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G.....See Universal gravitational constant.

G.....U.S., satellite, GALAXY. In 2007 Intelsat changed the name of INTELSAT AMERICAS or IA to GALAXY or G.

G-1.....U.S. Launch Vehicle. See Scout, 459 lbs (208 kg) LEO. First launch 1979/10/30

G-1-e.....Russia, launch vehicle. 220,000 lbs (100 kg) LEO. Sheldon Name G-1-e. See SL-15 or N-1.

G-4.....U.S., launch vehicle, SLBM, Trident 1.

G-SAT.....India, satellite.

GA.....Launch vehicle motor, AiResearch Div. (Garrett Corp.).

Gaea.....Greece, Earth god.

Gaffney, Drew.....U.S., astronaut, STS-40, 1991/06/05. First launch 1991/06/05

GAIA.....Europe, ESA, satellite, scientific, L2. 3D map of the Milky Way. Uses twin telescopes. First launch 2011/00/00

Gainard DD 706.....USS Gainard DD 706, recovery ship, part of the fleet which recovered or was on duty and capable of recovering the following: MERCURY Atlas 9.

Galatea.....Neptune moon, one of 8. See Triton, Naiad, Thalassa, Nereid, Despina, Galatea, Larissa, Proteus.

galaxy.....A large group of stars. Also used to describe a group of artificial satellites.

Galaxy Aerospace.....U.S., aerospace company, became part of General Dynamics in 1999.

GALAXY.....U.S., satellite, telecommunications, GEO.

- GALAXY 1, 1983/06/28, ETR, Delta.

- GALAXY 2, 1983/09/22, ETR, Delta.

- GALAXY 3, 1984/09/21, ETR, Delta.

- GALAXY 4, 1993/06/24, Kourou, Ariane 42P V57.

- GALAXY 5, 1992/03/13, ETR, Atlas 1.

- GALAXY 6, 1990/10/12, Kourou, Ariane 4 V39.

- GALAXY 7, 1992/10/28, Kourou, Ariane 42P V54.

- GALAXY 8, 1994/02/19, ETR, Delta 2, I-R.

- GALAXY 9, 1996/05/24, ETR, Delta 2.

- GALAXY 10, 1998/09/08, ETR, Delta 2.

First launch 1983/06/28

GALAXY EVOLUTION EXPLORER......U.S., NASA, satellite, scientific. See GALEX.

GALAXY EXPRESS.....Japan, launch vehicle, LEO. Also known as GX. Planned Flights from Tanegashima and Christmas Island. First launch 2006/00/00

GALEX.....U.S., NASA, satellite, scientific. GALAXY EVOLUTION EXPLORER. Observes stars, galaxies and heavy elements at ultraviolet wavelengths. GALEX will use an ultraviolet telescope during its 2-year mission to explore the origin and evolution of galaxies and the origins of stars and heavy elements. GALEX will detect millions of galaxies out to a distance of billions of light years and also will conduct an all-sky ultraviolet survey. The GALEX data will provide information to answer the following:

- What are the UV properties of local galaxies?

- What are the star formation and metal production history of galaxies over the red shift range 0< z< 2?

- When and where did stars and elements we see today have their origins?

GALEX will map the global history and probe the drivers of star formation over the red shift range 0< z< 2, 80% of the life of the Universe, the period over which galaxies have evolved dramatically, and the time that most stars, elements, and galaxy disks had their origins.

• Orbit: - 690km (427 mile) circular orbit with a 29° inclination.

• Mass: - 313kg (90 lbs).

• Launch: - 2002 from KSC, launch vehicle Pegasus XL.

• Mission: - 28 month mission, nighttime exposures with 3- axis stabilized spacecraft.

First launch 2003/04/03

Galileo.....Galileo Galilei, 1564-1642, telescope pioneer.

GALILEO.....Europe, satellite, global satellite navigation system, 30 satellite constellation, MEO. See also GSTB, GALILEO SATELLIE TEST BED. Renamed GIOVE. First launch 2005/00/00

GALILEO.....U.S. NASA/JPL, satellite, scientific, Jupiter bound spacecraft. Also known as JOP. Launched at the ETR by the Space Transportation System STS 34;

       - Venus 1990/02/10.

       - Earth, Moon 1990/12/08.

       - Gaspra 1991/10/29.

       - Earth, Moon 1992/12/08.

       - Ida 1993/08/28.

       - Observes comet Shoemaker-Levy collisions with Jupiter 1994/07/16.

       - Ganymede 06/27/96.

       - arrive at Jupiter in 1995/12/07.

       - (Primary Mission)PST.

       G1 - Ganymede Encounter1996/6/26.

       G2 - Ganymede Encounte1996/r 9/6.

       C3 - Callisto Encounter1996/11/4.

       E4 - Europa Encounter 1996/12/18.

       E6 - Europa Encounter1997/2/20.

       G7 - Ganymede Encounte1997/r 4/4.

       G8 - Ganymede Encounte1997/r 5/7.

       C9 - Callisto Encounter1997/6/25.

       C10 - Callisto Encounte1997/r9/16.

       E11 - Europa Encounter1997/11/6.

- Galileo Europa Mission (Extended Mission).

       E12 - Europa Encounter 1997/12/16.

       E13 - Europa Encounter1998/2/10.

       E14 - Europa Encounter1998/3/29.

       E15 - Europa Encounter1998/5/31.

       E16 - Europa Encounter1998/7/21.

       E17 - Europa Encounter1998/9/26.

       E18 - Europa Encounter 1998/11/22.

       E19 - Europa Encounter1999/1/31.

Enter Jupiter’s atmosphere, 2003/09/21. First launch 1989/10/18


GALILEO SATELLITE TEST BED.....Europe, satellite, global navigation system, see GALILEO.

GALILEO SATELLITE TEST BED.....Europe, satellite, See GSAT.

GALILEOSAT.....Europe, satellite, see GALILEO.

Galliot.....Guyana, ESA, organization. Ariane tracking station, Kourou, Guyane.

gals.....Russia, tack.

GALS.....Russia, satellite, communications, GEO, 17F73. New generation of communications satellite. Intended to replace the EKRAN direct broadcast family of satellites..

- GALS 1, 1994/01/20, Tyuratam, SL-4, GEO.

- GALS 2, 1995/11/17, Tyuratam, SL-12, GEO.

First launch 1994/01/20

Gamar, Charles.....U.S., astronaut, STS-38, 1990/11/15. First launch 1990/11/15

GAMBIT.....U.S., satellite, imaging reconnaissance. Surveillance satellites, using the KH-7 and later KH-8 camera. Also known as 1700. Intended to photograph specific targets at high resolution, a spotting system. Returned film by a Satellite Recovery Vehicle (SRV). Best resolution was about 2 ft (0.6 m). Missions flew from 1963/07 to 1967/06. Replaced by the GAMBIT KH-8 beginning in 1966. First Launch 1963/07/12

gamma.....Γ, γ, gamma, 3, Greek Alphabet.

Gamma.....Great Britain, launch vehicle motor, 2 chambers, liquid propellant, hydrogen peroxide and kerosene.

GAMMA.....Russia, satellite, scientific. Gamma ray observatory carried equipment from France and Poland. Launched at Tyuratam by SL-4 into LEO. Decayed 1992/02/28. First launch 1990/07/11


GAMMA RAY OBSERVATORY.....U.S., satellite. See GRO.

GAMMA RAY TELESCOPE.....U.S., satellite, see EXPLOER 11. First launch 1961/0/2

Ganymede.....Jupiter moon, one of 16. See also Metis, Adrastea, Amalthea, Thebe, Io, Europa, Ganymede, Callisto, Leda, Sinope, Himalia, Lysithea, Elara, Ananke, Carme, Pasiphae.

GAPFILLER.....U.S., Air Force, satellite,see WGP.

Garadner, Dale.....U.S., astronaut, STS-8, 1983/08/30, STS-51A (14), 1984/11/08. First launch 1983/08/30

Gardner, Guy.....U.S., astronaut, STS-27, 1988/12/02, STS-35, 1990/12/02. First launch 1988/12/02

Gargarin, Yuri.....Russia, cosmonaut, VOSTOK 01 (SWALLLOW), 1961/04/12. First launch 1961/04/12

Garn, Jake.....U.S., astronaut, Senator, STS-51D (16), 1985/04/12. First launch 1985/04/12

Garneau, Marc.....U.S., astronaut, STS-41G (13), 1984/10/05, STS-77, 1996/05/19, STS-097, 2000/12/1. First launch 1984/10/05

garnet.....Chemical, hard mineral silicates.

