2002 launch and three comet encounters:

- Comet Encke encounter: November 12, 2003;

- Comet Schwassmann-Wachmann-3 encounter: June 18, 2006;

- Comet d'Arrest encounter: August 16, 2008."

       The beauty of the CONTOUR mission is its capability to be re-targeted to approach an unforeseen cometary visitor. If any comets that satisfy the criteria should be discovered, CONTOUR needs only a six-month time frame to utilize an Earth gravity-assisted maneuver to alter its path to the new comet. The CONTOUR mission is managed for NASA by the Johns Hopkins University Applied Physics Laboratory in Laurel, MD.

First launch 2002/07/03

Control Device Institute.....China, Beijing, organization. Inertial platform and navigation equipment.

Convair.....U.S., aerospace company, see Consolidated Vultee Aircraft Corporation.

Conwy.....USS Conwy, recovery ship, part of the fleet which recovered or was on duty and capable of recovering the following: MERCURY Redstone 4.

Cony DD 508.....USS Cony DD 508, recovery ship, part of the fleet which recovered or was on duty and capable of recovering the following: MERCURY Redstone 4, GEMINI 3.

Cooby Creek tracking station.....Australia/USA, Cooby Creek, organization, location of NASA tracking station operated by Australian staff.

Cooper, Gordon.....U.S., astronaut, MERCURY Atlas 9, 1963/05/15 GEMINI 5, 1965/08/21. First launch 1965/08/21

Cooperative Research Center for Satellite Systems.....Australe, organization, formed in 1988, consisting of universities, 5 companies and 2 public entities, manufacturers satellites. Also known as CRCSS, Cooperative Research Center for Satellite Systems.

COOPERATIVE ASTROPHYSICS AND TECHNOLOGY SATELLITE.....U.S., satellite. See CATSAT.

Coordinated Universal Time.....(UTC) Also known as Universal Time Coordinate, Greenwich Mean Time (GMT), universal time (UT or UT1), Zulu (Z). Local time at zero degrees longitude at the Greenwich Observatory, England. It uses 24 hour clock. e.g. 5 PM is 1700 hours. Based upon atomic clocks. Reference point is Greenwich, England.

Copernicus.....Nikolai (Copernicus), 1473-1543, astronomer, proposed heliocentric cosmology. See also Kopernik.

COPERNICUS.....U.S., satellite. See OAO 3.

COPUOS.....UN, organization. See UN Committee on the Peaceful Use of Outer Space

Cordant Technologies.....U.S. aerospace company, was Thiokol Corp. Division named Howmet, Huck, and Thiokol. Address: 15W South Temple, Suite 1600, Salt Lake City, UT 84101-1532, USA.

Cordelia, Caliban, Sycorax......Uranus moon, one of 17. See Miranda, Ariel, Umbriel, Titania, Oberon, Puck, Belinda, Rosalind, Portia, Juliet, Dosdemona, Cressida, Bianca, Ophelia, Cordelia, Caliban, Sycorax.

Corella.....Australia, rocket, sounding, high altitude geophysics. Named after an Australian bird. Was designed to replace Aero High. Only two were fired during 1975. First launch 1975/00/00

CORIOLIS.....U.S. DOD, environmental, LEO. Mission P98-2, USAF Space Test Program for NPOESS Polar orbit. Uses Spectrum Astro SA-200HP bus. 2003/01/06

Corona.....The outermost layer of the Sun's atmosphere, visible to the eye during a total solar eclipse; it can also be observed through special filters and best of all, by X-ray cameras aborad satellites. The corona is very hot, up to 1-1.5 million degrees centigrade, and is the source of the solar wind.

CORONA.....U.S. NRO/CIA/Air Force, satellites, spy imaging reconnaissance, later involved the NRO, CIA used DISCOVERER series as code for the CORONA satellites. 145 launched between 1959/02/28 and 1972/05/25. The first 37 launches were named DISCOVERER. Starting with the 38th launch, the satellites were not named but are referred to as CORONA plus a number, e.g. CORONA 140. The U.S. Air Force used several program numbers during its existence, 162, 241, 846. The satellite used the KH cameras starting with KH-1 through KH-6. Satellites using the KH-5 cameras were named ARGON, KH-6 were named LANYARD. The program which superseded CORONA was GAMBIT. First Launch 1959/02/28

coronas.....Russia, corona.

