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H.....Japan, launch vehicle, Numbering System. Used by the National Space Development Agency of Japan. Nomenclature: e.g.

- H-I, launch vehicle, LEO, 7,000 lb (3,200 kg). Stage 0 strap-on 9 Castor II solid motors. Stage 1, MB-3 Block III engine. Stage 2, LE-5 engine. Stage 3 UM-129A solid fuel engine. First flight 1987/08/27.

- H-II, launch vehicle, 3 Stage satellite launcher.

Numbering system: eg H2A 2022-5D
















- Digits 1-3, H2A, basic H IIA vehicle. Stage 1, LE-7A engine. Stage 2 LE-5B engine.

- Digit 4, 2, number of core stages (1 or 2)

- Digit 5, 0, number of LRBs (0 or 1)

- Digit 6, 2, number of SRB-A boosters (2 or 4)

- Digit 7, 2, number of SSB supplemental booster (0, 2, or 4). Digit is omitted for 0.

- Digit 8, -5, fairing diameter in meters (4 or 5). A 4/5D is available with a 4 m and 5 m diameter compartments in the same fairing.

- Digit 9, D, number of fairing compartments (S single, D double, 4/4D, 4/4D-LC (long), 5/4D).

Launch Vehicles

- H-2, 20000 lbs (9200 kg), LEO. Stage 0, strap-on, 2 SRB. Stage 1, LE-7 motor. Stage 2, LE-5A motor. First launch 1994/02/03.

- H-2A/202 (H2A202), 8800 lbs (4000 kg), GTO. Stage 0, 2 SRB-A. Stage 1, MHI LE-7A. Stage 2, MHI LE-5B. First launch 2001/8/29.

- H-2A/2022 (H2A2022), 9900 lbs (4500 kg),GTO.

- H-2A/2024 (H2A2024), 11000 lbs (5000 kg), GTO.

- H-2A/212, (H2A212) 33000 lbs (15000 kg), LEO.

- H-2A/222, (H2A222)44000 lbs (20000 kg), LEO.

First launch 1994/02/03

H-1.....U.S., launch vehicle motor, thrust 205,000 lbf (912 kN), pressure 689 psi (47.5 bar), liquid propellant LOX/RP-1. Used on stage S-1B, Saturn 1.

H-1.....Japan, launch vehicle. See H-I.

H-2.....Japan, launch vehicle, also known as H-II. See H, Japan, launch vehicle.

H-2A.....Japan, launch vehicle. Also known as H-IIA. See H, Japan, launch vehicle.

H-I.....Japan, launch vehicle, see H, Japan, launch vehicle. 1987/08/27

H-II.....Japan, launch vehicle, see H, Japan, launch vehicle.

H-II Orbiting Plane.....Japan. See Hope.

H-II TRANSFER VEHICLE.....Japan, satellite, see HTV.

H10.....ESA, launch vehicle stage 3, uses HM7B motor.

H10+.....ESA, launch vehicle stage, Ariane 4 stage 3, H10 stretched by 0.32 m, uses HM7B motor. Introduced on V50.

H10-3.....ESA, launch vehicle stage, Ariane 4 stage 3, H10+ slightly reduced, uses HM7B motor. Introduced on V70.

H158.....ESA, launch vehicle stage. Stage 1 for Ariane 5G, uses Vulcain motor, Snecma.

H173.....ESA, launch vehicle stage. Stage 1 for Ariane 5E, uses Vulcain 2 motor, Snecma.

H18.....China, launch vehicle stage. Stage 3 of CZ-3A, B.

H2.....Launch vehicle propellant, fuel. Hydrogen, can be a liquid or gas. See Liquid hydrogen, liquid propellant, gaseous propellant.

H2A202.....Japan, launch vehicle, see H, Japan, launch vehicle.

H2A2022.....Japan, launch vehicle, see H, Japan, launch vehicle.

H2A2024.....Japan, launch vehicle, see H, Japan, launch vehicle.

H2O2.....Launch vehicle propellant, see hydrogen peroxide.

HAD.....Australia, rocket, high altitude air density. First launch 1962/03/29

Hades.....Greece, god of Hell.

Hadfield, Chris.....Canada, astronaut, CSA, STS-74, 1995/11/12, STS-100, 2001/4/19. First launch 1995/11/12

Hadley Page.....Europe, aerospace company, became part of British Aerospace in 1985.

