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e.....Orbital component, see eccentricity.

E 3000.....Europe, satellite bus.

E-1.....Russia, satellite, see LUNA (1958/09/23, 1958/10/12, 1958/12/04, & 1959/02/01).

E-1A.....Russia, satellite, see LUNA (1959/07/18 & 1959/09/12).

E-2A.....Russia, satellite, see LUNA 03.

E-3.....Russia, satellite. See LUNA.

E-300.....U.S., satellite, reconnaissance, LEO SSO. Also known as EIS. First launch 2000/07/31

E-6.....Russia, satellite, see LUNA.

E-6LF.....Russia, satellite, see LUNA 11 and 12.

E-6M.....Russia, satellite, see LUNA.

E-6S.....Russia, satellite, see LUNA 10 and KOSMOS 111.

E-8.....Russia, satellite, see YE-8.

E-BIRD.....Europe, satellite, communications, GEO. BSC 376 bus, spin stabilized spacecraft. First launch 2003/09/03

E-SAT.....U.S., satellite, mobile communications, 6 satellite constellation, LEO, build by SSTL.

E-Systems Aerospace.....U.S. aerospace company, became part of Raytheon in 1990.

EAC.....Germany, organization. ESA Centre, European Astronaut Centre, Cologne, Germany. It was established in 1990. Responsible for European Astronaut training.

each.....chaque (Fr)., jeder (D).

EADS.....Netherlands, company, See European Aeronautic Defense and Space Company N.V. Also known as EADS ASTRIUM.

EAFB.....U.S., organization. See Edwards Air Force Base, CA,

Eagle.....U.S., launch vehicle, 3000 lbs (1360 kg), LEO manufactured by EPAC.

- S-1, 6000 lbs (2725 kg), LEO.

- S-2, 10,000 lbs (4540 kg), LEO.

First launch

EAGLE.....Russia, satellite, manned, VOSTOK 2, (EAGLE), launched by SL-3, Tyuratam, Cosmonaut, Gherman Titov, R 1961/08/07. First launch 1961/08/06

EAGLE.....U.S., satellite, manned spacecraft APOLLO 11, LM-5 See COLUMBIA CSM-107. First launch 1969/07/16

EAGLE.....U.S., satellite, see STEP.

Eaglet.....U.S. launch vehicle, manufactured by EPAC. 825 kg SSO.

EAP.....France, Ariane 5 booster. Etage d’appoint pourdre.

EAP Booster.....ESA, launch vehicle booster for Ariane 5G P230 and 5E P240.

EARLY BIRD.....U.S. Satellite, communications. Also known as INTELSAT 1, first commercial communications satellite.. See INTELSAT.

EARLYBIRD.....U.S. satellite, high resolution imagery. Owned by EarthWatch Inc. (was the former WorldView Inc. and merged with Ball Aerospace & Technologies). Launched at Svobodny by Start into a near polar sun-synchronous orbit. Satellite has with 1 meter resolution. First launch 1997/12/24

earth observation satellite.....A satellite which observes and reports conditions of the Earth and surrounding atmosphere.

Earth.....The 3rd planet from the Sun, 93 million miles from the Sun, period of revolution 365 days, diameter 7,900 miles, one satellites (Moon) no rings. Earth was a roman god. Other names for the Earth: Egypt Geb, god; Greece Gaea, god; Sumerian Ki, god.

earth1.gifFigure 16 Earth graphic symbol.

Earth.....terre (Fr)., erde (D).

Earth Observation Satellite Co......U.S., company, partners Lockheed Martin and Boeing. Satellite EOSAT.

Earth orbit.....Orbit around the planet Earth.

EARTH ORBITING SYSTEM.....U.S., satellite. See EOS.

EARTH PROBE.....U.S., satellite, scientific, earth observation.




Earth-Mars cycle trajectories orbits.....Orbit. Gravity assists maneuver using Earth or Mars repeatedly. Also known as Cyclers.

Earth-Moon-Earth.....Orbit. Communications mode that involves bouncing signals off the moon. Also known as EMR for Earth-Moon Return, and EME for Earth-Moon-Earth. See also gravity assist orbit.

EarthWatch, Inc......U.S., aerospace company, commercial satellite operator, see DigitalGlobe.

EASSIM.....France, satellite, signet, LEO. 4 satellite constellation.

EAST.....Europe, satellite, communication, GEO. EURO-AFRICAN SATELLITE TELECOMMUNICATIONS systems. Built by Matra Marconi Space, using EUROSTAR geostationary communications satellite.

Eastern Europe.....Czech Republic, Estonia, Hungary, Latvia, Lithuania, Poland, Slovakia.

Eastern Range.....U.S. launch facility. Located at Cape Canaveral Air Force Station (CCAFS), FL, U.S. on the Atlantic coast about 69 miles from Orlando, FL. 28028'N., 80034'W. Involves 3 launch facilities (Cape Canaveral Air Force Station (CCAFS), Kennedy Space Center (KSC), and Spaceport Florida) and three organizations (Air Force at Patrick Air Force Base (PAFB), NASA, and Spaceport Florida Authority (SFA)). The nearest major communities are Cocoa Beach and Cape Canaveral, FL. The Eastern Range Headquarters are located at Patrick Air Force Base (PAFB) which is 21 miles south of Cape Canaveral Air Station. Presently six active fixed launch complexes exist on CCAFS. The facility can launch Atlas, Delta, Lockheed Launch Vehicle, Taurus, and Pegasus, for low earth orbit, geosynchronous, geosynchronous transfer orbit, and suborbital Missions. Address is 45th Space Wing/XP, Patrick Air Force Base, FL 32925-5000 U.S. Equatorial launch facilities are supported by major stations on Antigua, 1400 miles downrange and Ascension 4,700 miles south. For northern trajectories, launch facilities are supported by telemetry sites at NAS Wallops Island, VA., Argentea Newfoundland, Canada, and Air Force Satellite Control Network Site, in New Boston, NH. Was Atlantic Missile Range. Renamed 1964/05/15

Eastern Space and Missile Test Range.....U.S., space vehicle launch facility. See Eastern Range.

Eastern Test Range.....U.S., space vehicle launch facility.. Early name for the Eastern Range.

ECC.....Orbital component. See Eccentricity.

Eccentricity.....Orbital component. Unitless number which describes the shape of the satellite orbit in terms of how close to a perfect circle it is. The number is given in a range of 0.0 to less than 1.0. A perfectly circular orbit would have an eccentricity of 0.0. A number greater than 0.0 would represent an Elliptical orbit with an increasingly flatted shape as the value approaches 1.0

Conic Section



e = 0


0 < e < 1


e = 1


e > 1

Ecco.....U.S., satellite bus, Orbital Sciences Corp. LEO.

ECCO.....U.S., satellite, communications. Constellation of 54 satellites in LEO. Major contractor Constellation Communications Inc. Begin service 2000.

échec.....French for failure.

ECHO.....U.S. satellite, communications. A series of spherical satellites designed as passive communications satellite to reflect or bounce, radio communications from ground stations back to other ground stations. ECHO 1, was successful and helped transmit the first two-way voice communication and television transmission via satellite.

- ECHO A 10, 1960/05/13, ETR, Delta, FTO.

- ECHO 1 (A 11) 1960/08/12, ETR, Delta.