Garriott, Owen.....U.S., astronaut, APOLLO/SKYLAB 3, 1973/07/29, STS-9, 1983/11/28. First launch 1973/07/29

Garuda.....Sanskrit, Eagle.

GARUDA.....Philippine, satellite, mobile communications, GEO. Also known as ACES. First launch 2000/02/12

GAS.....U.S., NASA, satellite, scientific. GETAWAY SPECIAL. Small experimental payloads managed by GSFC on board the Space Shuttle.

Gaseous propellant.....A single chemical propellant that is stored as a liquid or gas, and used as a gas in the launch vehicle and provides the rocket motor/engine energy by pressure.

- Hydrogen, Is up to 284.

- Helium, Is up to 179.

- Methane, Is up to 114.

- Nitrogen, Is up to 76.

- Air, Is up to 74.

- Argon, Is up to 57.

- Krypton, Is up to 50.

Many gaseous propellant formulations are possible. However, only a few are typically used in Spacecraft launch vehicles and are shown above. The formulation is given in the description of the gaseous propellant. The literature typically refers to the propellant by the chemical name.

GATV.....U.S., satellite, technology development, GEMINI-Agena target vehicle. Modified Agena used by GEMINI for rendezvous practice.

GB.....U.S., satellite, classified, Also known as SSU. First launch 1983/06/09

GBI.....U.S. & Grand Bahama Island, organization. See NASA STDN tracking station, Grand Bahama Island. Closed.

GBS.....U.S. Navy, satellite, communications. Also known as UHF FOLLOW-ON or UFO. See UFO.

GCRC.....U.S., launch vehicle motor. Thrust 2600 lbf ( kN), pressure ? psi (? bar), propellant solid ?. Used on Vanguard launch vehicle stage 3. Manufactured by GCRC.

GCRC.....U.S., company, Grand Central Rocket Company.

GDE.....U.S., satellite, remote sensing.

GDL-OKB.....Russia, organization, designs liquid rocket engines under Energomash. Associated production facility is NII Mashinostroyenia in Nizhnaya Salda which manufactures the RD-120 Energia rocket engine.

GE.....U.S. aerospace company. See General Electric Corp.

GE.....Launch vehicle motor, General Electric Co.

GE.....U.S., satellite, mobile communications, GEO. Owned by General Electric Amreicom, built by Lockheed Martin. Renamed AMC.

- GE 1, 1996/09/08, CC, Atlas 2A.

- GE 2, 1997/01/30, CC, Kourou, Ariane 44L

First launch 1996/09/08

GE Aerospace.....U.S. aerospace company. Purchased by Martin Marietta in 1992.

GE American Communications, Inc......U.S., aerospace company, satellite communications. Also known as GE Americom. Address: Four Research Way, Princeton, NJ 08540-6684, USA.

GE AMREICOM SATCOM.....U.S. satellite. See SATCOM (4)

GE-STAR.....U.S., satellite, see GESTAR.

géant.....France, giant.

Geb.....Egypt, Earth god.

geizer.....Russia, geyser.

GEIZER.....Russia, satellite, communications, GEO. COSMOS 2224, 2319, 2345, 2350. Also known as POTOK. Also spelled GEYSER. First launch

Gektor.....Russia, Hector , the eldest son of Priam and husband of Andromache, greatest Trojan hero in the Trojan War, killed by Achilles.

GEKTOR.....Russia, satellite, see ZENIT-2M.

Gelios.....Russia, Helios.

GEM.....U.S., launch vehicle motor, Graphite-epoxy motor, solid fuel. Manufactured by Hercules.

GEM.....U.S., satellite bus, see Boeing Geosynchronous Mobil Spacecraft Bus.

GEM.....Geostationary Mobil satellite. A satellite in geostationary orbit that can receive signals from wireless communications equipment. Also known as GEO-Mobile. An example is the THURAYA satellite.

GEM-40.....U.S., launch vehicle motor, Alliant Tech Systems, thrust 100,000 lbf (446 kN), pressure, 817 psi (56.3 bar), propellant HTPB. Used on the Delta.

GEM-46.....U.S., launch vehicle motor, Alliant Tech Systems, thrust 120,000 lbf (537 kN), pressure 1516 psi (104 bar), propellant HTPB. Used on the Delta.

GEM-60.....U.S., launch vehicle motor, Alliant Tech Systems, thrust 191,000 lbf (851 kN), pressure 1312 psi (90 bar), propellant HTPB. Used on the Delta.

Gemar, Charles.....U.S., astronaut, STS-038, 1990/11/15, STS-48, 1991/09/12, STS-62, 1994/03/09. First launch 1990/11/15

Gemini.....Astrological Sign, Twins, 5/21-6/20. Constellation.

GEMINI.....U.S., satellite, manned Spacecraft. U.S. Second manned space program designed to bridge the technology gap between the MERCURY and APOLLO programs. The capsules carried two astronauts, and were launched with a Titan Missile. The program was named after the constellation Gemini, or twins. A total of 19 launches occurred during the GEMINI Program, 9 were unmanned, 10 were manned.

- GEMINI 1, (GT-1) launched by a Titan 2 rocket from KSC, unmanned, on 04/08/1964, reentered but not recovered on 04/12/1964.

- GEMINI 2, (GT-2) launched by a Titan 2 rocket from KSC, unmanned, on 01/19/1965, recovery 01/19/1965, PRS U.S.S. Lake Champlain (CVS-39). SRS: USS C.R. Ware, USS Forest Toyal DD 872, USS Greene DD 711, USS Holder DD 819, USS O'Hare DD 889, USS Putnam DD 757, USS Vogelgesand DD 862.

- GEMINI 3, (GT-3) launched by a Titan 2 rocket from KSC on 03/23/1965, astronauts Virgil Grissom, John Young, recovery 03/23/1965, named Molly Brown PRS U.S.S. Intrepid (CVS-11). SRS: USS Ault DD 698, USS Bigelow DD 942, USS Boston CAG 1, USS Cony DD 508, USS D. Fox DD 779, USS Ellison DD 864, USS Harwood DD 861, USS Jones DD 932, USS Kankakee AO 39, USS Mullinix DD 944, USS Rich DD 820, USS Robert Owen DD 827, USS Sarsfield DD 837, USS Wilson DD 847.

- GEMINI 4, (GT-4) launched by a Titan 2 rocket from KSC on 06/03/1965, astronauts James McDivitt, Edward White, recovery 07/07/1965, PRS U.S.S. Wasp (CVS-18). SRS: USS Barry DD 933, USS Blandy DD 943, USS Chukawan AO 100, USS Furse DD 882, USS Hawkins DD 873, USS Higbee DD 306, USS Mason DD 352, USS Orlek DD 386, USS Ponchatoula AO 148, USS Robert Owen DD 827, USS Rupertus DD 851, USS Sperry DD 697.

- GEMINI 5, (GT-5) launched by a Titan 2 rocket from KSC on 08/21/1965, astronauts Charles Conrad, Gordon Cooper, recovery 08/29/1965, PRS U.S.S. Lake Champlain (CVS-39). SRS: USS Dupont DD 936, USS Goldsborough DDG 20, USS James Owens DD 776, USS Mackenzie DD 836, USS Manley DD 940, USS Mason DD 352, USS Neosho AO 143, USS New DD 818, USS Taylor DD 468, USS Weeks DD 701.

- GEMINI 6, (GT-6) launched by a Titan 2 rocket from KSC on 12/15/1965, astronauts Walter Schirra, Thomas Stafford, recovery 12/16/1965, PRS U.S.S. Wasp (CVS-18). SRS: USS Aucilla AO 56, USS Cochrane DDG 21, USS Kennedy DD 850, USS Mackenzie DD 836, USS Meredith DD 890, USS Ponchatoula AO 148, USS Power DD 839, USS Renshaw DD 499, USS Rupertus DD 851, USS Waldron DD 699.

- GEMINI 6A, launched by a Atlas Agena rocket from KSC on 10/25/1965, unmanned, launch vehicle exploded on launch.

- GEMINI 7, (GT-7) launched by a Titan 2 rocket from KSC on 12/04/1965, astronauts Frank Borman, James Lovell, recovery 12/18/1965, PRS U.S.S. Wasp (CVS-18). SRS: USS Aucilla AO 56, USS Cochrane DDG 21, USS Kennedy DD 850, USS Mackenzie DD 836, USS Meredith DD 890, USS Ponchatoula AO 148, USS Power DD 839, USS Renshaw DD 499, USS Rupertus DD 851, USS Waldron DD 699.