Hadley-Apennine.....Moon, space vehicle launch site, for APOLLO I5, FALCON. First launch 1971/08/02

hagoromo.....Japan, Angel's robe.

HAGOROMO.....Japan, satellite. See MUSES satellite.

HAI YANG.....China, satellite, oceanography, see HY.

Haignere, Jean-Pierre.....France, cosmonaut, SOYUZ TM-17, 1993/07/01, SOYUZ TM 29,1999/2/20, SOYUZ TM 033, 2001/10/21. First launch 1993/07/01

Hainan.....China, space vehicle launch facility, near equator. No launches to date.

Haise, Fred.....U.S., astronaut, APOLLO 13, 1970/04/11. First launch 1970/04/11

Haishèng, Niè.....China, Yuhangyuan, SHENZHOU 6, 2005/10/12. First launch 2005/10/12

HAIYUNG.....China, satellite, Earth Observation. First launch 2002/05/15

Hakucho.....Japan, Constellation Cygnus, the Swan.

HAKUCHO.....Japan, satellite. Also known as SS-04. See CORSA Satellite.


Halley's Comet intercept.....Six international spacecraft intercepted Halley's Comet.

ICE, U.S. 1986/03/25.

GIOTTO, ESA 1986/03/13.

SAKIGAKE, Japan, 1986/03/11.

SUISEI, Japan, 1986/03/08.

VEGA 1, Russia, 1986/03/06.

VEGA 2, Russia, 1986/03/09.

Halo orbit.....Orbit, the satellite travels in three dimensional loops around the libration or lagrange points. So named because the orbits looks like a halo around Earths Libration or Lagrange point, hundreds of thousands of miles in diameter. See also Moulton orbit, Lyapunov orbit, and Lissajous orbit.

ole6.gifFigure 20 Lagrange or Libration Point coordinate system. Halo orbit, z axis is perpendicular to the Ecliptic Plane. y axis points to the direction of Earth's rotation around the Sun. x axis is a line conecting the Sun to Earth,

Halsell, James.....U.S., astronaut, STS-65, 1994/07/08, STS-74, 1995/11/12, STS-083, 1997/04/04, STS-094, 1997/07/01, STS-101, 2000/5/19. First launch 1994/07/08

Ham.....U.S. Space Chimpanzee known as Ham (Holloman Aeromedical Laboratory), first chimpanzee in space. 1961/01/31

HAM SATELLITE.....India, satellite, see HAMSAT.

Hammaguir.....Algeria, space vehicle launch facility, location, Colouls Bechar Missile Range. Located in the Sahara Desert 900 miles from Algiers, Algeria, 31.0oN, 8.0oW, used by France between 1965 and 1967. First launch 1965/11/26

Hammond, Blaine.....U.S., astronaut, STS-39, 1991/04/28, STS-64, 1994/09/09, STS-73, 1995/10/20. First launch 1991/04/28

Hampton.....U.S., organization. See Langley Research Center, Hampton, VA, NASA facility

HAMSAT.....India, satellite, communications, ham radio satellite, HAM SATELLITE. Boost communications among amateur radio operators. Also known as VO-52, VUSAT. First launch 2005/05/05

HAN.....Launch vehicle propellant liquid, mono propellant, Hydroxyl ammonium nitrate.

Hang Tian Yuan.....Chinese for astronaut. See Yuhangyuan.

Hank DD 702.....USS Hank DD 702, recovery ship, part of the fleet which recovered or was on duty and capable of recovering the following: MERCURY Atlas 7.

HAPS.....U.S. launch vehicle, Hydrazine propulsion system. use 3 MR-107 engines. Used on the Pegasus XL stage 4.

Harbaugh, Greg.....U.S., astronaut, STS-39, 1991/04/28, STS-54, 1993/01/13, STS-71, 1995/06/27, STS-82, 1997/02/11. First launch 1991/04/28

Harbin Institute of Technology.....China, organization, also known as HIT. Part of the China Aerospace Corporation.

Harris, Benard.....U.S., astronaut, STS-55, 1993/04/26, STS-63, 1995/02/03. First launch 1993/04/26

Hart, Terry.....U.S., astronaut, STS-41C (11), 1984/04/06. First launch 1984/04/06

Hartsfield, Henry.....U.S., astronaut, STS-4, 1982/06/27, STS-61A (22), 1985/10/30, STS-41D (12), 1984/08/30. First launch 1982/06/27

haruca.....Japan, alternate spelling for haruka.

haruka.....Japan, means far away.