- ECHO AVT 1 1962/01/15, ETR, Thor, FTO.

- ECHO AVT 2 1964/01/25, WTR, Thor-Agena.

First launch 1960/05/13

Echostar Communications Corp......U.S., company, commercial satellite operator, ECHOSTAR. 5701 S. Santa Fe Drove, Littleton, CO 80120 U.S.

ECHOSTAR.....U.S., satellite, direct broadcast, GEO. Built by Lockheed Martin. Owned by EchoStar Communications Corp.

First launch 1995/12/28

Eclipse.....U.S. launch vehicle. Manufactured by Kelly Space & Technology (KST).

- Eclipse Express, 90 kg SSO.

- Eclipse Astroliner, LEO, 4400 lbs (2000 kg)

First launch 1999/00/00

ecliptic plane.....Orbital component. The plane of the Earth's orbit around the Sun. The Earth's equator is inclined to the ecliptic plane by about 23o 27'.

ECS.....Italy, satellite bus, Matra Marconi Space. GEO/MEO.

ECS.....Japan, satellite, communications. EXPERIMENTAL COMMUNICATION SATELLITE, GEO.

- ECS, 1979/02/06, Tanegashima, N-1, AYAME 1.

- ECS, 1980/02/22, Tanegashima, N-1, AYAME 2.

- ECS 1, 1983/06/16, Kourou, Ariane.

- ECS 2, 1984/08/04, Kourou, Ariane 3.

- ECS 3, 1985/09/13, Kourou, Ariane 3.

- ECS 4, 1987/09/16, Kourou, Ariane 3.

- ECS 5, 1988/07/21, Kourou, Ariane 3.

First launch 1979/02/06

EDDINGTON.....Europe, satellite, scientific, search for extrasolar planets and stellar seismology. First launch 2008/00/00

EDUSAT.....India, satellite, communication, educational information, GEO. EDUCATION SATELLITE. Uses the I-2K buss. First launch 2004/09/20.

Edwards AFB.....U.S., organization. See Edwards Air Force Base.

Edwards Air Force Base.....U.S., organization. 34.5oN 117.5oW Landing site for the U.S. Space Transportation System, Space Shuttle, launch site for Pegasus.

Edwards, Joe.....U.S., astronaut, STS-089, 1998/01/22. First launch 1998/01/22

EELV.....U.S., USAF, launch vehicle, Evolved Expandable Launch Vehicle. New launch vehicle currently in the design stage.

EELV-heavy.....U.S., launch vehicle, Atlas. Evolved expanded launch vehicle.

EELV-light.....U.S., launch vehicle, Atlas. Evolved expanded launch vehicle.

EELV-medium.....U.S., launch vehicle, Atlas. Evolved expanded launch vehicle.

EER Systems.....U.S., aerospace company. EER Systems, manufacturers Starfire rockets.. Address: 10289 Aerospace Road, Seabrook, MD 20706, USA. Was SSI. Created 1989/03/29

efir.....Russia, ether.

EFIR.....Russia, satellite, Earth, Magnetosphere. Also known as 36KS.

EGNOS.....Europe, satellite, global positioning satellites, GEO. EUROPEAN GEOSTATIONARY NAVIGATIONAL OVERLAY SERVICE. First launch

EGO.....U.S., satellite, scientific. ECCENTRIC GEOPHYSICAL OBSERVATORY, HEO. One of two OGO mission. The other being POGO.

Egorov, Boris.....Russia, cosmonaut. See Yegorov

EGP.....Japan, satellite, geodetic. EXPERIMENTAL GEODETIC PAYLOAD, launched by Japan, to improve triangulation measurements. Renamed AJISAI. Also known as EGS. Launched at Tanegashima by H-1. First launch 1986/08/12

EGPM.....Europe, satellite, meterology, SSO. EUROPEAN GLOBAL PRECIPITATION MEASUREMENT. Part of an international costillation of satellites to measure preciptaion. See also GPM, MEGATROPIQUES.

EGRS.....U.S., Air Force, satellite, geodetic.

- EGRS 7, 1966/08/19, WTR, Atlas-Agena D.

- EGRS 8, 1966/10/05, WTR, Atlas-Agena D.

- EGRS 9, 1967/06/29, WTR, Thor-Burner II.

First launch 1964/01/11

EGS.....Japan, satellite, see EGP.

EGYPTSAT.....Egypt, satellite, communications and store-forward. Based upon Russia’s KB Yuzhnoye. First launch 2004/00/00

EHF.....U.S., Navy, satellite, communications. EXTREMELY HIGH FREQUENCY. Renamed UFO. First launch 1995/01/28

EHH.....U.S., satellite, ELINT HITCHHIKER, a smaller satellite that was launched with an elint satellite.

Einstein.....Albert Einstein, 1879-1955, scientist, relativity, statistical mechanics, quantum mechanics.

EINSTEIN.....U.S., satellite, see HEAO.

EINSTEIN OBSERVATORY.....U.S., satellite, see HEAO.

EIS.....U.S., satellite, reconnaissance, see E-300.

Eisele, Donn.....U.S., astronaut, APOLLO 7, 1968/10/11. First launch 1968/10/11

EKA.....Russia, satellite, dummy, FTO. EKSPERIMENTALNIY KOSMICHESKIY APPARAT, dummy test satellite. First launch 1995/03/28.

ekran.....Russia for screen.

Ekran M.....Russia, satellite bus, NOP-PM.

EKRAN.....Russia satellite, communication, GEO. Satellite for TV services. Also known as 11F647, 11F647M. Launched at Tyuratam by a SL-12.

First launch 1976/10/26

EKSPERIMENTALNIY KOSMICHESKIY APPARAT.....Russia, satellite, dummy test satellite, see EKA.

ekspress.....Russia, express.

EKSPRESS.....Russia, satellite, telecommunications. Also known as 11F639.

- EKSPRESS, 1994/10/13, Baikonur, Proton K, GEO.

- EKSPRESS 2, 1996/09/26, Tyuratam, Proton K, GEO.

First launch 1994/10/13

EL1.....Orbit, Earth Lagrange Point 1. Same for EL2 through EL5.

ELA.....Ensemble de Lancement Ariane. Assembly and launch facility for Ariane at CSG.

Elara.....Jupiter moon, one of 16. See also Metis, Adrastea, Amalthea, Thebe, Io, Europa, Ganymede, Callisto, Leda, Sinope, Himalia, Lysithea, Elara, Ananke, Carme, Pasiphae.

ELDO.....European & Australia, organization, launched a series of rockets from Woomera between 1964/00/00 and 1970/06/12. Combined with ESA.

- ELDO 1-F0. First launch 1964/00/00, Black Knight rocket

- ELDO Europa 1-F1. First launch 1964/06/05, Blue Streak 1st stage rocket

- ELDO Europa 1-F2. First launch 1964/10/20, Blue Streak 1st stage rocket

- ELDO Europa 1-F3. First launch 1965/03/22, Blue Streak 1st stage rocket

- ELDO Europa 1-F4. First launch 1965/05/24, Europa 3-stage rocket

- ELDO Europa 1-F5. First launch 1966/11/15, Europa 3-stage rocket

- ELDO Europa 1-F6/1. First launch 1967/08/04, Europa 3-stage rocket

- ELDO Europa 1-F6/2. First launch 1967/12/06, Europa 3-stage rocket

- ELDO Europa 1-F7. First launch 1968/11/30, Europa 3-stage rocket

- ELDO Europa 1-F8. First launch 1969/07/03, Europa 3-stage rocket

- ELDO Europa 1-F9. First launch 1970/06/12, Europa 3-stage rocket

First launch 1964/00/00.