- GEMINI 8, (GT-8) launched by a Titan 2 rocket from KSC on 03/16/1966, astronauts Neil Armstong, David Scott, recovery 03/16/1966, PRS (Designated) U.S.S. Boxer (LPH-4), actual recovery ship U.S.S. Leonard Mason (DD-852). SRS: USS Boxer LPH 4, USS Caloosahatchee AO 98, USS Cecil DD 835, USS Cochrane DDG 21, USS Fox DD 829, USS Goodrich DDR 831, USS Hassayampa AO 145, USS Mackenzie DD 836, USS Noa.

- GEMINI 8/Target ATDA, launched by Atlas-Agena from KSC on 03/16/1996.

- GEMINI 9/Target ATDA, launched by Atlas-Agena from KSC on 05/17/1966, fto.

- GEMINI 9, (GT-9) launched by a Titan 2 rocket from KSC on 06/03/1966, astronauts Eugene Cerman, Thomas Stafford, recovery 06/06/1996, PRS U.S.S. Wasp (CVS-18). SRS: USS Bordelon DD 881, USS Chikaskia AO 54, USS Epperson DD 719, USS Lawe DD 763, USS Mackenzie DD 836, USS McCaffery DD 860, USS Rupertus DD 851, USS Wilson DD 847.

- GEMINI 9A/Target ATDA, launched by Atlas-Agena rocket from KSC on 06/01/1966.

- GEMINI 10, (GT-10) launched by a Titan 2 rocket from KSC on 18/07/1966, astronauts Michael Collins, John Young, recovery 07/21/1966, PRS U.S.S. Guadalcanal (LPH-7). SRS: USS Benjamin Staddert DDG 22, USS Collet DD 730, USS DeHaven DD 727, USS Kawishiwi AO 146, USS Lawe DD 763, USS Norris DD 859, USS Severn AO 61, USS Summer DD 592.

- GEMINI 10/Target ATDA, launched by Atlas-Agena rocket from KSC on 07/18/1966.

- GEMINI 11, (GT-11) launched by a Titan 2 rocket from KSC on 12/09/1966, astronauts Charles Conrad, Richard Gordon, recovery 09/12/1966, PRS U.S.S. Guam (LPH-9). SRS: USS Chandler DD 717, USS Forest Toyal DD 872, USS Kawishiwi AO 146, USS Mansfield DD 728, USS McCaffery DD 860, USS O'Bannon DD 450, USS Severn AO 61, USS Wallace Lind DD 703.

- GEMINI 11/Target ATDA, launched by Atlas-Agena rocket from KSC on 09/12/1966.

- GEMINI 12, (GT-12) launched by a Titan 2 rocket from KSC on 11/11/1966, astronauts Edwin Aldrin, James Lovell, recovery 11/15/1966, PRS U.S.S. Wasp (CVS-18). SRS: USS Bourn DD 846, USS C.H. Roan DD 853, USS Canisteo AO 99, USS Hollister DD 788, USS Kawishiwi AO 146, USS Kennedy DD 850, USS Strauss DDG 16.

- GEMINI 12/Target ATDA, launched by Atlas-Agena from KSC on 11/11/1966.

First rendezvous, GEMINI 7 and GEMINI 6, 1965/12/15. First docking, GEMINI 8, with Agena target rocket 1966/03/16. First launch 1964/04/08

GEMINI.....U.S., satellite, reconnaissance, LEO Sunsync, also known as USA 160. First launch 2001/08/09

GEMINI.....U.K., microsatellite, communications, technology demonstration, GEO. Built by SSTL.

GEMINI TARGET.....U.S., satellite, target for GEMINI docking.

- GEMINI TARGET 06, 1965/10/25, ETR, Atlas Agena D, FTO.

- GEMINI TARGET 08, 1966/03/16, ETR, Atlas Agena D, LEO, decayed 1967/09/15.

- GEMINI TARGET 09, 1966/06/01, ETR, Atlas Agena D, LEO, decayed 1966/07/11.

- GEMINI TARGET 10, 1966/07/18, ETR, Atlas Agena D, LEO, decayed 1966/12/29.

- GEMINI TARGET 11, 1966/09/12, ETR, Atlas Agena D, LEO, decayed 1966/12/30.

- GEMINI TARGET 12, 1966/11/11, ETR, Atlas Agena D, LEO, decayed 1966/12/23.

First launch 1965/10/25

GEMINI-Titan II.....U.S., launch vehicle, LEO, manned. See GEMINI or Titan. First launch 1964/04/08

GEMNET.....U.S., satellite, mobile communications, LEO sun synchronous. Cancelled.

GEMSTAR.....U.S. satellite, communications. GLOBAL ELECTRONIC MESSAGING STAR (Satellite). Launched at WTR with LLV, FTO. Also known as VITASAT. First launch 1995/08/15

Gen. H.H. Arnold.....USNS Gen. H.H. Arnold (T-AGM-9). See tracking ship.

GenCorp.....U.S. aerospace company. Address PO Box 537012, Sacramento, CA 95853 USA. www. Was GenCorp Aerojet, address: 175 Ghent Rd., Fairlawn, OH 44333, USA.

General Dynamics.....U.S. aerospace company. Sold its For Worth Division to Lockheed in 1992. Purchased Spectrum Astro in 2004.

General Dynamics Fort Worth Division.....U.S. aerospace company. Became part of Lockheed in 1992.

General Dynamics Missiles.....U.S. aerospace company. Purchased by GM Hughes in 1993.

General Dynamics MR-107.....U.S., launch vehicle motor, see MR-107.

General Dynamics Space Systems.....U.S. aerospace company. Became part of Lockheed in 1993.

General Electric Corporation.....U.S., aerospace company. Address: 3135 East on Turnpike, Fairfield, CT 06431, USA. Sold its aerospace business to Lockheed Martin in 1993.

GENESAT.....U.S., NASA, satellite, biological experiment, LEO. First launch 2006/12/16

GENESIS.....U.S. NASA, satellite, scientific, heliocentric orbit around the L-1 Sun-Earth liberation point. Gather atomic nuclei from the solar wind and return them to Earth. Of what is the Sun made? Are the planets made of the same materials? The goal of the mission is to enrich our understanding of the birth and evolution of the planets and all the bodies in our solar system. The GENESIS mission will send a spacecraft to collect particles ejected from the Sun, called solar wind, that may contain the answers. The GENESIS spacecraft will journey a million miles sunward, unfold its collectors and "sunbathe" for two years, before returning to Earth in 2004/09/08. The samples will then be cataloged and analyzed by some of the most sophisticated laboratory instruments in the world. The samples will be made available to the scientific community for study, providing a supply of solar matter for 21st century science research. The GENESIS project is managed by the Jet Propulsion Laboratory. Lockheed Martin Astronautics, Denver, Colorado, is providing spacecraft and system integration. Returned to Earth 2004/09/08. First launch 2001/08/06

GENESIS I.....U.S., satellite, technology demonstration. Bigelow subscale inflatable module for possible commercial space station. First launch 2006/07/12

GEO.....Orbital. Prefix meaning earth, as in geosynchronous. See Geosynchronous Orbit or geostationary orbit.

GEO-IK.....Russia, satellite, geodetic. Also known as KOSMOS 1950, 1F666. launched from Plesetsk, by SL-14. First launch 1988/05/30

GEO-Mobile.....See GEM

GEODSS.....U.S. Air Force, organization. Ground based electro-optical deep space surveillance network to identify and track orbiting objects. Sites in Socorro, NM; Hawaii; and Diego Garcia. Can detect soccer ball size objects in GEO and 1 cm size objects in LEO.


GEOLITE.....U.S., NRO, satellite, technology experiment, GEO. GEOSYNCHRONOUS LIGHTWEIGHT TECHNOLOGY EXPERIMENT. Renamed USA 158. First launch 2001/05/18




George C. Marshall.....U.S. organization. See Marshall Space Flight Center.

Georgi Dobrovolski.....Russia, tracking ship. See also tracking ships.

GEOS.....Europe, ESA, satellite, observation. GEODYNAMIC EXPERIMENTAL OCEAN SATELLITE, launched by the U.S., similar in mission to the U.S. GEOS. May also be called the GEOSYNCHRONOUS SCIENTIFIC SATELLITE. Also known as ESA-GEOS.

- GEOS 1, 1977/04/20, ETR, Delta, LEO, ESA-GEOS.