HARUKA.....Japan, satellite. See MUSES-B.

Harwood DD 861.....USS Harwood DD 861, recovery ship, part of the fleet which recovered or was on duty and capable of recovering the following: MERCURY Atlas 9, GEMINI 3.

HASP.....U.S. rocket, upper atmosphere meteorology. Rocket launched from Woomera used to obtain atmospheric readings for the Australian Bureau of Meteorology. Almost 100 were fired by Australia over two years starting in 1970. First launch 1956/00/00

Hassayampa AO 145.....USS Hassayampa AO 145, recovery ship, part of the fleet which recovered or was on duty and capable of recovering the following: GEMINI 8.

HAT.....Australia, rocket, sounding, high altitude air temperature. First (successful) launch 1962/00/00

Hathor.....Egypt, queen god, or god of the moon, or love.

Hauck, Frederick.....U.S., astronaut, STS-7, 1983/06/18, STS-26, 1988/09/29, STS-51A (14), 1984/11/08. First launch 1983/06/18

HAUSAT.....S. Korea, satellite, technology. First launch 2006/07/26

HAW.....U.S., organization. See NASA STDN tracking station, Kohee, Waimea, Hawaii, U.S. Closed.

HAWK.....Russia, satellite, manned, VOSTOK 5, (HAWK), launched by SL-3, Tyuratam, Cosmonaut, Valeri Bykovsky, 1963/06/19. First launch 1963/06/14

Hawker Siddeley.....Europe, aerospace company, Kingston-on-Thames, Surrey, England. Became part British Aircraft Corporation in 1980.

HAWKEYE.....U.S., satellites, part of the EXPLORER series. First launch 1974/06/03

Hawkins DD 873.....USS Hawkins DD 873, recovery ship, part of the fleet which recovered or was on duty and capable of recovering the following: GEMINI 4, APOLLO 12, APOLLO 14.

Hawley, Steve.....U.S., astronaut, STS-41D (12), 1984/08/30, STS-61C (24), 1986/01/12, STS-31, 1990/04/24, STS-082, 1997/02/11, STS-093,1999/7/23. First launch 1984/08/30

HAYABUSA.....Japan, satellite, scientific, lands on asteroid Itokawa. Carried mini satellite MINERVA. HAYABUSA means falcon, was MUSE C. First launch 2003/05/10

Hayes.....USNS Hayes (TAG-95). See tracking ship.

Haynswort DD 762.....USS Haynswort DD 762, recovery ship, part of the fleet which recovered or was on duty and capable of recovering the following: MERCURY Atlas 8.

HB.....Europe, satellite, see HOT BIRD.

 HCMM.....U.S., satellite, scientific. HEAT CAPACITY MAPPING MISSION SATELLITE. Launched at the WTR by a Scout into a LEO.First launch 1978/04/26

HDO.....Orbit. High drag orbit. An orbit that brings the satellite close to the atmpsphere.

HE1A.....U.S., satellite, see HELIOS 1A.

HE1B.....U.S., satellite, see HELIOS 1B.

HEALTHSAT.....U.K., satellite, communications. Medical information satellite. Launched at Kourou by Ariane 40 V59 into LEO. First launch 1993/09/26

HEALTHSAT.....India, satellite, communications. Provides communication between doctors in remote areas and specialists in hospitals. First launch 2009/00/00

HEAO.....U.S. satellite, scientific. HIGH ENERGY ASTRONOMY OBSERVATORY, survey and map X-ray sources throughout the celestial sphere.

- HEAO 1, 1977/08/12, ETR, Atlas Centaur, LEO, decayed 1979/03/15.

- HEAO 2, 1978/11/13, ETR, Atlas Centaur, LEO, decayed 1982/03/25, EINSTEIN. Part of A-TRAIN.

- HEAO 3, 1979/09/20, ETR, Atlas Centaur, LEO, decayed 1981/12/07.

First launch 1977/08/12

heat shield.....A covering on the nose of a space vehicle designed to protect it from the hear of re-entry.


Heavy Atlas 4 MLV-A.....U.S., launch vehicle, see Atlas.

Heavy Atlas 4 Commercial.....U.S., launch vehicle, see Atlas.

Heavy Atlas 4 MLV-D.....U.S., launch vehicle, see Atlas.

Heavy Atlas 5 HLV-L.....U.S., launch vehicle, see Atlas.

Heavy Atlas 5 HLV-G.....U.S., launch vehicle, see Atlas.