ELECTRA.....Russia, satellite, meterology, GEO. See also ELECTRO. First launch 2008/00/00

Electric Rocket Propulsion.....Uses electromagnetic energy to provide thrust, usually by accelerating a working fluid. The power source is usually separate from the working fluid. Thrust is currently in the 0.00f to 1.0 N. Three general types:

       - Electro thermal rockets

       - Electrostatic engine (Ion propulsion)

       - Electromagnetic engine (Magneto plasma)

Electro thermal rockets.....The working fluid is heated (electrically), accelerated, and provides thrust. Currently capable of producing thrust in the 0.01 to 0.5 N, exhaust velocities of 1000 to 5000 m/sec, using ammonium, hydrogen, nitrogen, or hydrazine as a working fluid. Also known as Electro thermal propulsion systems or Electro thermal engines.

ELECTRO.....Russia, satellite. See ELEKTRO.

electromagnetic band.....See band.

Electromagnetic engine.....The working fluid is a plasma which is accelerated by the interaction between electric currents and magnetic fields to produce thrust. Exhaust velocities are in the 1000 to 50,000 m/sec range . The working fluid may be stored as a solid, liquid, or gas. Also known as meagnetoplasma engine, electromagnetic propulsion system, electromagnetic rocket, meagnetoplasma propulsion system, or meagnetoplasma rocket.

ELECTRON.....Russia, satellite. See ELEKTRON.

Electronics Research Center.....U.S. NASA, organization. Electronics Research Center, 575 Technology Square, Cambridge, MA 02139.

Electrostatic rockets.....A working fluid is ionized and the ions accelerated by means of an electrostatic fields, to very high velocities, 2000 to 60,000 m/sec. The ions are then neutralized by recombining them with electrons removed during the ionization process, thus preventing a buildup of a space charge on the vehicle . Also known as an ion propulsion engine, ion rocket engine, ion propulsion system, electrostatic engine, or electrostatic propulsion system.

elektro.....Russia, electron.

ELEKTRO.....Russia, satellite, meteorology, GEO. Also known as 11F652. To join the World Weather Watch network of geostationary satellites, set up by the World Meteorological Organization. It joins the European METEOSAT, U.S. GOES, and Japan GMS. It is placed in geostationary orbit. Also known as the GEOSTATIONARY OPERATIONAL METEOROLOGICAL SATELLITE (GOMS).. Launched at Tyuratam by a SL-12. First launch 1994/10/31

elektron.....Russia, electron.

ELEKTRON.....Russia, dual satellites, scientific. Studied the radiation belts. Also known as 2D. Launched at Tyuratam by a SL-3. First launch 1964/01/30

Element set.....See Orbital Elements.

elevation.....Angle above the horizontal plane.

elint.....Electronic Intelligence.

ELINT.....U.S. NAVY, Naval Research Laboratory, satellite, elint. ELECTRONIC INTELLIGENCE satellites. A number of the satellites were listed as gravity gradient experiments, GGSE. See also FERRET satellites.

- ELINT 1962/12/13, WTR, Thor-Agena B, NRL PL 120.

- ELINT 1962/12/13, WTR, Thor-Agena B, NRL PL 121.

- ELINT 1963/06/15, WTR, Thor-Agena D, NRL PL 112.

- ELINT 1964/01/11, WTR, TAT-Agena D, NRL PL 135, GREB.

- ELINT 1965/03/09, WTR, Thor-Agena D, NRL PL 142, GREB 6.

- ELINT 1969/09/30, WTR, Thorad-Agena D, NRL PL 176..

First launch 1962/12/13

ELINT HITCHHIKER.....U.S., satellite, see EHH.



Elisseiv, Alexei.....Russia, cosmonaut. See Yeliseyev.

Ellipse.....Orbit. The properties of an ellipse:

wpdoc.gifFigure 17 Properties of an ellipse

Ellipse, Properties

e = c/a

r1 + r2 = 2A

Area = Abπ

r1 + r2 = distance from the foci to the ellipse [m]

f1, f2, = foci

2c = distance between foci [m]

A = semimajor exis [m]

b = semiminor axis [m]

e = eccentricity

Ellipso.....U.S., satellite bus, Boeing Information and Communication, LEO.

ELLIPSO.....U.S., satellite, mobile communications, HEO. constellation of 17 satellites. Major contractor Mobil Communications Holdings Inc.

ELLIPSO BOREALIS.....U.S., satellite, communications, LEO. 10 satellite constellation. First launch ?

ELLIPSO CONCORDIA.....U.S., satellite, communications, LEO. 7 satellite constellation. First launch ?

Elliptical orbits.....
wpdoc1.gifFigure 18 Elliptical Orbit, showing the true anomaly γ.

Bodies in space orbit in Elliptical rather than circular orbits because of factors such as gravity and drag. The point where the orbiting spacecraft is closest to Earth is the perigee, sometimes called per-apsis or perifocus. The point where the spacecraft is farthest from Earth is called apogee, apoapsis, or api-focus. A line drawn from perigee to apogee is the line-of-apsides, sometimes called the major-axis of the ecllipse. It's simply a line drawn through the two foci the long way.

Elliptical Orbits, period

T = 2π(A3/μ)1/2

T = time for one orbit [s]

A = (Ra + Rp)/2

= semimajor axis [m]

μ = gravitational parameter [m3/s2]

Elliptical Orbits Eccentricity

e = (Ra - Rp)/(Ra + Rp)

Rp = radius of perigee or periapsis or closes approach [m]

Ra = radius of apogee or apoapsis or farthest approach [m]

Elliptical Orbits Specific mechanical energy

ε ≡E/Ms

= μ/(2A)

ε = [m2/s2]

E = total energy [kgm2/s2]

Ms = mass of satellite [kg]

A = (Ra + Rp)/2

= semi major axis [m]

μ = gravitational parameter [m3/s2]

Elliptical Orbit


A = semimajor axis

A > 0

c = 1/2 distance between foci

0 < c < A

e = eccentricity

0 < e < 1

ε = specific mechanical energy

ε = 0

Ellison DD 864.....USS Ellison DD 864, recovery ship, part of the fleet which recovered or was on duty and capable of recovering the following: GEMINI 3.

Elokomin AO 55.....USS Elokomin AO 55, recovery ship, part of the fleet which recovered or was on duty and capable of recovering the following: MERCURY Atlas 7.

ELV.....Expendable launch vehicle. A spacecraft launch vehicle that cannot be reused. Non reusable rocket used for launching spacecraft. Examples include, Atlas, CZ, Ariane, Soyuz.

EME.....See Earth-Moon-Earth communications.

Emeraude.....France, launch vehicle, stage 1, Diamant A with LRBA Vixin Engine. Thrust 66,000 lbf (294 kN), pressure ? psi (? bar), liquid propellant N2O4/UDMH.

EMM.....End mission maneuver.. A change made to the orbit of a satellite to place the satellite in a position, when the satellite has completed its mission and is not longer needed, so as not to interfere with other satellites or Missions. This may include a deorbit maneuver to force the satellite into the planets atmosphere.