- GEOS 2, 1978/07/14, ETR, Delta, LEO.

First launch 1977/04/20

GEOS.....U.S. NASA, satellite, observation. GEODYNAMIC EXPERIMENTAL OCEAN SATELLITES, provide precise measurements of earth's surface and shape.

- GEOS-A 1965/11/06, also known as EXPLORER 29.

- GEOS-B 1968/01/11, also known as EXPLORER 36.

First launch 1965/11/06

GEOSAT.....U.S. Navy, satellite, oceanographic. Launched at the ETR by an Atlas E into LEO. First launch 1985/03/13

GEOSAT-FOLLOW-ON.....U.S., satellite. See GFO.

GEOStar.....U.S., satellite bus, see NovaStar.

geostationary orbit.....A geosynchronous orbit with zero inclination and appears to remain stationary in the sky as viewed from the surface of the Earth. The time period is known as 1 sidereal day or 23h 56m 04s or 1436m 4s. A single satellite can view 42% of the Earth and be visible between 81o S to 81o N latitude. Satellite can view the Earth between 60o N and 60o S latitude. Abbreviation GEO or GSO.

Geostationary Mobil satellite.....See GEM.

Geostationary Satellite Launch Vehicle.....India, launch vehicle, see GSLV.

Geostationary transfer orbit.....A satellite on the way to a geostationary orbit (22,300 mile altitude)(37,900 km) is placed into a special equatorial orbit that is highly elliptical. The altitude varies between a perigee of about 100 miles (170 km) and an apogee of 22,300 miles. At the apogee, a rocket motor accelerates the satellite into a circular orbit of 22,300 miles. Abbreviation GTO, geostationary transfer orbit.





geosynchronous orbit.....The path of satellite circling Earth at an altitude of 22,300 miles (35,888 km), at a velocity of 6,850 miles per hour, in the same direction of Earths rotation. The satellite revolves around the planet at the same speed at which the Earth rotates. If the satellite has zero inclination than it is geostationary and appears to hang stationary over one spot on Earths surface. Abbreviation GEO.

Geosynchronous Transfer Orbit.....A satellite on the way to a stationary orbit (22,300 mile altitude)(37,900 km) is placed into a special orbit that is highly elliptical. The altitude varies between a perigee of about 100 miles (170 km) and an apogee of 22,300 miles. At the apogee, a rocket motor accelerates the satellite into a circular orbit of 22,300 miles.



GEOTAIL.....Japan, satellite, scientific, HEO. Explores the earth's GEOMAGNETIC TAIL. Launched at the ETR by a Delta 2. First launch 1992/07/24

Gerak.....Russia, Hercules.

German Aerospace Research Establishment.....Germany, organization. See DLR.

German Space Agency.....Germany, organization. See DARA

Germany.....1) Member of ESA.

2) Currency - Mark.

3) Date convention, Day, Month, Year.

Germes.....Russia, Hermes or Mercury.

GERMES.....Russia, satellite, see ZENIT-4MK.

Gernhardt, Michael.....U.S., astronaut, STS-69, 1995/09/07, STS-083, 1997/04/04, STS-094, 1997/07/01, STS-104, 2001/07/12 First launch 1995/09/07

GESTAR.....U.S. satellite, communications, broadband, GEO. 9 satellites constellation. Contractor GE Amreicom.

GETAWAY SPECIAL.....U.S., satellite, see GAS.

GEYSER.....Russia, satellite, military communications, GEO. Also known as POTOK. Also spelled GEIZER. First launch 2000/07/05

GFO.....Navy, satellite, oceanographic, LEO SSO. GEOSAT FOLLOW ON. Also known as TECHSTAR.

- GFO 01, 1998/02/10, Taurus, LEO.

First launch 1998/02/10

GFZ.....German, microsatellite, laser reflecting. GEOFORSCHUNGSZENTRUM POSTDAM SCIENCE INSTITUTE. Delivered to MIR by PROGRESS M-27. Launched from the MIR into LEO. First launch 1995/04/19

GGS POLAR.....U.S., satellite. See POLAR.


- GGSE 1, 1964/01/11, WTR, TAT-Agena D, LEO.

- GGSE 2 & 3, 1965/03/09, WTR, Thor Agena D, LEO.

- GGSE 4 & 5, 1967/05/31, WTR, Thor Agena D, LEO.

First launch. 1964/01/11

GGTS.....U.S. Air Force, satellite, technology. GRAVITY GRADIENT TEST SATELLITE.

- GGTS-1, 1966/06/16, ETR, Titan 3.

First launch 1966/06/16

giant.....géant (Fr),, riesig (D).

GIANT PLANET DEEP PROBES.....U.S. NASA, satellite, scientific. Measure composition and atmospheric structure down 20-100 atmosphere on Neptune, Saturn, and Uranus.

Gibson, Edward.....U.S., astronaut, APOLLO/SKYLAB 4, 1973/11/16. First launch 1973/11/16

Gibson, Robert.....U.S., astronaut, STS-41B (10), 1984/02/03, STS-61C (24), 1986/01/12, STS-27, 1988/12/02, STS-47, 1992/09/12, STS-71, 1995/06/27. First launch 1973/11/16

Gidzenko, Yuri.....Russia, cosmonaut, SOYUZ TM 22, 1995/09/03. SOYUZ TM 31 & Expedition 1, 2000/10/31, SOYUZ TM 34, 2002/04/25. First launch 1995/09/03

GIFTS.....U.S., satellite, Earth observation, part of New Millennium Program. May be designated EO-3.

GIK-1.....Russia, space vehicle launch facility. See Plesetsk Cosmodrom.

GIK-2.....Russia, space vehicle launch facility, see Svobodny Cosmodrom.

GIK-5.....Kazakhstan, space vehicle launch facility, see Baikonur Cosmodrom.

ginga.....Japan, galaxy.

GINGA.....Japan, satellite, see ASTRO C.

Giotto.....Giotto di Bondone, 1266-1337, painter.

GIOTTO.....Europe, satellite, was launched by an Ariane 1 V14 by ESA, and approached within 540 km +/- 40 km of the nucleus of comet Halley on March 13, 1986. The spacecraft carried 10 instruments including a multicolor camera, and returned data until shortly before closest approach, when the downlink was temporarily lost. GIOTTO was severely damaged by high-speed dust encounters during the flyby and was placed into hibernation shortly afterwards. In April, 1990, GIOTTO was reactivated. 3 of the instruments proved fully operational, 4 partially damaged but usable, and the remainder, including the camera, were unusable. On July 2, 1990, GIOTTO made a close encounter with Earth and was retrograded to a successful flyby of comet Grigg-Skjellerup on July 10, 1992. First launch 1985/07/02

Giove.....Italian, Jupiter.

GIOVE.....Europe, satellite, navigation. GALILEO IN ORBIT VALIDIDATION ELEMENT. Also known as IOV. Built by Surry Satellite Technology LTD. 2 satellites GIOVE A, and GIOVE B. Was GTSB . First launch 2005/12/28

GLAST.....U.S./Japan, satellite, scientific. GAMMA RAY LARGE AREA SPACE TELESCOPE. INTEGRAL Satellite follow on.First launch 2007/00/00

Glavcomos.....Russia, organization, governement organization responsible for promoting the Soviet Space Progam.

Glavkosmos.....Russia, organization. POC for Plesetsk Cosmodrom. Address 9, Krasnoproletarskaya St, Moscow 103030, Russia, or Space Commerce Corporation.

Glavocosmos.....Russia, organization, created in 1985, marketing and coordinating body.

Glazkov, Yuri.....Russia, cosmonaut, SOYUZ 24, 1977/02/07. First launch 1977/02/07

Glenn, John.....U.S., astronaut, MERCURY Atlas 6, 1962/02/20, STS-095, 1998/10/29

First launch 1962/02/20

Glenn Research Center.....U.S., organization. See the John H. Glenn Research Center.

Glennon DD 840.....USS Glennon DD 840, recovery ship, part of the fleet which recovered or was on duty and capable of recovering the following: MERCURY Atlas 6.

GLLO.....U.S., satellite, see GALILEO.


GLOBAL MADIA SATELLITE.....Luxemburg, communications, 3 satellite constellation, HEO.