Heavy lift launch vehicle.....See HLLV

Heavy Lift Low Earth Orbit.....See HLEO.

Hecate.....Greece, moon goddess.

HECTOR.....Russia, satellite, see ZENIT.

HECTOR.....Russia, satellite, see ZENIT.

HEDI.....U.S., Army, White Sands, anti missile project. 1990/01/29

Hel.....Norse, god of Hell.

Helene.....Saturn moon, one of 19. See Prometheus, Pandora, Atlas, Epimetheus, Janus, Mimas, Helene, Enceladus, Tethys, Calypso, Telesto, Dione, Pan, 1995-S4, Rhea, Titan, Hyperion, Laptus, Phoebe.

Helio.....Prefix referring to the Sun.

heliocentric.....Orbit around the Sun.

heliopause.....The boundary in space that separates Earth's solar system from interstellar space. The heliosphere stops and the space environment begins.

HELIOS.....U.S. and German Satellite, scientific. Study the sun from an orbit nearer the center of the solar system then any previously attempted.

- HELIOS 1, 1974/12/10, ETR, Titan IIIE-Centaur, Heliocentric Orbit.

- HELIOS 2, 1976/01/15, ETR, Titan IIIE Centaur, Heliocentric Orbit.

First launch 1974/12/10

HELIOS.....French and German Optical Spy satellite.

- HELIOS 1A, 1995/07/07, Kourou, Ariane 40 V75, LEO. First launch 1995/07/07

Helius.....Greece, Sun god.

HELLAS-SAT.....Greece, satellite, mobile communications, GEO. Was DFS-3 satellite launched in 1992 and leased to HellasSat in 2002. HELLAS-SAT 2 uses an Astrium Eurostar 2000+ satellite bus. First launch 2003/05/13

HELLOS.....France, satellite, reconnaissance/signal intelligence. Utilized SPOT platform with optical resolution to 1 meter. 1993/09/26

Helms, Susan.....U.S., astronaut, STS-54, 1993/01/13, STS-64, 1994/09/09, STS-78, 1996/06/20, Expedition 2, 2001/03/8. First launch 1993/01/13

Heng-o.....China, moon goddess.

Henize, Karl.....U.S., astronaut, STS-51F (19), 1985/07/29. First launch 1985/07/29

Henley DD 762.....USS Henley DD 762, recovery ship, part of the fleet which recovered or was on duty and capable of recovering the following: MERCURY Atlas 8.

Hennen, Thomas.....U.S., astronaut, STS-44, 1991/11/24. First launch 1991/11/24

Henricks, Terence.....U.S., astronaut, STS-44, 1991/11/24, STS-55, 1993/04/26, STS-70, 1995/07/13, STS-78, 1996/06/20. First launch 1991/11/24

HEO.....Orbit. Highly-Elliptical Orbit/rotational period about 12 hours, large eccentricities.

HEO.....U.S., DOD, satellite, part of the Space Based Infrared System - High (SBIR-High). Development satellite. First launch 2006/06/27

HEOS.....Europe/U.S., satellite, scientific. HIGHLY ECCENTRIC ORBIT SATELLITE.

- HEOS 1, 1968/12/05, ETR, TAID, HEO, decayed 1975/10/28.

- HEOS 2A, 1972/01/31, WTR, Delta, HEO, decayed 1974/08/02.

- HEOS 2, 1978/11/13, ETR, Atlas Centaur, LEO, decayed 1982/03/25.

First launch 1968/12/05

Hera.....Greece, Queen goddess.

HERACLES.....Russia, satellite, see ZENIT.

Hercules Powder Company.....U.S., aerospace company. Created in 1912, was part of E.I. DuPont de Nemours & Company.

Hermaszewski, Miroslaw.....Poland, cosmonaut, SOYUZ 30, 1978/06/02. First launch 1978/06/02

Hermes.....Greece, Mercury god.

Hermes RV-A-10.....U.S., rocket, first large scale solid rocket. First launch 1953/00/00

Hermes Trismegistor.....Greece, Mercury god.

HERMES.....Canada, satellite. See CTS.

HERMES.....Russia, satellite, see ZENIT.

HERMES.....Europe, satellite. Planned Manned space shuttle for Ariane 5.

Herschel, William.....Discovered infrared light.

HERSCHEL SPACE OBSERVATORY.....Europe, ESA, satellite, scientific, was FIRST. 8 ft (3.5 m) mirror, uses Alenia Spazio bus. Orbits at L2 (930,000 miles, 210,000 km) from Earth. Fly in lissajous formation with HERSCHEL in large orbit, and PLANK in smaller orbit.