CORONAS F.....Russia, satellite, scientific, LEO SSO. Observes the sun's spectrum during a solar maximum.. First launch 1999/00/00

CORONAS-PHOTON.....Russia, satellite, scientific. First launch 2007/00/00

COROT.....France, CNES, minisatellite. Searches for evidence of planets around distant starts. First launch 2006/12/27

Corry DD 817.....USS Corry DD 817, recovery ship, part of the fleet which recovered or was on duty and capable of recovering the following: MERCURY Atlas 9.

CORSA.....Japan, satellite, scientific. COSMIC RADIATION SATELLITE.

- CORSA 1 1976/02/04, Uchinoura, Mu-3C, FTO.

- CORSA 2 (B) 1979/02/21, Kagoshima, Mu-3C, HAKUCHO.

First launch 1976/02/04

COS.....Europe, ESA, satellite, Gamma-ray astronomy COS ?

- COS A ?

- COS B, 1975/08/09, WTR, Delta.

First launch 1975/08/09

COSCON.....Russia, satellite, mobile communications, LEO. First launch 1997/00/00

Cosmic Rocket No. II.....Russia, satellite, lunar probe, see LUNIK, LUNA, MECHTA.

COSMIC.....Taiwan, satellite, meteorology. Constellation of 8 satellites in LEO. CONSTELLATION OBSERVING SYSTEM FOR METEOROLOGY, IONOSPHERE AND CLIMATE. Also known as ROCSAT 3 , FORMSAT 3 First launch 2006/04/15

COSMIC BACKGROUND EXPLORER.....U.S., satellite. See COBE.

COSMIC HOT INTERSTELLAR PLASMA SPECTROMETER.....U.S., NASA satellite, see CHIP.

COSMICHESKAYA SISTYMA POISKA AVARIYNACH SUBOV.....Russia, U.S., & France, satellite, reconnaissance. See SARSAT.

COSMO-SKYMED.....France & Italy, satellite, very high resolution radar. First launch 2006/00/00

Cosmodrom.....Russia, space center and rocket launching installation. Also spelled Kosmodrom, cyrillic КОСМОДРОМ.

cosmonaut.....Russia, a person who has flown or is preparing to fly in space in Russian spacecraft. КОСМОНВТ. See also astronaut.

Cosmonaut Vikor Patsayev.....Russia, tracking ship. See also tracking ships.

Cosmonaut Vladimir Komarov.....Russia, tracking ship. See also tracking ships.

Cosmonaut Yuri Gagarin.....Russia, tracking ship. See also tracking ships.

Cosmos.....Russia, launch vehicle, see Kosmos.

Cosmos USA.....U.S., launch vehicle. Joint venture, Assured Space Access Inc., 301 East Chilton Dr., Chandler, AZ 85225 800 739-1843, ASAISL8@AOL.COM (USA), Daimler-Benz Aerospace (Germany), PO Polyt & Khrunichev State Space Center (Russia). Launch vehicle Kosmos Rocket.

COSMOS.....Russia, satellite, designation given to many different activities in space. See KOSMOS. First launch 1961/10/26

COSMOS 1.....U.S., Planetary Society, Cosmos Studio Inc., Solar sail spacecraft launched by Russian Navy submarine using the Volna converted SS-N-18 ICBM, launched from a Nuclear Submarine tn the Barents Sea. Sub-orbital launch. First launch 2001/00/00

COSMOS PLEIADES.....France & Italy, satellite, see PLEIADES.

COSPAR.....U.S., organization. Committee on Space Research. Established 1958/in 10 by the International Council of Scientific Unions (ICSU) for the international cooperation and coordination of space research.

COSPAS.....U.S., satellite. See SARSAT.

COSPAS-SARSAT.....Russia, satellite, search and rescue. Also known as NADEZHDA. First launch 2000/06/26

COSSA.....Australia, organization, the CSIRO Office of Space Science and Applications created within CSIRO in 1984 to coordinate Australian space activities. GPO Box 3023, Canberra, ACT 2601, Australia. see Commonwealth Scientific and Industrial Research Organization.

Cost to orbit.....Cost per pound to place a satellite into orbit:

Cost

(U.S., 2003)

Average

LEO Cost/lb

Average

GTO Cost/lb

Average

$6,916

$15,124

Median

$5,213

$11,898

COSTIND.....China, organization. See Committee on Science, Technology and Industry for National Defense.

cote.....France, quote, cost.

Courageous WMEC 622.....USS Courageous WMEC 622, recovery ship, part of the fleet which recovered or was on duty and capable of recovering the following: APOLLO-SOYUZ.