GLOBAL POSITION SATELLITE.....U.S. Air Force, satellite, navigation, navigational orbit. Known as GPS NAVSTAR, GLOBAL POSITIONING SATELLITE (GPS) or NAVIGATION SYSTEM USING TIME AND RANGING (NAVSTAR), placed into a LEO. Successor to the U.S. Navy TIMATION, TRANSIT, NOVA and TRIAD navigational satellite systems. Provides pinpoint navigational accuracy to land, sea, and air forces in the field, and for civilian uses. Requires a constellation of 28 satellites to allow users access to at least 4 satellites at a time. GPS IIR-M means modified or modernized GPS IIR. DoD System Management Codes 834L. DoD designation

- GPS I NS-7A; 63o inclination in 2 orbital planes.

- GPS II, NS-7B; 55o inclination in 6 orbital planes.


First launch 1978/02/22



Globalstar.....U.S. aerospace company, commercial satellite operator, GLOBALSTAR. Address: 3200 Zanker Rd., Bldg 260, San Jose, CA 95134, USA, Partner; Alcatel, EADS, Loral Space & Communications, & Finmeccanica.

GLOBALSTAR.....U.S. satellite, telecommunications, LEO. Lead by Loral (now Lockheed Martin). Requires 48 satellites constellation, 52o inclination. Will proved 100% coverage between 70o N and 70o S. GLOBAL STAR (satellite).

First launch 1998/02/14

GLOBOSTAR.....Russia, satellite, direct broadcast TV, GEO.

GLOBUS.....Russia, satellite, communications. See GRAN.

GLOMR.....U.S. satellite, communications. GLOBAL LOW ORBITING MESSAGE RELAY. Relayed ground signals.

GLOMR 1, ETR, STS-61A, LEO, decayed 1986/12/26.

USA 55 1990 028B, 1990/04/05, Pacific, Pegasus, Polar, Pegasus launch dropped from B-52, GLOMR 02.

First launch 1985/11/01

GLONASS.....Russia, satellite, navigation. GLOBALNAYA NAVIGATSIONAYA SPUTNIKOVAYA SISTEMA or GLOBAL ORBITAL NAVIGATION SATELLITE SYSTEM, 24 satellite constellation. Also known as 11F654 or URAGAN. Similar to U.S. satellite series NAVSTAR GPS. Launched at Tyuratam by SL-12 into 12,000 mile orbit. Built by NPO Polyot in Omsk, Russia.

- KOSMOS 1413, 1982/10/12, GLONASS

- KOSMOS 1414, 1982/10/12, GLONASS

- KOSMOS 1415, 1982/10/12, GLONASS


























- KOSMOS 2362

- KOSMOS 2363

- KOSMOS 2364

First launch 1982/10/12

glycerol trinitrate.....Launch vehicle propellant, solid, double base, see Nitroglycerin.

GM Hughes Electronics.....U.S. aerospace company, General Motors Hughes, purchased General Dynamics Missiles in 1992 and Phillips Magnavox Electronics in 1994. Address: PO Box 80028, Los Angeles, CA 90080-0028, USA. Purchased by Raytheon in 1996. Boeing purchased Hughes in 2000.

GMES.....Europe, satellite, Earth observation, LEO.


- GMS-1, 1977/07/14, ETR, Delta, FTO, HIMAWARI-1.

- GMS-2, 1981/08/10, Tanegashima, H-2, GEO, HIMAWARI-2.

- GMS-3, 1984/08/02, Tanegashima, N-II, GEO, HIMAWARI-3.

- GMS-4, 1989/09/05, Tanegashima, H-1, GEO, HIMAWARI-4.

- GMS-5, 1995/03/18, Tanegashima, H-2, GEO, HIMAWARI-5.

First launch 1977/07/14

GMT.....See Coordinate Universal Time.

GNIIP.....Russia, space vehicle launch facility, see Plesetsk Cosmodrom.

GNPP Trud.....Russia, Moscow, organization. See OKB-276.

GNPRKTs TsSKB-Progress.....Russia, organization1996/. (04 to present). See TsSKB.

GOCE.....Europe, satellite, Earth observation, SSO, part of Living Planet Program. GRAVITY FIELD AND STEADY STATE OCEAN CIRCULATION EXPLORER. First launch 2006/00/00

Goddard.....Robert Goddard, American whose 20th century experimental work confirmed a satellite might be launched by means of a rocket.

Goddard 1926.....U.S., rocket, first liquid propellent rocket. First launch 1926/00/00

Goddard 1926.....U.S., rocket, first liquid propellent rocket. First launch 00/00/1926

Goddard L-16.....U.S., rocket, test of steerable liquid engine. First launch 00/00/1936

Goddard L-16.....U.S., rocket, test of steerable liquid engine. First launch 1936/00/00

Goddard Space Flight Center.....U.S., organization. NASA facility, Greenbelt, MD 20771. After satellites are launched into space, they come under the 24-hour a day surveillance of the worldwide ground and spaceborne communications network, the nerve center is located at the Goddard Space Flight Center. Goddard was NASA's first major scientific laboratory devoted entirely to the exploration of space. Located in Greenbelt, Maryland, GSFC's responsibilities include design and construction of new scientific and applications satellites, as well as tracking and communication with existing satellites in orbit. GSFC is the lead center for the Earth Observing System, a key element of Mission to Planet Earth. GSFC also directs operations at the Wallops Flight Facility on Wallops Island, Virginia, which each year launches some 50 scientific Missions to suborbital altitudes on small sounding rockets.

       U.S., NASA, STDN, Spaceflight Tracking and Data Network. Goddard Space Flight Center, NTTF Facility, Code 850.2, Goddard Space Flight Center, Greenbelt, MD 20771 Later, Goddard Space Flight Center, Network Control Center-GNCC, Attention: Site Manager, NASA/STDN Control Center, Goddard Space Flight Center, Bldg. 13, Code 530.3, Greenbelt, MD 20771. Managed the MSFN, STDN and NASCOM tracking networks.. Also functions as an ESA tracking station.

Godwin, Linda.....U.S., astronaut, STS-37, 1991/04/05, STS-59, 1994/04/09, STS-76, 1996/03/31, STS-108, 2001/12/05. First launch 1991/04/05

GOE.....U.S., satellite, see GOES.

GOES.....U.S., satellite, observation. GEOSTATIONARY OPERATIONAL ENVIRONMENTAL SATELLITE series, successor to the SYNCHRONOUS METEOROLOGICAL SATELLITE (SMS) program of the National Oceanographic and Atmospheric Administration (NOAA). Designation changed from Letter to number after being placed in GEO. Launched from the ETR and placed into GEO.

       Based upon the success of the SMS, NOAA launched a new series of weather satellites placed in a geostationary orbits, and named Geostationary Operational Environment Satellite (GOES). The Objectives were to sense meteorological conditions from a fixed location above the Earth (geostationary orbit, 23,000 mile orbit) and provide this data to operational forecasters and private interests on the ground. GOES satellites are providing the weather pictures you see and the television, in newspapers, and on the internet.

       GOES 1 was nearly identical to the SMS satellites both in size and operational cpability. GOES 1 was placed in geostationary orbit over the Indian Ocean. With the two SMS and GOES 1 satellites operating in orbit, NOAA was able to view the weather over 60% of the Earth, including everything between 60 degrees north and 60 degrees south latitude. GOES 1 was deactivated on 7 March 1985. GOES 2 was similar to GOES 1 and operated from 1975 to 1993, and replaced SMS 1. GOES 3 was similar to GOES 1 and operated from 1978 to 1993.

       GOES 4 was larger than GOES 1 through 3. It was 85 inches (2.16 m) in diameter, 138 inches (3.51 m)long, and weighed 874 lbs. (397) It contained:

- the VAS (Visible Infrared Spin Scan Radiometer (VISSR) Atmospheric Sounder) and its sunshade. This instrument provided both day and night imagery of cloud conditions as well as temperature and moisture profiles. It was the first geostationary satellite to provide continuous vertical profiles of the atmospheric temperature and moisture.

- WEFAX, which used facsimile transmission of processed images and weather maps to WEFAX field stations

- Space Environment Monitor (SEM), similar to those on the NOAA satellites, and

- Data Collection System (DCS) similar to those on the NOAA satellites.

GOES 4 operated from 1980 to 1988.

       GOES 5 was nearly identical to GOES 4. It operated from 1981 to 1990. GOES 6 was nearly identical to GOES 4 and operated from 1983 to 1989. During this time period, NOAA made a name change in the operational GOES satellite series. GOES 6, placed over the Pacific (136o W) was renamed GOES WEST. GOES G had the unfortunate experience of being on a Delta rocket that was struck by lightening shortly after being launched and was destroyed by the range safety officer, bummer!