Enceladus.....Saturn moon, one of 19. See Prometheus, Pandora, Atlas, Epimetheus, Janus, Mimas, Helene, Enceladus, Tethys, Calypso, Telesto, Dione, Pan, 1995-S4, Rhea, Titan, Hyperion, Laptus, Phoebe.

ENCOUNTER 2001.....U.S. satellite, technology. Will carry hair and DNA samples beyond the solar system.

Endeavor.....U.S. Launch vehicle stage. Manned Spacecraft Space Shuttle OV-105. Used on STS. First launch 1992/05/07

ENDEAVOR.....U.S., satellite, manned spacecraft APOLLO 15, CSM-112. Launched by Saturn 5 at KSC. CDR David Scott, LMP James Irwin, CMP Alfred Worden. LA 1971/07/26, LL 1971/07/30, LF 1971/08/02, R 1971/08/07, PRS U.S.S. Okinawa (LPH-3). First launch 1971/07/26

ENDEAVOR.....U.S., satellite, manned spacecraft Space Shuttle OV-105. First launch 1992/05/07

Energia.....Russia, launch vehicle. See Energiya.

Energia NPO.....Russia, organization, see Korolev.

ENERGIA.....Russia, satellite, scientific. See 13KS.

Energiia.....Russia, launch vehicle. See Energiya.

energiya.....Russia, energy.

Energiya.....Russia, Launch vehicle, capable of placing the BURAN Space Shuttle in LEO, known as the Type K-1, SL-17, 11K25. Stage 1, strap-on, 4 RD-170 engins. Stage 2, core, 1 engine with 4 chambers, thrust 326,000 lbf (1451 kN), pressure ? psi (? bar),liquid propellant LOX/LH2. Stage 3, EUS or RCS. First launch 1987/05/15

Energiya Upper Stage.....Russia, launch vehicle motor, see EUS.

ENERGIYA-BRAUN.....Russia, satellite, unmanned Russian shuttle, similar to U.S. STS. First launch 1988/11/15

Energomash.....Russia, company, builds and test rocket engines.

Energy sourec.....Rocket engines/motors. The energy for momentum transfer of the working fluid is suppled by mechanical pressure, chemical combustion, solar radian, nuclear reactors, See also propulsion.

engine.....moteur (Fr),, motor (D).

Engine.....A device that converts other forms of energy into mechanical energy. May also be referred to as a motor. Often used to describe a liquid fuel rocket, e.g. rocket engine.

Engine manufacturers abbreviation.....U.S., See Launch Vehicle Motor/Engine manufacturers abbreviation.


England, Anthony.....U.S., astronaut, STS-51F (19), 1985/07/29. First launch 1985/07/29

Engle, Joe.....U.S., astronaut, STS-2, 1981/11/12, STS-51I (20), 1985/08/27. First launch 1981/11/12

English DD 696.....USS English DD 696, recovery ship, part of the fleet which recovered or was on duty and capable of recovering the following: MERCURY Atlas 7.

English Electric.....Europe, aerospace company, was joined by Blackburn in 1960 and became part British Aircraft Corp. in early 1960s.

ENOS.....U.S., NASA, satellite, scientific, Enos a chimpanzee, launched from the ETR in MA-5 (MERCURY Atlas). Rehearsal for John Glenn's flight. First launch 1961/11/29

Enterprise.....U.S., manned vehicle, Space Shuttle, OV-101, (test vehicle only, never went into space).

Enterprise CVA N 65.....USS Enterprise CVA N 65, recovery ship, part of the fleet which recovered or was on duty and capable of recovering the following: MERCURY Atlas 6, MERCURY Atlas 8.

ENTERPRISE.....Russia, satellite, ISS Module 9R, for industrial research. First launch 2005/03/00

ENVIRONMENTAL SATELLITE.....Europe, satellite.


ENVISAT.....Europe, satellite, observation, LEO SSO. ENVIRONMENTAL SATELLITE polar platform. Monitor the Earth's environment, including ozone depletion. Also known as POLAR PLATFORM/ENVISAT. First launch 2002/03/01

EO.....U.S., NASA, satellite, earth observation, technology demonstration, LEO SSO. EARTH OBSERVATION. Also known as EOS-AM,TERRA, NEW MILLENIUM. First launch 2000/11/21

Eole.....France, Aeolus , ruler of the winds.

EOLE.....France, satellite, weather. Also known as FR-2. Launched at WI by a Scout. Balloons carrying meteorological measuring devices were launched into the atmosphere from ground facilities. The measuring devices transmit signals received by the EOLE satellite which then transmits the data to the Bretigny station. First launch 1971/08/16

EORSAT.....Russia, satellite, reconnaissance, passive electronic intelligence. ELINT OCEAN RECONNAISSANCE SATELLITE. Also known as US-P.

First launch 1974/12/24

EOS.....U.S., NASA, satellite, scientific. EARTH ORBITING SYSTEM to study the Earth's environmental system. To be launched at the WTR.

- EOS AM-1, 1999/12/18, renamed TERRA.

- EOS AM-2, 2004/07/15, renamed AURA, also known as CHEMISTRY 1.

- EOS AM-3, 2010/06/00.

- EOS PM-1, 2002/00/00, renamed AQUA

- EOS PM-2, 2006/12/00.

- EOS PM-3, 2012/12/00.

First launch 1999/12/18

EOS-AQUA EARTH SCIENCE.....U.S. NASA, satellite, earth observation. See ESO or AQUA.

Eosat.....U.S. Distributor for Landsat imagery.

EP.....Russia, Visiting Crew.

EPC.....France, Ariane 5 core stage. Etage á propergol cryogenique.

EPC Core.....ESA, launch vehicle. Stage 1 for Ariane 5G H158 and 5E H173.

EPE.....U.S., satellite, see EXPLORER 12, 14, 15, & 26.

ephemeris.....Orbital component. A tabulation of a series of points that define the position and motion of a satellite. See Keplerian elements.

Epimetheus.....Saturn moon, one of 19. See Prometheus, Pandora, Atlas, Epimetheus, Janus, Mimas, Helene, Enceladus, Tethys, Calypso, Telesto, Dione, Pan, 1995-S4, Rhea, Titan, Hyperion, Laptus, Phoebe.

EPKM.....China, launch vehicle, uses 1 FG-46 or SpaB-17 solid fuel engine. Used on LM-2E or 2F optional stage 3. E is for top stage Perigee Kick Motor.

Epoch.....A specific time and date which is used as a point of reference.

Epoch day.....The day and fraction of day for the specific time the data is effective. This number defines both the Julian day (the whole number part of the value) and the time of day (fractional part of the value) of the data set.

Epperson DD 719.....USS Epperson DD 719, recovery ship, part of the fleet which recovered or was on duty and capable of recovering the following: MERCURY Atlas 8, MERCURY Atlas 9, GEMINI 9.

EPS.....France, Etage propergol stockable, Ariane 4 upper stage and Ariane 5 Upper stage, uses Aestus motor.

epsilon.....Ε, ε, epsilon, 5, Greek Alphabet.

EQUATOR-S.....Germany, satellite, scientific measurement. Measures solar wind phenomena. First launch 1997/12/02

equatorial orbit.....Orbit. The satellite follows a path over the equator for its entire orbit. Orbital inclination is 0 degrees.

equatorial plane.....Orbital component. The plan that passes through the center of the Earth at the equator.