HERSCHEL-PLANK.....Europe, ESA, scientific, telescope, L2. 2 satellites measure microwave background. See HERSCHEL or PLANK. First launch 2008/00/00

HESI.....U.S., NASA, satellite, scientific. HIGH ENERGY SOLAR IMAGER. See HESSI.

HESSI.....U.S. NASA, satellite, scientific, LEO. HIGH ENERGY SOLAR SPECTROSCOPIC IMAGER Images in x-rays and gamma rays of the Sun. HESSI Satellite's primary mission is to explore the basic physics of particle acceleration and explosive energy release in solar flares. It will observe the Sun to study particle acceleration and energy release in solar flares. The science team includes scientists from the U.S., Switzerland, France, Japan, the United Kingdom, and The Netherlands.

The Solar Science Objectives are to:

- Determine the frequency, location, and evolution of impulsive energy release in the corona.

- Study the acceleration of electrons, protons, and heavier ions in flares.

- Study the heating of plasma to tens of millions of degrees and determine its relationship to particle acceleration.

- Study the propagation and evolution of energetic particles in flares.

- Determine the relative abundances of accelerated and ambient ions in flares.

Non-Solar Science Objectives are to:

- Obtain images and spectra of the Crab Nebula.

- Detect and obtain high resolution spectra of gamma-ray bursts and cosmic and terrestrial transient sources over a large fraction of the sky.

- Search for cyclotron line features in gamma-ray bursts and cosmic transient sources.

- Obtain high resolution spectra and search for line features in steady X-ray and gamma-ray sources.

The launch Vehicle is a Pegasus XL, from Cape Canaveral, FL., into a Circular, 600 km (370 mile) altitude orbit, 38 degrees inclination to the equator. At the time that this article was prepared, the launch had been delayed indefinitely, until the previous Pegasus failure is resolved. The Spacecraft will point to within 0.2 degrees of Sun center, spinning at 15 revolutions per minute, with a field of view of the full Sun (1 degree). The operational lifetime is 2 years (3 years desirable).

First launch 2002/02/05

HETE.....U.S. NASA, France, Japan, satellite, scientific, LEO SSO. Massachusetts Institute of Technology, HIGH ENERGY TRANSIENT EXPERIMENT.

- HETE I, Launched with the SAC at WI by a Pegasus XL FTO.

- HETE II, 2000/10/09.

First launch 1996/11/04

HEXAGON.....U.S., satellite. See BIG BIRD.

HFB.....Europe, aerospace company, joined with VFW, Messerschmitt and Boelkow in mid 1970s to become MBB.

HGM-16F.....U.S., launch vehicle, see Atlas F.

HGM-25 A.....U.S., launch vehicle, Titan I.

HGS.....U.S., satellite, communications, Hughes Global Services, satellite salvage.

- HGS-1, formally ASIASAT 3, purchased by PANAMSAT and renamed PAS 22.

- HGS-2 formally CHINASAT 7.

- HGS-3 1996-030A,1996/05/16, formally PALAPA C1, renamed ANATOLIA-1, then PAKSAT-1.

- HGS-4 formally GALAXY IV.

- HGS-5 formally SBS-4.

Hi-Star.....Australia, rocket, sounding, high altitude geophysics. Three launches on 4, 11 and 17 September, 1974. First launch 1974/09/04

Hieb, Richard.....U.S., astronaut, STS-39, 1991/04/28, STS-49, 1992/05/07, STS-65, 1994/07/08. First launch 1991/04/28

Higbee DD 306.....USS Higbee DD 306, recovery ship, part of the fleet which recovered or was on duty and capable of recovering the following: GEMINI 4.

Higginbotham, Joan.....U.S., astronaut, STS-116, 2006/12/09. First launch 2006/12/09

high inclination orbit.....Orbit, also known as highly inclined orbit. Abbreviation HIO. See inclined orbit.

High drag orbit.....An orbit, part of which is low enough to experience aerodynamic drag caused by the atmosphere. Circular orbit having a period of less than 87.5 minutes experiences high aerodynamic drag. Also known as HDO.







HIGH RESOLUTION RECONNAISSANCE SATELLITE.....U.S., satellite. Used as high resolution satellite with film return capsule. Later used to seek out new targets for BIG BIRD and KH-11s.




highly-elliptical orbit.....See HEO.