       GOES 7 was nearly identical to GOES 4 but has had an interesting life. GOES 7 was renamed to GOES-EAST, once in orbit over the Atlantic Ocean (75o W). When GOES 6 (GOES WEST) imager failed, GOES EAST (GOES 7) was moved to cover the U.S. west coast (112o W). GOES 7 spin is now no longer stable, and has developed a “figure 8" orbit at 105o W. It is used for satellite communications.

       GOES 8 was a big change in weather satellites in that it provided a significant improvement over the previous GOES satellites. This helps explain why it was launched 7 years after GOES 7. The GOES 8 satellite was derived from Space System/Loral's communications satellites FS-1300 bus, providing a 3-axis stabilized design. The main body of the satellite is a 78 inch cube (2-meter), with a deployed length of 88 ft (27 meters), and weighs 4600 pounds (2100 kg). It required an Atlas 1/Centaur launch vehicle to place it in the proper orbit. The GOES 8 system is currently performing the following basic functions:

- Acquisition, processing, and dissemination of imaging and sounding data;

- The sounded measures the atmosphere as many layers for temperature, moisture content, and ozone distribution.

- flexible scan, offers small-scale area imaging that lets meteorologists take pictures of local weather trouble spots. This allows them to improve short-term forecasts over local areas

- simultaneous and independent imaging and sounding, which allows weather forecasters to use multiple measurements of weather phenomena to increase the accuracy of their forecasts.

- acquisition and dissemination of Space Environment Monitor (SEM) data;

- reception and relay of data from ground-based Data Collection Platforms (DCPs)


- Search and Rescue Satellite Aided Tracking (SARSAT) system which relays distress signals from people, aircraft, or marine vessels to the search and rescue ground stations.

The GOES 8 spacecraft is operational as GOES-EAST at 75o W, and is still providing clear imagery.

       GOES 9 was similar to GOES 8, but had many small improvements to correct problems with GOES I/8. GOES 9 was located at 135o W and was known as GOES-WEST. However, GOES 9 had a problem the earlier satellites did not have, it was not as reliable as GOES 8. GOES 9 was deactivated 3 years after launch due to failing bearings in the momentum wheels (part of the satellite stabilization system).

       GOES 10 is similar to GOES 9, but has demonstrated greatly improved reliability. GOES 10 replaced GOES 9, and is known as GOES WEST, (135o W). GOES 11 at 4900 lbs. (2217 kg) is similar to GOES 10 but is in inorbit storage waiting to replace GOES 8. GOES 12 is similar to GOES 11, is in inorbit storage. GOES 12 carries and additional instrument:

       an X-ray imager providing an X-ray picture of the solar disk.

       The GOES 8 (I) through 12 (M) are also known as GOES NEXT, for the next generation of GOES satellites. Plans include development and production of GOES satellites up through GOES Q, with GOES N and O to be built by Boeing (Formally Hughes). The plans include launching a GOES satellite about every two years, through 2006.

- GOES 01, 1975/10/16, Delta.

- GOES 02, 1977/06/16, Delta.

- GOES 03, 1978/06/16, Delta.

- GOES 04, 1980/09/09, Delta.

- GOES 05, 1981/05/22, Delta.

- GOES 06, 1983/04/28, Delta.

- GOES, 1986/05/03, Delta, FTO, GOES G.

- GOES 07, 1987/02/26, Delta.

- GOES 08, 1994/04/13, Atlas 1, GOES-NEXT.

- GOES 09, 1995/05/23, Atlas 1, GOES-NEST.

- GOES 10, 1997/04/25, Atlas 1, GOES-NEST, was GOES K.

First launch 1977/06/16

GOES-NEXT.....U.S., satellite, see GOES.

GOLDEN EAGLE.....Russia, satellite, manned, VOSTOK 4, (GOLDEN EAGLE), launched by SL-3, Tyuratam, Cosmonaut, Pavel Popovich, R 1962/08/15. First launch 1962/08/12

Goldsborough DDG 20.....USS Goldsborough DDG 20, recovery ship, part of the fleet which recovered or was on duty and capable of recovering the following: GEMINI 5, APOLLO 11.

Goldstone Station.....U.S., organization. NASA, STDN, Spaceflight Tracking and Data Network. Goldstone Station, for Mercury, Gemini, & APOLLO, P.O. Box 789, Barstow, CA 92311. For STS, Attn: Aviation Director, P.O. Box 997, Barstow, CA 92311. Later Goldstone-JPL, Attn: Station Director, Bendix Field Corpt., 850 E. Mam St., Barstow, CA 92311.

GOMES-ELECTRIC.....Russia, satellite, meteorological, GEO. GEOSTATIONARY ORBIT METEOROLOGICAL SATELLITE. First launch 1994/11/31

GOMS.....Russia, satellite. See ELEKTRO.

gonets.....Russia, courier.

GONETS.....Russia, satellite, communications. Commercial, mobile communications, LEO. Store-forward system similar to COSMOS STRELA military communications satellite system. For military and civilian use.

First launch 1996/02/19

gonetz.....Russia, see gonets.

GONETZ.....Russia, satellite, see GONETS.

Goodrich DDR 831.....USS Goodrich DDR 831, recovery ship, part of the fleet which recovered or was on duty and capable of recovering the following: MERCURY Atlas 6, GEMINI 8.

Gorbatko, Vitkor.....Russia, cosmonaut, SOYUZ 07, 1969/10/12, SOYUZ 24, 1977/02/07, SOYUZ 37, 1980/07/23. First launch 1969/10/12

GORDO.....U.S. satellite. Monkey Gordo launched a Port Canaveral with a Jupiter, failed to recover. First launch 1958/12/13

Gordon, Richard.....U.S., astronaut, GEMINI 11, 1966/12/09, APOLLO 12, 1969/11/14. First launch 1966/12/09

Gorie, Dominic.....U.S., astronaut, STS-091, 1998/06/02, STS-099, 2000/2/11, STS-108, 2001/12/05. First flight 1998/06/02

gorizont.....Russia, horizon.

GORIZONT.....Russia, satellite, communications, civilian. International and domestic communications, GEO. Launched by a Proton Booster (SL-12) from Tyuratam, also known as RIMSAT, 11F662.

- GORIZONT 30, 1994/05/20, Tyuratam, SL-12, GEO, renamed ASIASAT G.

First launch 1978/12/19

GOS.....German, organization. Space operations center (oberpfaffenbofen). Controls German space probes, satellites and SPACELAB experiments.

GOSAMR.....U.S., NASA, satellite, scientific. Gelatin of Sols: Applied Microgravity Research payload-1 on board the STS-42. Launched at KSC. First launch 1992/01/22


Goubarev, Alexi.....Russia, cosmonaut. See Gurbarev.

Gourragtcha, Jougderdemidyn.....Mongolia, cosmonaut. See Gurragcha

Gove tracking station.....Australia, Gove, organization, near Nhulunbuy on the extreme NE tip of Arnhem Land in north Australia. Location of main down-range tracking station for Woomera launches. Now closed

GP.....U.S. NASA, satellite, scientific. GRAVITY PROBE. First launch ?

GP KB Arsenal imeni M.V. Frunze......Russia, organization. Leningrad (St. Petersburg). See TsKB-7

GPM/DPR.....Japan, satellite, earth observation. GLOBAL PRECIPITATION MEASUREMENT/DUAL FREQUENCY PRECIPITATION RADAR. Part of an international constellation of satellites to measure perception. See EPGM and MEGATROPIQUES. First launch 20012/00/00

GPS.....U.S., satellite. See GLOBAL POSITIONING SATELLITE, also known as NAVSTAR.

GPS-2F.....U.S., satellite bus, Boeing Information and Communication, LEO.

GRAB.....U.S. Navy, satellite, signal intelligence, developed by the Naval Research Laboratory. First signal intelligence satellite. GRAB renamed to DYNO around 1962. 5 Flights through 1962 under cover of SOLRAD. GRAB replaced POPPY and later SISS ZULU. See GREB. First launch 1960/06/22

Grabe, Ronald.....U.S., astronaut, STS-51J (21), 1985/10/03, STS-30, 1989/05/04, STS-42, 1992/01/22, STS-57, 1993/06/21. First launch 1985/10/03

GRACE.....U.S., & German, satellite, gravity mapper, LEO, 89o to equator. Built by Astrium/Friedrichshafen. Uses Flexbus. Fly formation of 200 miles (340 km) between satellites. GRAVITY RECOVERY AND CLIMATE EXPERIMENT. Also known as TOM (FM-1) and JERRY (FM-2).First launch 2002/03/17

GRAMSAT.....India, satellite, mobile communications, GEO.