Equinoctial elements.....Orbital components. See F & G Elements.

Equipment Section Boster Motor.....U.S., launch vehicle stage, see ESBM.

ER.....U.S., space vehicle launch facility. See Eastern Range

ERBS.....U.S., satellite, scientific, high atmospheric. EARTH RADIATION BUDGET SATELLITE. Also known as SAGE. Part of the U.S. National Climate Control Program. Launched by STS-41G from KSC. See SAGE. First launch 1984/10/05

erde.....German for earth.

ERNO.....Germany, aerospace company. Address: Daimler-Benz Aerospace AG, Raumfahrt-Infrastruktur, Postfach 28 61 56-28361 Bermen, Deutschland/Germany. Previous Address: MBB ERNO, Postfach 1199, 2800 Bremen 1, Germany. Builds the 2nd stage of the Ariane 4 launch vehicle.

Eros.....Greece, god of love.

Eros.....Near Earth asteroids, to be observed by NEAR.

EROS.....Israel, satellite, remote sensing. Resolution 27 inches (0.7 m). Based upon Israel spy satellite OFFEK bus. Also known as OFEK.

- EROS-1, OFEK 3, 2000/12/05.

- EROS-2, OFEK 4.

- EROS-3, OFEK 5.

First launch 2000/12/05

ERS.....U.S., A.F. satellite, observation. EARTH REMOTE SUBSATELLITE.

- ERS 2, 1962/09/17, WTR, Thor-Agena B.

- ERS 3&4, 1962/12/17, WTR, Thor-Agena B, FTO.

- ERS 5&6, 1963/05/09, WTR, Thor-Agena B.

- ERS 7&8, 1963/06/12, WTR, Thor-Agena B, FTO.

- ERS 9&10, 1963/07/18, WTR, Thor-Agena B.

- ERS 12, 1963/10/17, ETR, Atlas-Agena B.

- ERS 13, 1964/07/17, ETR, Atlas-Agena B.

- ERS 17, 1965/07/20, ETR, Atlas-Agena B.

- ERS 15, 1966/08/19, WTR, Atlas-Agena B.

- ERS 16, 1966/06/09, WTR, Atlas-Agena B.

- ERS 18, 05/28.1967, ETR, Titan IIIC.

First launch 1962/09/17

ERS.....Europe, satellite, observation. EUROPEAN REMOTE SENSING satellite is launched by ESA on the Ariane rocket. It is designed to monitor the oceans and land surfaces.

- ERS 1, 1991/07/17, Kourou, Ariane 4 V44.

- ERS 2, 1995/04/21, Kourou, Ariane 4 V72.

First launch 1991/07/17


ES.....Europe, satellite. See EUROSTAR.

ES-2000+.....Europe, satellite bus, Eurostar.

ES-3000.....Europe, satellite bus, Eurostar.

ES-4 A.....U.S., satellite, DoD designation, see DSCS II.

ES-5 A.....U.S., satellite, DoD designation, see DSCS III.

ES-8 A.....U.S., satellite, DoD designation, see Milstar.

ESA.....Europe, organization. European Space Agency (Agency Spatiale European, in French), made up of a consortium of 14 European countries (Austria, Belgium, Denmark, Finland, France, Germany, Ireland, Italy, Netherlands, Norway, Spain, Sweden, Switzerland, and the United Kingdom. Canada is a cooperating state) to deal with space activities. It mission is to ensure and develop, for peaceful purposes, the cooperation between European states in the fields of space research and development. Headquarters is located in Paris, launch facilities in Kourou, Guiana (Centre Spatial Guyanais).(ESA Bulletin} Address, ESA, 8-10 fur Mario-Nikis, Paris Cedex 15 75738, France. ESA Centers:

- European Space Research and Technology Centre, ESTEC.

- European Space Operations Centre, ESOC.

- European Space Agency's Centre in Frascati, ESRIN

- European Astronaut Center, EAC

- Kourou Spaceport, space vehicle launch facility.

       The ESA ground station network (ESATRACK) is used to support TT&C operations (Telemetry, Tracking and Commanding) for a specific satellite mission or mission phase. It comprises Five ground stations in Redu (Belgium), Kourou (French Guiana), Villafranca (Spain), Kiruna (Sweden) and Odenwald (Germany).

ELDO (European Launch Development Organization) and ESRO (European Space Research Organization) were merged to form ESA on 1974/04/01.

ESA Tracking Stations.....Europe, organization. Tracking Stations used by ESA:

- Kiruna, Sweden, ESA Satellite Station, PO Box 815, 98128 Kiruna, Sweden

- Kourou, Guyane.ESA Station Diane, Boite Postal No. 27,97311 Kourou Cedex, Guyane Francaise

- San Marco Telemetry Station, P.O. Box 203, Malindi, Kenya

- INTA Estacion Espacial de Maspalomas, Apartado 29, 35100 Maspalomas, Gran Canaria, Canary Islands, Spain

- Xantic BV, Perth International Telecommunications Centre, P.O. Box 1115, Wangara, W.A. 6065, Australia

- Fucino, Italy.,

- Agence Spatiale Europeenne, Station de Redu, B-6890 Redu,Belgium

- Villafranca, Spain, ESA Villafranca del Castillo, Satellite Tracking Station, Apartado P.O. Box 50727, E-28080 Madrid, Spain.

- Toulouse, France.

- Natal, Brazil.

- NASA/STDN Goddard Space Flight Center. See Goddard Space Flight Center.

- NASA/STDN Station, Ascension Island. See Ascension Island Station.

ESA-GEOS.....Europe, satellite. See GEOS, Europe.

ESATRACK.....Europe, organization. ESA ground station network (ESATRACK) is used to support TT&C operations (Telemetry, Tracking and Commanding) for a specific satellite mission or mission phase. It comprises Five ground stations in Redu (Belgium), Kourou (French Guiana), Villafranca (Spain), Kiruna (Sweden) and Odenwald (Germany).

ESBM.....U.S., launch vehicle stage, Equipment Section Boster Motor, used on Athena launch vehicle. Uses a Orbus 21D or 21G motor.,

ESC.....France, Etage supérieur cryogenique, Ariane 5 cryogenic upper stages.

ESC-A.....ESA, launch vehicle, Ariane 5 Upper stage, uses HM7B motor. Etage Supérieur Cryotechnique, upper stage cryogenic. Derived from the H10.

ESC-B.....ESA, launch vehicle, Ariane 5 Upper stage, uses Vinci motor. Etage Supérieur Cryotechnique, upper stage cryogenic.

escape velocity.....The velocity needed to escape the Earth's or other body's gravity. For the Earth it is about 25,000 miles per hour (42,500 km/hr). See Planet.

Escape ARS 6.....USS Escape ARS 6, recovery ship, part of the fleet which recovered or was on duty and capable of recovering the following: APOLLO 12, APOLLO 13, SKYLAB 1, SKYLAB 2.

Escape velocity at the surface of a planet.....See planet.

ESDAC.....Germany, organization. European Space Date Centre (ESDAC), located at Darmstadt. Part of ESA.

ESMC.....U.S., organization. Eastern Space and Missile Center, Headquarters for Patrick Air Force Base, FL. Controls the Eastern Range.