COURIER.....Russia, satellite. See KONVERT.

COURIER.....U.S. Army, satellite, communications which succeeded SCORE.

- COURIER 1A, 1960/08/18, ETR, Thor-Able Star, FTO.

- COURIER 1B, 1960/10/04, ETR, Thor-Able Star, first active repeater Comsat.

First launch 1960/08/18

Covey, Richard.....U.S., astronaut, STS-51I (20), 1985/08/27, STS-26, 1988/09/29, STS-38, 1990/11/15, STS-61, 1993/12/02. First launch 1985/08/27

CP.....Launch vehicle motor, United Aircraft of Canada Ltd.

CPAC.....U.S., satellite, burial. Launched by a Pegasus XL. First launch 1997/08/21

CRCSS.....Australe, organization, see Cooperative Research Center for Satellite Systems.

Creighton, John.....U.S., astronaut, STS-51G (18), 1985/06/17, STS-36, 1990/02/28, STS-48, 1991/09/12. First launch 1985/06/17

Cressida.....Uranus moon, one of 17. See Miranda, Ariel, Umbriel, Titania, Oberon, Puck, Belinda, Rosalind, Portia, Juliet, Dosdemona, Cressida, Bianca, Ophelia, Cordelia, Caliban, Sycorax.

CREST.....China, Singapore, Center for Research in Technology.

crew exchange.....First crew exchange SOYUZ 5 to SOYUZ 4. 1969/01/16

Crew Launch Vehicle.....U.S., NASA, Manned, launch vehicle. Uses RSRM as 1st stage. Also known as CLV. Places the CEV into orbit. Possible replacement for the STS. Named Ares I. First launch 2012/00/00

CREW EXPLORATION VEHICLE.....U.S., NASA, satellite, Manned vehicle, ballistic shape, similar to APOLLO manned launch capsule. Will carry up to 6 astronauts to ISS/Moon. Dubbed “APOLLO on steroids”. Consists of a crew capsule and a service module. Also known as the CEV. Possible replacement for the STS. Part of the Crew Launch Vehicle (CRV). Named ORION. First launch ?

Crippen, Robert.....U.S., astronaut, STS-1, 1981/04/12, STS-7, 1983/06/18, STS-41C, 1984/04/06, STS-41G (13), 1984/10/05. First launch 1981/04/12

CRISTA.....U.S. & Germany, satellite, scientific. CRYOGENIC INFRARED SPECTROMETER TELESCOPE OF THE ATMOSPHERE. Launched at ETR on board STS-66. First launch 1994/11/03

CRISTA-SPAS.....U.S. & Germany, satellite, see CRISTA.

CRL.....U.S. Air Force, satellite, scientific. CAMBRIDGE RESEARCH LABORATORY spacecraft designed for geophysics research. Also known as the GEOPHYSICAL RESEARCH SATELLITE or GEOPHYSICAL RESEARCH TARGET. Also known as ESRS and AFCRL.

- CRL 1, 1963/06/28, WI, Scout, LEO.

- CRL 2, 1964/06/25, Vandenberg, Scout, FTO, ESRS.

First launch 1963/06/28

CRO.....U.S.,satellite, scientific. CHEMICAL RELEASE OBSERVATION canister. Three canister launched by KSC by STS-39.

- CRO-A, 1991/04/02.

- CRO-B, 1991/04/02.

- CRO-C, 1991/04/02.

First launch 1991/04/02

CRO.....U.S.& Australia, organization. See NASA STDN tracking station, Orroral Valley, Australia. Closed.

Cronus.....Greece, Saturn god.

Crouch, Roger.....U.S., astronaut, STS-083, 1997/04/04, STS-094, 1997/07/01. First launch 1997/04/04

CRRES.....U.S. NASA, satellite, scientific. COMBINED RELEASE AND RADIATION EFFECTS SATELLITE, to study the earth's magnetic filed. Launched at the ESMC by an Atlas 1. First launch 1990/07/25

CRV.....Crew Rescue Vehicle.

Cryogenic upper stage.....India, launch vehicle motor, see CUS.

CRYOGENIC INFRARED SPECTROMETER TELESCOPE OF THE ATMOSPHERE......U.S., satellite. See CRISTA.

CRYOSAT.....Europe, satellite, earth observation, polar ice sheets. First launch 2005/10/00

CRYSTAL.....Russia, satellite. See KRISTALL and MIR.

CRYSTAL.....U.S. Satellite. See KENNAN.