GRAN.....Russia, satellite, see RADUGA.

GRANAT.....Russia, satellite, scientific. Originally called ASTRON, is a x- and gamma ray astronomical observatory studying high energy emission for galactic and extra-galactic sources. Launched at Tyuratam by an SL-12. First launch 1989/12/01

Grand Central Rocket Company.....U.S., company, see GCRC.

Grand Leblond.....Guyane, organization. Ariane tracking station, Kourou.

Grandela.....Spain & U.S., organization. MSFN Station of Madrid, Spain.

GRANDER.....U.K., microsatellite, Earth observation, advanced warning of high seas, 12 satellite constellation. Built by SSTL. First launch 2002/00/00

GRAPEFRUIT.....U.S., satellite, see VANGUARD 1 First launch 1958/03/17

Grapple ARS 7.....USS Grapple ARS 7, recovery ship, part of the fleet which recovered or was on duty and capable of recovering the following: SKYLAB 1, SKYLAB 3.

Gravitational parameter.....Orbital parametert. Mass of a body in space times the constant (G). Symbol is μ.

Gravitational parameter.

μ ≡ GM

= R2a

μEarth ≡ GMEarth

= 3.986x1014m3/s2

= R2EarthaEarth

G = universal gravitational constant

= 6.67x10-11 [Nm2/kg2] or [m3/(kg sec2)]

M = Mass of celestial object [kg]

R = radius of celestial object [m]

a = acceleration due to gravity of celestial object [m/s2]

MEarth = 5.98x1024 kg

N = 1 kgm/s2

REarth = radius of Earth

= 6,378 km

= 3,951 miles

aEarth = acceleration due to gravity

= 9.978 m/s2

= 32.2 ft/s2

gravity.....Orbital parameter. A mutual physical force attracting two bodies. See Newtons Law of Universal Gravitation. See also Planet.

gravity assist orbit.....Hyperbolic orbits in which the spacecraft is sent close to a planet or other large solar system object in order to use gravity to change the speed or direction of the spacecraft. This action conserves fuel. The planet's/moon's angular momentum is used to change the trajectory of a spacecraft. e.g. VOYAGER 2, was launched toward Jupiter using a standard Hohman transfer orbit. VOYAGER 2 passed behind Jupiter. When VOYAGER 2 came into Jupiter's gravitational influence, VOYAGER 2 fell toward Jupiter, increasing its speed toward a maximum at its closest approach to Jupiter. Jupiter sped up the spacecraft substantially, and the VOYAGER 2 slowed down Jupiter's orbital speed a very tiny amount. As VOYAGER 2 climbed out of Jupiter's gravitational field, the Jupiter relative velocity outbound was the same as its velocity inbound. However, VOYAGER 2 left the Jovian environs carrying an increase in angular momentum stolen from Jupiter. The momentum gained by the spacecraft equals that lost by the planet. Examples include Venus-Earth-Earth Gravity Assists (VEEGA) used by the U.S. spacecraft GALILEO, or Venus-Venus-Earth-Gravity-Assists (VVEGA) used by the U.S. spacecraft CASSIN. Also known as slingshot orbits

ole5.gifFigure 19 Gravity Assist orbit. Example is a spacecraft traveling past the Planet Jupiter. V2S > V1S Not drawn to scale.

Gravity Assist Orbit

V2S > V1S

V2j < V1j

V2SMs - V1jMs = V1jMplanet - V2jMplanet

momentum gained by spacecraft = momentum losed by the planet.

V1S = Velocity of the spacecraft before encountering the Planet Jupiter's Gravity and momentum. [km/s]

V2S = Velocity of spacecraft after encountering the Plant Jupiter's gravity and momentum. The spacecraft is speeding away from Jupiter, and has gained momentum at Jupiters expense. [km/s]

V1j = Velocity of the Planet Jupiter before the spacecraft encounters Jupiter's gravity. [km/s]

V2j = Velocity of the Planet Jupiter after the spacecraft has encounterd Jupiter's gravity and the spacecraft has gained velocity by steeling some of Jupiters momentum.[km/s]

Ms = mass of spacecraft

Mplanet = mass of planet

gravity gradient.....Satellite with a weight at the end of a long rod to keep an orbiting satellite pointed at Earth.





GRAVITY PROBE B.....U.S., NASA, satellite, scientific, LEO. Measure the extent of which space and time are warped and dragged by the presence of the Earth. First launch 2004/04/20


Great Britain.....1) Member of ESA. Also known as England, part of the United Kingdom (UK).

2) Launch vehicles Skylark, Black Knight, Black Arrow.

3) Launch site, Woomera Australia.

4) Date format, day, month, year.

5) Currency - Pound, British £.

6) First satellite PROSPERO (BLACK KNIGHT 1), launched by a Black Arrow, at Woomera Australia, on 1971/10/28

Great Observatory Program.....U.S. NASA, program.The goal of the Great Observatory Program is to develop astronomical satellites that observe the heavens using the electromagnetic spectrum from infrared to gamma rays. The four satellites in the program are the Advanced X-ray Astrophysics Facility (AXAF) (renamed CHANDRA), the Compton Gamma Ray Observatory (CGRO), the Hubble Space Telescope (HST), and the Space Infrared Telescope Facility (SIRTF). The first three have already been successfully launched.

Great Wall Industry Corp......China, aerospace company. See China Great Wall Industry Corporation.

GREB.....U.S. Navy, satellite, signal intelligence, launched at the WTR by a TAT-Agena D into LEO.

First launch 1964/01/11

Grechk, Georgi.....Russia, cosmonaut, SOYUZ 17, 1975/01/10, SOYUZ 26, 1977/12/10, SOYUZ T14, 1985/09/17. First launch 1975/01/10

Greek Alphabet......Α, α, alpha, 1.

Β, β, beta, 2.

Γ, γ, gamma, 3.

Δ, δ, delta, 4.

Ε, ε, epsilon, 5.

Ζ, ζ, zeta, 6.

Η, η, eta, 7.

Θ, θ, theta, 8.

Ι, ι, iota, 9.

Κ, κ, kappa, 10.

Λ, λ, lambda, 11.

Μ, μ, mu, 12.

Ν, ν, nu, 13.

Ξ, ξ, xi, 14.

Ο, ο, omicron, 15.

Π, π, pi, 16.

Ρ, ρ, rho, 17.

Σ, σ, sigma, 18.

Τ, τ, tau, 19.

Υ, υ, upsilon, 20.

Φ, φ, phi, 21.

Χ, χ, chi, 22.

Ψ, ψ, psi, 23.

Ω, ω, omega, 24.

Greene DD 711.....USS Greene DD 711, recovery ship, part of the fleet which recovered or was on duty and capable of recovering the following: GEMINI 2.

GREENHOUSE GAS OBSERVING SATELLITE.....Japan, JAXA, satellite, scientific, monitor carbon dioxide density in the atmosphere. Also known as GOSAT. First launch 2008/00/00

Greenwich Mean Time.....See Coordinate Universal Time.

Gregory, Frederick.....U.S., astronaut, STS-51B (17), 1985/04/29, STS-33, 1989/11/22, STS-44, 1991/11/24. First launch 1985/04/29

Gregory, William.....U.S., astronaut, STS-67, 1995/03/02. First launch 1995/03/02

greve.....France, strike.

GRID SPHERE.....U.S., satellite, scientific. Two satellites launched as part of multi launch at WTR by an Atlas F into LEO. GRID SPHERE 1 decayed 1979/11/02, GRID SPHERE 2 decayed 1979/04/14. First launch 1971/08/07

GRID-09.....USSR, rocket, liquid-gel propellant. First launch 1933/00/00

Griggs, David.....U.S., astronaut, STS-51D (16), 1985/04/12. First launch 1985/04/12

Grissom, Virgil (Gus).....U.S., astronaut, GEMINI 3, 1965/03/23. First launch 1965/03/23

GRO.....U.S. NASA satellite, scientific. Gamma Ray studies, Great Observatories series, renamed COMPTION GAMMA RAY OBSERVATORY (CGRO). Launched at the ETR by STS-37 into LEO. The Compton Gamma Ray Observatory is the second of NASA's Great Observatories. Its specific mission is to study the sources of astrophysical processes. The specific objectives of the Compton Gamma Ray Observatory include (1) studying gamma-ray sources emitting in our Galaxy and beyond, (2) investigating evolutionary forces in neutron stars and black holes, (3) performing detailed studies of nucleosynthesis, and (4) searching for primordial black hole emissions. The program is managed by NASA’s GSFC, and manufactured by TRW. The program includes participation from Germany, the Netherlands, the United Kingdom, and ESA

       Compton, at 17 tons, is the heaviest astrophysical payload ever flown. CGRO carries a complement of four instruments that provide simultaneous observations covering more than six decades of energy from 0.01 MeV to 30 GeV. Fuel is reserved for a controlled reentry into a defined area of the Pacific Ocean at mission demise. The Observatory is named in honor of Dr. Arthur Holly Compton, who won the Nobel prize in physics for work on scattering of high-energy photons by electrons - a process which is central to the gamma-ray detection techniques of all four instruments. First launch 1991/04/07

ground station.....A radio station, on or near the surface of the Earth, designed to receive signals from or transmit signal to a spacecraft.