ESOC.....Germany & ESA, organization. European Space Operations Centre, Postfach 406, 6100 Darmstadt, Germany. ESA Centre. Responsible satellite operation and for the European sounding rocket launching range (ESRANGE), Kiruna, Sweden. Sounding rockets are also launched from Salto di Quirra, Italy, and Andoya, Norway.

espace.....French for space.

espion.....French for spy.

espionage.....Satellite. See Spy.

ESRANGE.....Sweden, organization. European Sounding rocket launching Range (ESRANGE), Kiruna, Sweden. Part of ESA. See ESOC.

ESRIN.....Italy, organization. ESA Centre. European Space Agency's Centre in Frascati, Italy. Responsible for the Earth Observation. Address: ESA/ESRIN, Via Galileo Galilei, I-00044 Frascati, Italy.

ESRO.....Europe, satellite, study solar and cosmic radiation. EUROPE SPACE RESEARCH ORGANIZATION SATELLITE.


- ESRO 2A, 1967/05/29, WTR, Scout. FTO.

- ESRO 2B, 1968/05/17, WTR, Scout, IRIS.

First launch 1967/05/29

ESRO.....Europe. See European Space Research Organization.


ESSA.....U.S., satellite, meteorological, similar in configuration to the TIROS satellites for the United States ENVIRONMENTAL SCIENCES SERVICES ADMINISTRATION (ESSA). (U.S. Weather Bureau became part of ESSA) The U.S. Weather Bureau which included the Weather Service, was part of the U.S. Department of Agriculture. However a new Administration was created in 1965, called the United States Environmental Sciences Services Administration (ESSA). The Weather Bureau became part of ESSA on 13 July, 1965. The objective of the satellite program remained the same, to establish a global weather satellite system. The ESSA satellites were considered operational satellites vs earlier satellites which were test and research satellites (e.g. TIROS, NIMBUS). New weather satellites launched after 1965 were officially named ESSA, after they were launched and operating correctly in orbit. However, in the queue in 1965 were two TIROS satellites, TIROS 11 and 12. Since they were launched after 1965, they were renamed ESSA 1 and ESSA 2 once in orbit. They were the last TIROS satellites launched from Cape Canaveral. ESSA 1was placed into a 689 x 818 mile (1100 x 1300 km) polar, sun synchronous orbit, with a period of 100 minutes. ESSA 2 as well as all the remaining ESSA satellites were placed into a higher 1400 mile (2240 km) polar orbit with a period of 114 minutes. The newer satellites were named TIROS OPERATING SATELLITES (TOS), while being constructed. Once in orbit and operating properly, their names were changed to ESSA 3 through 9. All the ESSA satellites weighted about 300 lbs (136 kg), the same as the TIROS.

       Newer technology was used in ESSA 2 - 9. The satellites contained:

- Automatic Picture Transmission (APT) for delayed or direct readout to ground stations, which allowed pictures of local cloud conditions to be downloaded to inexpensive ground stations, i.e., special radios or fax machines and/or

- the Advanced Vidiocon Camera System (AVCS) for higher resolution daylight coverage, both of which were from the NIMBUS satellites. The television cameras had 800 line resolution, covering 4,000,000 square miles with a 2 mile resolution. The ESSA satellites were shaped like the TIROS and operated similar to TIROS 9. The life of the satellites varied from 465 days for ESSA 4 to 2644 days with ESSA 8. All the ESSA satellites were built by RCA.

- ESSA 1 1966/02/03, ETR, Delta.

- ESSA 2 1966/02/28, ETR, TAD.

- ESSA 3 1966/10/02, WTR, TAD.

- ESSA 4 1967/01/26, WTR, TAD.

- ESSA 5 1967/04/20, WTR, TAD.

- ESSA 6 1967/11/10, WTR, TAD.

- ESSA 7 1968/08/16, WTR, Long Tank Delta.

- ESSA 8 1968/12/15, WTR, Long Tank Delta.

- ESSA 9 1969/02/26, WTR, TAID.

First launch 1966/02/03

Essaim.....France, means swarm.

Essex.....USS Essex, LHD 2, prime recovery ship for APOLLO 7.

ESSIAM.....ESA, satellite, signal intelligence, microsatellite. SSO quasi polar. Constellation of 4 satellites. Uses Myriade bus. First launch 2004/12/18

ESSP.....U.S., satellite, scientific, LEO Syn-sync. EARTH SYSTEMS SCIENCE PATHFINDER First launch 2002/03/17

ESTEC.....Netherlands, organization. European Space Research and Technology Centre, Noordwijk, Netherlands. ESA Center. ESTEC is responsible for the technical preparation and management of ESA space projects..

ESTREL DO SOL.....Brazil, satellite, communication. Also known as TELSTAR 14. Used the LS-1300 bus. First launch 2004/01/11

eta.....Η, η, eta, 7, Greek Alphabet.

Etage á propergol cryogenique.....France, launch vehicle motor, means stage propellant cryogenic, see EPC.

Etage propergol stockable.....France, launch vehicle, means stage propellant stackable, see EPS.

Etage Supérieur Cryotechnique.....France, launch vehicle, means stage top cryogenic, see ESC.

etalon.....Russia, standard.

ETALON.....Russia, satellite, geodetic. A new series of passive geodetic satellites. Launched at Tyuratam by SL-12. Used for laser range finding, similar to the U.S. LAGEOS. First launch 1989/01/10

Ethyl Alcohol.....Launch vehicle propellant, liquid. Chemical symbol C2H5OH. Sometimes refered to as alcohol.

etoile.....French for star.

ETR.....U.S., space vehicle launch facility, Eastern Test Range.. Early name for the Eastern Range.

- Eastern Test Range, from 1977/00/00. See Cape Canaveral Air Station, Fl.

- Was Eastern Range from 1964/05/15

- Was Atlantic Missile Range.

- Was the Air Force Missile Test Center.

- Was the Joint Long Range Proving Ground from 07/24/1950


ETS.....Japan, satellite, technology. ENGINEERING TEST SATELLITES. See HIKOBOSHI.

- ETS 1, 1975/09/09, Tanegashima, N-1, KIKU 1, LEO.

- ETS 2, 1977/02/23, Tanegashima, N-1, KIKU 2, LEO.

- ETS 3, 1982/09/03, Tanegashima, N-1, KIKU 4, LEO.

- ETS 4, 1981/02/11, Tanegashima, N-2, KIKU 3, HEO.

- ETS 5, 1987/08/27, Tanegashima, H-1, KIKU 5, GEO.

- ETS 6, 1994/08/28, Tanegashima, H-1, KIKU 6, HEO.

First launch 1975/09/09

études.....French for studies.

EUR.....U.S., satellite, communications, GEO. First launch 2003/00/00

Eurasiasat S.A.M......France & Turkey, aerospace company, partnership with Alcatel & Türk Telekom.

EURASIASAT.....Turkey, satellite, telecommunications, GEO. EURASIASAT-1 was TURKSAT 2A. EUROPEAN ASIA SATELLITE. First launch 2001/01/10

EURECA.....Europe, satellite, technology, LEO. ESA built the large, instrumented, maneuverable platform knows as the EUROPEAN RETRIEVABLE CARRIER. It was launched by STS-46 and retrieved by the STS-57 on 1993/06/24. First launch 1992/07/31

EUROBIRD.....Europe, satellite, communications, GEO. Successor to individual country DBS.