CS.....Japan, satellite, communications. COMMUNICATION SATELLITES series, launched by Japan. Also known as SAKURA which means cherry blossom.

- CS-1, 1977/12/14, ETR, Atlas-Agena D, SAKURA.

- CS-2A, 1983/02/04, Tanegashima, N II.

- CS-2B, 1983/08/05, Tanegashima, N II, SAKURA 2B.

- CS-3A, 1988/03/19, Tanegashima, H I, SAKURA 3A.

- CS-3B, 1988/09/16, Tanegashima, H I, SAKURA 3B.

First launch 1977/12/14

CSA.....Canada, organization. See Canada Space Agency.

CSG.....Guiana, space vehicle launch facility. Also known as Centre Spatial Guyanais. See Guiana Space Center.

CSIRO.....Australia, organization, see Commonwealth Scientific and Industrial Research Organization.

CSM.....U.S., NASA, satellite, manned. APOLLO, COMMAND SERVICE MODULE. The command module (CM) combined with the service module (CS) was known as the command service module (CSM).

CSM-017.....U.S., satellite, see APOLLO 4.

CSM-020.....U.S., satellite, see APOLLO 6.

CSM-101.....U.S., satellite, see APOLLO 7.

CSM-103.....U.S., satellite, see APOLLO 8.

CSM-104.....U.S., satellite, see APOLLO 9.

CSM-106.....U.S., satellite, see APOLLO 10.

CSM-107.....U.S., satellite, see APOLLO 11.

CSM-108.....U.S., satellite, see APOLLO 12.

CSM-109.....U.S., satellite, see APOLLO 13.

CSM-110.....U.S., satellite, see APOLLO 14.

CSM-112.....U.S., satellite, see APOLLO 15.

CSM-113.....U.S., satellite, see APOLLO 16.

CSM-114.....U.S., satellite, see APOLLO 17.

CSM-119.....U.S., satellite, see APOLLO-SOYUZ.

CSS.....China, missile. Used as the first stage of the CZ (Long March) rocket, satellite launch vehicles.

- CSS-1, Short range missile. First launch 1960/00/00.

- CSS-2, IRBM. First launch 1966/00/00, first stage of the CZ-1.

- CSS-4, ICBM. First launch 1970/09/00, CSSX-4, adapted to become CZ-2.

First launch 1960/00/00

CSSX-4.....China, missile. See CSS.

CTA.....Canada, satellite, CANADA TARGET ASSEMBLY, also known as CANEX.

- CTA-1, 1984/10/05, KSC, STS-41G.

- CTA-2, 1992/10/22, KSC, STS-52. First launch 1984/10/05

CTM-16D/E.....U.S., launch vehicle, see Atlas D or E.

CTPB.....Launch vehicle propellant, solid, fuel, see Carboxyl-terminated poloybutadiene.

CTS.....Canada, satellite, communications. COMMUNICATION TECHNOLOGY SATELLITE, launched at the ETR by a Delta, into a stationary orbit. It was later named HERMES. First launch 1976/01/17

CTS.....China, launch vehicle, LM-2C Top Stage.

CUBESAT X1.....Japan, satellite, technology, engineering test. First launch 2003/06/30

CUBSAT.....U.S., satellite.

Culberston, Frank.....U.S., astronaut, STS-38, 1990/11/15, STS-51, 1993/09/12, Expedition 3, 2001/08/10. First launch 1990/11/15

culmination.....The point in an orbit at which a satellite reaches its highest position or elevation in the sky relative to the observer. Also known as the closes point to approach.

Cunningham, Walt.....U.S., astronaut, APOLLO 7, 1968/10/11. First launch 1968/10/11

Cupid.....Roman, god of love.

Curbeam, Robert.....U.S., astronaut, STS-085, 1997/08/07, STS-098 2001/02/07, STS-116, 2006/12/09. First launch 1997/08/07

Currie, Nancy.....U.S., astronaut, STS-57, 1993/06/21, STS-70, 1995/07/13, STS-088, 1998/12/06, STS-109, 2002/03/01. First launch 1993/06/21

CUS.....India, launch vehicle motor, cryogenic upper stage. Used on GSLV launch vehicle, thrust 16,500 lbf (75 kN), pressure ? psi (? bar), launch vehicle propellant LOX/LH2 .

CUTE.....Japan, satellite, technology, engineering tests, polar orbit. First launch 2003/06/30

CV.....U.S. Naval abbreviation for Fleet multi purpose aircraft carrier class naval ships.