Grove LSD 32.....USS Grove LSD 32, recovery ship, part of the fleet which recovered or was on duty and capable of recovering the following: MERCURY Atlas 7, APOLLO 14.

GRS.....U.S. USAF, satellite, also known as GEOPHYSICAL RESEARCH SATELLITE, see CRL.

GRU.....Russia, organization. Military space force and military intelligence directorate.

Grumman.....U.S. aerospace company. Joined Northrop to form Northrop Grumman in 1993.

Grunsfeld, John.....U.S., astronaut, STS-67, 1995/03/02, STS-81, 1997/01/12, STS-103, 1999/12/19, STS-109, 2002/03/01. First launch 1995/03/02

GS3.....India, launch vehicle motor, uses KVD-1 (KhimMash) motor, thrust 17,000 lbf (75 kN), pressure 826 psi (57 bar), liquid cryogenic propellant LOX/LH2. Used on GSLV stage 3.

GSAT.....India, satellite, experimental communications, GEO. First launch 2001/04/18

GSFC.....U.S., organization. See Goddard Space Flight Center, NASA.

GSKB.....Russia, organization. (08/1948 to 19??). Became KB TransMash (19?? to present). Mission launch complexes for space launch vehicles. Transport Machine Building KB named after V.P. Barmin. Created 1948/08/00.

GSKB SpetsMash.....Russia, organization. Moscow, (1946 to 1967/01). Was Kompressor Plant SKB SpetsMash (1941/02 to 1946). Became KB Obshchego Mashinostroyeniya (1967/01 to present). Mission Launch complexes for space launch vehicles. Created 1941/06/30.

GSLV.....India, launch vehicle. Geostationary Satellite Launch Vehicle, used for GTO..

- GSLV Mk1, 3300 lbs (1500 kg), GEO. See SLV.

- GSLV Mk2 (KVD-1), 11000 lbs (5000 kg), LEO. First launch 2000/00/00.

- GSLV Mk2 (C-12.5), 11000 lbs (5000 kg), LEO. First launch 2003/00/00.

- GSLV Mk3 (C-20), 6600 lbs (3000 kg) GEO.

GSMZ Lavochkin.....Russia, organization. (1965/ 03 to 1974). See OKB-301.

GSO.....Orbit. See geostationary orbit.

GSTAR.....U.S., satellite, communications. GTE Spacenet communication satellite. GE American Communications, Inc (GE Amreicom). GE STAR (satellite) provides voice, video and data services for commercial uses in the U.S. First launch 1985/05/08

GSTB.....Europe, satellite, global navigation system, see GALILEO or GALILEO SATELLITE TEST BED. Renamed GIOVE.

GT.....U.S., satellite, GEMINI-Titan.

GTA.....U.S., satellite, see GATV.


GTL.....U.S., satellite, see GEOTAIL.

GTO.....Orbit. See Geosynchronous Transfer Orbit.

GTS.....U.S., organization. STDN tracking station, Guam. See STDN.

GTsP-4.....Russia, space vehicle launch facility, see Kapustin Yar.

Guadalcanal LPH 7.....USS Guadalcanal LPH 7, recovery ship, part of the fleet which recovered or was on duty and capable of recovering the following: APOLLO 8. Prime recovery ship for GEMINI 10, APOLLO 9.

Guam.....USS Guam, LPH 9, prime recovery ship for GEMINI 11.

Guam Station.....U.S., organization, NASA, STDN, Spaceflight Tracking and Data Network. Guam Station, Attention: Station Director, Dan Dan, Guam 96916, U.S.

Guayanais.....French for Guiana, South America. ?

Gubarev, Alexi.....Russia, cosmonaut, SOYUZ 17, 1975/01/10, SOYUZ 28, 1978/03/02. First launch 1975/01/10

Guiana Space Center.....Guiana, space vehicle launch facility, located near Kourou. 5.2o N, 52.8o W. On the northeast coast of South America. French name is Centre Spatial Guyanais (CSG). Established by France with a first launch in 1968. Owned by CNES and now used by the European Space Agency (ESA) and its commercial launch organization, Arianespace. Launch site for the Ariane launch vehicle. The Russian Soyuz launch facility was added. Early tracking stations were at Hammaguir, Pretoria, Ouagadougou, Brazzaville, and Beyrouth. Owned by the CNES. Address is BP-726, F-97387 Kourou Cedex, French Guiana.

guidance.....Determining the location and direction of travel of a launch vehicle, spacecraft, or satellite and make whatever corrections are necessary to keep to the desired path and reach the destination. 3 basic types of guidance system are used; inertial, using electromagnetic radiation, and command.

- Beam Rider; follows the path of a beam of electromagnetic radiation generated externally.

- Celestial Navigation; follows a path using celestial bodies as reference points.

- Command; follows commands sent to the guidance system by external sources.

- Command Radio Guidance; Command guidance using the radio part of the electromagnetic spectrum

- Fin stabilization; aerodynamic surfaces that stabilize the flight path. Only work in an atmosphere.

- Homing; detects electromagnetic energy emitted from the object, (transmitted or reflected), and follows the emitted energy to the target.

- Inertial; The guidance system measures the forces acting on the launch vehicle, spacecraft or satellite, and controls the direction to ensure it is on the correct trajectory.

- Infrared; Senses heat from a object or destination and follows the heat source.

- Optical; Involves horizon tracking or terrain feature recognition to determine path. See also Celestial Navigation.

- Radar Beam; Follows the reflected radar signal from an object or location to that target or location.

- Radar control; Radar signals sent from the launch vehicle, spacecraft or satellite, reflect of the object or location, and are followed by the vehicle.

- Radio Navigation; Path of the vehicle is determined by the time measure of the radio signal.

- Rotational inertia; Rotating the launch vehicle, spacecraft or satellite to provide dynamic stability.

- Terrestrial Reference; The path of the launch vehicle, spacecraft or satellite is determined by a terrain over which it travels using electromagnetic radiation, and/or gravity.

See also navigation.

Guidoni, Umberto.....Italy, astronaut, STS-75, 1996/02/22, STS-100, 2001/4/19. First launch 1996/02/22

Guinea.....Formally French Guinea, Africa.

Guiyang tracking station.....China, organization, tracking station. See Xian Satellite Monitor and Control Center.

GUMDROP.....U.S., satellite, manned spacecraft APOLLO 9 (AS 504), CSM-104. Launched by Saturn 5 at KSC. CDR James McDivitt, LMP Russell Schweickart, CMP David Scott. LA 1969/03/03, R 1969/03/13, PRS U.S.S. Guadalcanal (LPH-7). First launch 1969/03/30

Gurragcha, Jugderdemidiyn.....Mongolia, cosmonaut, SOYUZ 39, 1981/03/22. First launch 1981/03/22

Guru.....India, Jupiter god.

Gurwin.....Joseph Gurwin, b. 1920, philanthropist.

GURWIN.....Israel, satellite, FTO. First flight of Start launcher, Plesetsk, Russia. Also known as TECHSAT. First launch 1995/03/28

Gutierrez, Sidney.....U.S., astronaut, STS-40, 1991/06/05, STS-59, 1994/04/09. First launch 1991/06/05

GVM.....Russia, satellite.

GWIC.....China, aerospace company. See China Great Wall Industry Cooperation

GWN.....U.S. & Guam, organization. See NASA STDN tracking station, Dan Dan, Guam. Closed.

GYM.....U.S. & Mexico, organization. See NASA STDN tracking station, Guaymas, Mexico. Closed.

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Updated 2007/2/01