Eurocket Launch Services GmbH.....Germany, aerospace company. Address: PO Box 286146, D-28361 Bremen, Germany.Uses the Rockot launch vehicle.

Eurockot GmbH.....U.S., Russia & Europe, launch vehicle. See Cosmos USA.

Euromir 1.....Russia, mission title for Soyuz TM-20. First launch 1994/10/03

Euromir 2.....Russia, mission title for Soyuz TM-22. First launch 1995/09/03

EUROMIR.....Europe/Russia, ESA mission to the MIR. European MIR mission.

Progress M-24, 08/25/1884, Tyuratam, SL-4.

First launch 1994/08/25

EUROMOON.....ESA, satellite, scientific. Explore the moon's south pole. First launch 2001/00/00

Euronaut.....Europe, an astronaut or cosmonaut representing a European country.

Europa.....Europe, launch vehicle, LEO.

- Europa I,2980 lbs (1350 kg) LEO, Woomera, FTO. First launch 1968/11/30

- Europa II,3180 lbs (1440 kg) LEO, Kourou, FTO. First launch 1971/11/05

First launch 1968/11/30

Europa.....Geographical location, Latin for Europe.

Europa.....Jupiter moon, one of 16. See also Metis, Adrastea, Amalthea, Thebe, Io, Europa, Ganymede, Callisto, Leda, Sinope, Himalia, Lysithea, Elara, Ananke, Carme, Pasiphae.

Europa I.....Europe, launch vehicle, 2980 lbs (1350 kg) LEO, Woomera, FTO. Launched from Woomera, Australia by ELDO. Seven launches of the full 3-stage Europa rocket occurred between 1965/05/24 and 1970/06/12. See ELDO. First launch 1968/11/30

Europa II.....Europe, launch vehicle, 3180 lbs (1440 kg) LEO, Kourou, FTO. First launch 1971/11/05

Europa II Perigee System.....France, launch vehicle, stage 3, Diamant B and PB4. Thrust ? lbf (? kN), pressure ? psi (? bar), solid propellant.

EUROPA ORBITER.....U.S. NASA, satellite, scientific, Europa orbit. First launch 2003/00/00

Europe.....First satellite CAT launched by an Ariane at Kourou, French Guiana on. 1979/12/24

Europe.....Group of countries located on the European continent: See Western Europe, Northern Europe, Southern Europe, Eastern Europe.

EUROPE STAR.....Europe, satellite, EUROPESTAR.

Europe*Star.....France and U.S., aerospace company, partnership with Alcatel and Loral Space & Communications.

EUROPE*STAR.....Europe, satellite, see EUROPESTAR.

European.....Pertaining to Europe.

European Aeronautic Defense and Space Company N.V......Netherlands, company, aerospace. Address European Aeronautic Defense and Space Company N.V., Le Carrè Beechavenue 130-132, 119 PR Schiphol-Rijk, The Netherlands. Partnerships: Astrium: partnership with BAE Systems. Also known as EADS.

European, month, year.

European Launch Development Organization.....Europe, organization. See ELDO.

European MIR mission.....Europe/Russia mission. See EUROMIR.

European sounding rocket launching range.....Sweden, organization. See ESRANGE.

European Space Agency.....Europe, organization. See ESA.

European Space Date Centre.....Germany, organization. See ESDAC.

European Space Operation Center.....Europe, organization. See ESOC.

European Space Research and Technology Centre.....Europe, organization. See ESTEC.

European Space Research Organization.....Europe, organization. ESRO was the European Space Research Organization, which was created to develop scientific satellites an to coordinate European space technologies. It was later merged into the ESA (European Space Agency). ESRO created on 1964/03/20.





EUROPEAN RETRIEVABLE CARRIER.....Europe, satellite platform. See EURECA.



EUROPESAT.....Europe, satellite, communications, GEO. Successor to individual country DBS.


Europestar.....Europe, company, purchased by PanAmSat in 2005.

EUROPESTAR.....Europe, satellite, telecommunication, GEO. EUROPE STAR (satellite). Also known as EUROSTAR, EUROPE STAR. EUROPESTAR B was KOREASAT 1. First launch 2000/10/29

Europropulsion.....France and Italy, company, manufactures solid propellent rocket motors. Snecma is part owner with FiatAvio.

EUROSKYWAY.....Europe, satellite, communications, GEO.

Eurostar 1000.....Italy, satellite bus, Matra Marconi Space. GEO/MEO.

Eurostar 2000.....Italy, satellite bus, Matra Marconi Space. GEO/MEO.

Eurostar 3000.....Italy, satellite bus, Matra Marconi Space. GEO/MEO. Astrium now owns Eurostar 3000 bus.

EUROSTAR.....Europe, satellite, see EUROPESTAR. Also known as EUROPE*STAR.

EUS.....Russia, launch vehicle motor, thrust 22,500 lbf (100 kN), pressure ? psi (? bar), liquid propellant LOX/LH2. Energiya Upper Stage. Used on Energiya stage 3 EUS.

Eutelsat.....France, organization. Address, Eutelsat, 70 rue Balaid, Paris Cedex 15 75502, France.

EUTELSAT.....France, company, commercial satellite operator, ATLANTIC BIRD, E-BIRD, EUROBIRD, EUTELSAT, EXPRESS, HOT BIRD, SESAT, TELECOM, TELSTAR. 70 rue Balard, F-775502, Paris.

EUTELSAT.....Europe, satellite, direct broadcast, GEO. Owned by the cooperative international organization Eutelsat (EUROPEAN TELECOMMUNICATION SATELLITES) based in Paris and composed of public telephone and telegraph, and telecommunication administrations of 33 European countries. EUTELSAT 2-F6 through F10 satellites renamed HOT BIRD 1.

- EUTELSAT 1, 1990/08/30, Kourou, Ariane 4, GEO.

- EUTELSAT 2, 1991/01/15, Kourou, Ariane 44L, GEO.

- EUTELSAT 2 F3, 1991/12/07, ETR, Atlas 2, GEO.

- EUTELSAT 2 F4, 1992/07/09, Kourou, Ariane 44L, GEO.

- EUTELSAT 2 F5, 1994/01/24, Kourou, Ariane 44LP, GEO.

First launch 1990/08/30

EUVE.....U.S., satellite, scientific, LEO. EXTREME ULTRAVIOLET EXPLORER. A science satellite designed to study the heavens through the extreme ultraviolet region of the electromagnetic spectrum. Launched at the ETR by a Delta 2 into a LEO. First launch 1992/06/07

EVA.....Extra vehicular activity by an astronaut or cosmonaut.

EVA, first.....Alexi Leonov, VOSKHOD 2. First EVA 1965/03/18

Evans, Ronald.....U.S., astronaut, APOLLO 17, 1972/12/07. First launch 1972/12/07

Evolved Expandable Launch Vehicle.....U.S., launch vehicle. See EELV.

Ewald, Reinhald.....Germany, cosmonaut, SOYUZ TM 25, 1997/02/12. First launch 1997/02/12

Exhaust.....Ejected mass from a rocket motor/engine used to provide thrust. It is composed of the working fluid. In some exotic concepts, the exhaust can be solely electromagnetic radiation/photons., See propulsion, rocket motors, engines.

exist.....existe (Fr),, existiert (D).

existe.....French for exist.

existiert.....German for exist.