CVA.....U.S., Navy, abbreviation for attack aircraft Carrier.

CVAN.....U.S., ship, naval, Attack Aircraft Carrier, nuclear propulsion.

CVE.....U.S. Naval abbreviation for Escort Carrier class naval ships.

CVL.....U.S. Naval abbreviation for Light Carrier class naval ships

CVN.....U.S., Naval Ship, Nuclear Propulsion Aircraft Carrier, multiservice.

CVS.....U.S., Naval Ship, Aircraft Carrier, anti-submarine warfare.

CW.....Launch vehicle motor, Curtiss-Wright Corp.

CX.....China, satellite, communication, store-dump. CX is Chuangxing or innovation. Also known as CHUANXIN. 2003/10/21

CX OLEV.....Europe, satellite, technology, CONEXPRESS ORBITAL LIFE EXTENSION VEHICLE. In orbit service vehicle to refuel GEO satellites, space tug. Intent is to prolong life of existing communications satellites. Company is Orbital Recovery. . First launch 2009/00/00

CX-1.....U.S., satellite, technology, see CITIZEN EXPLORER.

CYBERSATR.....U.S., satellite, communications. High speed multi media telecommunications satellites. Constellation will be 3 GEO satellites. Prime contractor/investor Loral. In partnership with Alcatel's SKYBRIDGE. First launch 1998/06/01

Cyberstar.....France & U.S., aerospace company, partnership with Alcatel and Loral Space & Communications.

CYBERSTAR.....U.S., satellite, communications, GEO. First launch 2002/00/00

Cyclone.....Russia, launch vehicle. See Tsyklon

CYI.....U.S. & Spain, organization. See NASA STDN tracking station, Grand Canary Island, Spain. Closed.

Cyrillic alphabet.....А, а, letter #1, transliteration a.

Б, б, letter #2, transliteration b.

В, в, letter #3, transliteration v

Г, г, letter #4, transliteration g

Д, д, letter #5, transliteration d

Е, е, letter #6, transliteration e, ye

Ж, ж, letter #7, transliteration zh, ž

З, з, letter #8, transliteration z

И, и, letter #9, transliteration i

Й, й, letter #10, transliteration ľ, y, j, i

К, к, letter #11, transliteration k

Л, л, letter #12, transliteration l

М, м, letter #13, transliteration m

Н, н, letter #14, transliteration n

О, о, letter #15, transliteration o

П, п, letter #16, transliteration p

Р, р, letter #17, transliteration r

С, с, letter #18, transliteration s

Т, т, letter #19, transliteration t

У, у, letter #20, transliteration u

Ф, ф, letter #21, transliteration f

Х, х, letter #22, transliteration kh, x

Ц, ц, letter #23, transliteration ts, c

Ч, ч, letter #24, transliteration ch, č

Ш, ш, letter #25, transliteration sh, š

Щ, щ, letter #26, transliteration shch, šč

Ъ, ъ, letter #27, transliteration "

Ы, ы, letter #28, transliteration y, i

Ь, ь, letter #29, transliteration '

Э, э, letter #30, transliteration ė, eh, e

Ю, ю, letter #31, transliteration yu, ju

Я, я, letter #32, transliteration ya, ja.

CZ.....China, Launch vehicle series. CZ, (Changzheng, Chang Zheng or Long March LM). Based upon the CSS-3, two stage missile with a 3rd stage added. Principal responsibility for the design and production of the CZ family launch vehicles lies with the China Academy of Launch Vehicle Technology (CALT) and the Shanghai Academy of Spaceflight Technology (SAST), both of which belong to the China Aerospace Corporation.

- CZ-1, LEO 600 lbs (300 kg). First launch 1970/04/24. Stage 1, 4 YF-1A engines. Stage 2, YF-3 engine, Stage 3 GF-2 engine.