EXO-MARS.....Europe, satellite, ESA, scientific, Mars orbiter and robotic lander..

- EXOS A-KYOKKO, 1978/02/04, Kagoshima, MU-3H, LEO, SS-05.

- EXOS B-JIKI'KEN, 1978/09/16, Kagoshima, Mu-3H, LEO, SS-06.

- EXOS C-OHZORA, 1984/02/14, Kagoshima, Mu-3S, LEO, SS-09.

- EXOS D-AKEBONO, 1989/02/21, Kagoshima, M-3S-2, HEO.

First launch 1978/02/04

EXOSAT.....Europe, satellite, scientific, HEO. EUROPEAN X-RAY OBSERVATORY SATELLITE. Launched at the ETR by a Delta into a HEO. First launch 1983/05/26

Expedition Crew.....Astronauts and cosmonauts that live in the ISS.

- #1 William Shepherd, cosmonauts Sergei Krikalev and Yuri Gilzenko., dates 2000/10/31, to 2001/03/08

- #2 Cosmonauts Yuri Usachev, astronauts James Voss, Susan Helms (flight engineer), dates 2001/03/08.

- #3 Astronaut Frank Culberston (station commander), cosmonauts Vladimir Dezhurov (Soyuz commander), Mikhail Tyurin (flight engineer), 2001/8/10.

- #4 Cdr Yury Onufrienko, FEs Carl Walz, Dan Bursch, 2001/12/05.

- #5 STS-111 Cdr -- Valeri Korzun (RSA), Peggy Whitson Sergei Treschev (RSA), 2002/06/05.

- #6 STS-113 Cdr -- Ken Bowersox, Nikolai Budarin (RSA), Donald Thomas; 2002/11/04.

- #7 STS 114 ISS Expedition-7 (up): Cdr -- Yuri Malenchenko (RSA), Sergei Moschenko (RSA), Edward Lu, 2003/04/26

- #8 Michael Foale and Aleksandr Kaleri (RSA), 2003/10/18

- #9 Gennadiy Padalka (RSA) and Michael Fincke, 2004/04/19

- #10 Salizhan Sharipo (RSA), Leroy Chiao, 2004/10/14

Expendable Launch Vehicle.....U.S., launch vehicle. See ELV.



EXPERIMENTAL SATELLITE.....China, satellite, telecommunication. Launched at Xichang by a CZ-3 into a HEO. Also known as PRC 14 (1984 008A).

First launch 1984/01/29

Exploit MSO 440.....USS Exploit MSO 440, recovery ship, part of the fleet which recovered or was on duty and capable of recovering the following: APOLLO 16.

Explorer Program.....U.S. NASA, program. The Explorer Program, also known as CODE 410, mission is to "provide frequent flight opportunities for scientific investigations from space", by developing scientific Missions within the following:

       - Astronomical Search for Origins and Planetary Systems,

       - The Sun-Earth Connection, and

       - Structure and Evolution of the Universe.

       The first EXPLORER satellite, EXPLORER 1. The Explorer program today, has four main areas: Medium-class Explorers (MIDEX), Small Explorers (SMEX), University-class Explorers (UNEX)/Student Explorer Demonstration Initiative (STEDI), and Missions of Opportunity. Each of these areas has several future satellite Missions planned. Medium-class Explorers or Mid Explorer Satellites (MIDEX) - are investigations not to exceed $140 million (in Fiscal Year 1998 dollars) total cost to NASA. NASA Intends to launch one MIDEX mission per year. Only one satellite, MAP, is currently funded. Under the MIDEX program is the MAP Satellite. Small Explorers (SMEX) - are investigations not to exceed $71 million (in Fiscal Year 1998 dollars) total cost to NASA. It is NASA's intent to launch one Small Explorer mission per year. 2 satellites are funded, HESSI and GALEX. University-class Explorers (UNEX)/Student Explorer Demonstration Initiative (STEDI) - are investigations not to exceed $7.5M (real year dollars) total cost to NASA. University-class Explorer Missions will be launched by a variety of low cost methods. Initially, one launch per year is anticipated. A long term goal is to achieve multiple launches per year for this class of Explorer Missions with a substantially lower cost per mission. Currently, three satellites are funded, CHIPSat, CATSAT, and IMEX. Missions of Opportunity - are investigations characterized by being part of a non-NASA space mission of any size, but having a total cost to NASA that is typically under $21 million (in Fiscal Year 1998 dollars).

First launch 1958/01/02

EXPLORER.....U.S. NASA or ARPA, satellite, scientific. First satellite launched by the United States EXPLORER 1, also known as Payload RTV-7, Deal 1. Proposed by the Army as Project 416, in 1957 The Explorer Program, also known as CODE 410, is alive and well. According to NASA, the mission of the Explorers Program is to "provide frequent flight opportunities for scientific investigations from space", by developing scientific missions within the following:

       - Astronomical Search for Origins and Planetary Systems,

       - The Sun-Earth Connection, and

       - Structure and Evolution of the Universe.

The first Explorer satellite, Explorer 1, was launched on 1958/01/31, 1958 001A, by a Jupiter C, at Cape Canaveral, FL. It was not the U.S.’s first attempt but was the first U.S. successful launch after the USSR’s Sputnik, launched 1957/10/04, 1957 001B, by a Sputnik 8K71PS at Tyuratam (Baikonur) Cosmodrom, Kazakstan (Part of the USSR).

       The Explorer program today, has four main areas: Medium-class Explorers (MIDEX), Small Explorers (SMEX), University-class Explorers (UNEX), and Missions of Opportunity. Each of these areas has several future satellite missions planned.

First launch 1958/01/31

EXPLORER 1, reentry.....U.S. NASA, first U.S. satellite, reentered earth's atmosphere. 1970/03/31

EXPREASS AM1.....Europe, satellite, communication, GEO.

Express 2000.....Russia, satellite bus, NPO Prikladnoy Mikhaniki. GEO/MEO.

Express 2000.....Russia, satellite bus, NPO-PM.

Express A.....Russia, satellite bus, NPO-PM.

Express AyA.....Russia, satellite bus, NPO-PM.

Express M.....Russia, satellite bus, NPO Prikladnoy Mikhaniki. GEO/MEO.

EXPRESS.....German/Japan/Russia, satellite, telecommunications, GEO.

- EXPRESS, 1995/01/15, Uchinoura, M-3S-2, FTO.

- EXPRESS 3, 1996/09/26, Proton.

First launch 1995/01/15

EXPRESS STAR.....U.S., satellite, communications. Owned by Federal Express.

Extra vehicular activity.....See EVA.

extraterrestrial satellite.....Leaves the gravity of the Earth. Also known as interplanetary, space probes, interstellar.

extravehicular.....Taking place outside a vehicle, spacecraft, etc.



EYE IN THE SKY.....U.S., satellite, see SAMOS 2. First launch 1961/01/31

EYESAT.....U.S. satellite, communications for amateur users, LEO. Launched by at Kourou by Ariane 40 V 59 into LEO. First launch 1993/09/26

EYETEL.....U.S., satellite, mobile communications, LEO sun synchronous. See EYESAT.

Eyharts, Leopold.....France, cosmonaut, SOYUZ TM 27, 1998/01/31. First launch 1998/01/31

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Updated 2007/2/01