- CZ-1D, LEO 1650 lbs (750 kg), GTO 440 lbs (200 kg). Stage 1, L60, YF-2A engine. Stage 2, L10, YF-3 engine. Stage 3, ?. First launch 1991/00/00,

- CZ-2, LEO 4000 lbs (1800 kg). First launch 1974/07/14,

- CZ-2A,LEO 4800 lbs (2200 kg). Stage 1, 4 YF-20 engines. Stage 2 YF-22 engine. First launch 1974/11/05,

- CZ-2C, LEO 7040 lbs (3200 kg), GTO 2200 lbs (1000 kg). Uses Stage 1 L140, DaFY6-2 engines. Stage 2 L35, DaFY20-1 main engine with DaFY21-1vernier, CTS uses FG-47 or SpaB-54 engines. First launch 1975/11/26,

- CZ-2D, LEO 6800 (3100 kg). Stage 1, 4 YF-20B engines. Stage 2, YF-22B engine. First launch 1992/08/09,

- CZ-2E, LEO 20430 lbs (9265 kg), GTO 7430 lbs (3370 kg). Uses Strap-on booster LB40, with DaFY5-1 engines. Stage 1 L180, DaFY6-2 engines. Stage 2 L80 DaFY20-1 main engine and DaFY21-1 vernier, EPKM stage 3 with FG-46 or SpaB-17 engines. First launch 1990/07/16,

- CZ-2EA, LEO 26000 lbs (12000 kg), First launch 2000/00/00

- CZ-2E/HO, LEO 29900 lbs (13600 kg), GTO 9900 lbs (4500 kg). First launch 1995/00/00,

- CZ-2F, same as CZ-2E with improved reliability to launch humans.

- CZ 2M-2F. Stage 0, LB40, 4 YF-20 engines. Stage 1 L180, 4 YF-20 engines. Stage 2 L80, 4 YF-22/23 engines.

- CZ-3, LEO 11000 lbs (5000 kg), GTO 3300 lbs (1500 kg). Stage 1, YF-21 engine. Stage 2 YF-24 system consisting of YF-22 main engine with 4 YF-23 vernier. Stage 3, YF-73 engine. First launch 1984/01/29,

- CZ-3A,LEO 15800 lbs (7200 kg), GTO 5500 lbs (2500 kg). Stage 1 L180, DaF:Y6-2 engine. Stage 2 L35, DaFY20-1 main engine with DaFY21-1 vernier. Stage 3 H18, 2 YF-75 engines. First launch 1994/02/08,

- CZ-3B GTO 9900 lbs (4800 kg). Strap-on 4 booster, DaFY5-1. Stage 1 LB180, DaFY6-2 motor. Stage 2 LB35, YF-24 system. Stage 3 H18, 2 YF-75 motors. First launch 1996/02/14,

- CZ-3C, GEO 8000 lbs (3700 kg), Strap-on 2 booster, DaFY5-1. Stage 1, DaFY6-2 motor. Stage 2, YF-24 system. Stage 3, 2 YF-75 motors.

- CZ-4A, LEO 8800 lbs (4000 kg), GTO 2430 lbs (1100 kg). Stage 1 L180, YF-21B motor. Stage 2 L35, YF-22B main engine with YF-23B vernier. Stage 3 L15, 2 YF-40 engines. First launch 1988/09/07,

- CZ-4B LEO 9900 lbs (4500 kg), GTO 3300 lbs (1500 kg)

First launch 1970/04/24

CZ-1.....China, launch vehicle, LEO 600 lbs (300 kg). First launch 1970/04/24

CZ-1DH.....China, launch vehicle, LEO 1650 lbs (750 kg), GTO 440 lbs (200 kg). First launch 1991/00/00

CZ-2A.....China, launch vehicle, LEO 4800 lbs (2200 kg). First launch 1974/11/05

CZ-2C.....China, launch vehicle, LEO 7040 lbs (3200 kg), GTO 2200 lbs (1000 kg). First launch 1975/11/26

CZ-2D.....China, launch vehicle, LEO. First launch 1992/08/09

CZ-2E.....China, launch vehicle, LEO 20430 lbs (9265 kg), GTO 7430 lbs (3370 kg). First launch 1990/07/16

CZ-2E/HO.....China, launch vehicle, LLEO 29900 lbs (13600 kg), GTO 9900 lbs (4500 kg). First launch 1995/00/00

CZ-2F.....China, launch vehicle, same as CZ-2E with improved reliability to launch humans.

CZ-3.....China, launch vehicle, LEO 11000 lbs (5000 kg), GTO 3300 lbs (1500 kg). First launch 1984/01/29,

CZ-3A.....China, launch vehicle, LEO 15800 lbs (7200 kg), GTO 5500 lbs (2500 kg). First launch 1994/02/08

CZ-3B.....China, launch vehicle, GTO 9000 lbs (4,800 kg). First launch 1996/02/14

CZ-4A.....China, launch vehicle, LEO 8800 lbs (4000 kg), GTO 2430 lbs (1100 kg). First launch 1988/09/07

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Updated 2007/2/01