HIKOBOSHI.....Japan, satellite, experimental. Two parts, KIKU 7 (ETS) satellite to perform rendezvous experiment. HIKOBOSHI to chase ORIHIME, the target.

HILAT.....U.S., satellite, communications. Launched at WTR by a Scout. Also known as P-83, NNS O 16.First launch 1983/06/27

Hilmers, David.....U.S., astronaut, STS-51J (21), 1985/10/03, STS-26, 1988/09/29, STS-36, 1990/02/28, STS-42, 1992/01/22. First launch 1985/10/03

Himalia.....Jupiter moon, one of 16. See also Metis, Adrastea, Amalthea, Thebe, Io, Europa, Ganymede, Callisto, Leda, Sinope, Himalia, Lysithea, Elara, Ananke, Carme, Pasiphae.

Himawari.....Japan, Sunflower.

HIMAWARI GMS.....Japan, satellite, meteorological. GEOSTATIONARY METEOROLOGICAL SATELLITE. Also known as GMS.

- HIMAWARI, 1, 1977/07/14, ETR, Delta, GEO, GMS.

- HIMAWARI, 2, 1981/08/11, Tanegashima, N-2, GEO, GMS.

- HIMAWARI, 3, 1984/08/03, Tanegashima, N-2, GEO, GMS.

- HIMAWARI, 4, 1989/09/05, Tanegashima, H-1, GEO, GMS.

- HIMAWARI, 5, 1995/03/18, Tanegashima, H-2, GEO, GMS.

First launch 1977/07/14

HINODE.....Japan, satellite, scientific, optical telescope, also known as SOLAR-B. First launch 2006/09/22

Hinotori.....Japan, Phoenix.

HINOTORI.....Japan, satellite. Also known as SS-07. See ASTRO Satellite.

HIO.....High inclination orbit. See inclined orbit.

Hipparcos.....Hipparcos of Rhodes, c. 150 BC, made star catalog.

HIPPARCOS.....Europe, satellite, scientific. (HIGH PRECISION PARALLAX COLLECTING SATELLITE) ESA, astrometry satellite designed to measure the precise positions, parallaxes and motions of starts. Launched by Ariane 44LP V33 into a geosynchronous orbit. First launch 1989/08/08

HIPSAT SA......Spain, aerospace company, satellite communications. Address: Gobelas, 41-2, PO Box 95000, Madrid E-28080 Spain.

Hire, Kathryn.....U.S., astronaut, STS-090, 1998/04/17. First launch 1998/04/17

HISPANIC SATELLITE.....Spain, satellite. See HISPASAT.

Hispano.....Europe, aerospace company, became part Casa in 1970.

HISPASAT.....Spain, satellite, telecommunications. Built by Matra Marconi Space, launched by Ariane 44L V58 into geosynchronous orbit. HISPANIC SATELLITE. First launch 1993/07/22

HISPASAT SA.....Spain, company, commercial satellite operator, HISPASAT. Gobelas 41, Madrid 28023, Spain.

HIT.....China, organization, see Harbin Institute of Technology, in the northeastern Heilongjiang Province..

HIT-SAT.....Japan, satellite, technology. First launch 2006/09/22

HITCH-HIKER.....U.S. Air Force, satellite, radiation data. Launched at the WTR by TAT-Agena into HEO. First launch 1963/06/27

HITCHHIKER.....U.S., NASA/GSFC, satellite, scientific. Small payload experiments on board the Space Shuttle.

Hiten.....Japan, Buddhist Celestial Maiden.

HITEN.....Japan, satellite. See MUSES.

HKSTG.....China, company, aerospace, Hong Kong Satellite Technology Group. Operates HKSTG satellites. Formned in 2001 by China Aerospace Ltd., Science and Technology Group Corp. (CASC) and Sino Satellite Communications (SINOSAT).

HLEO.....Heavy Lift Low Earth Orbit. Payload capability of a launch vehicle that is capable of placing a heavy satellite into a low earth orbit.

HLLV.....Heavy lift launch vehicle.

HLV.....Heavy launch vehicle, capable of placing over 16,000 kg (35,000 lbs) into LEO.

HM60.....France, launch vehicle motor, thrust 224,000 lbf ( kN), pressure ? psi (? bar), liquid propellant LOX/LH2.

HM7.....ESA, launch vehicle motor, Snecma, thrust 14,000 lbs (62.7 nM), pressure 508 psi (35 bar), liquid propellant LOX/LH2 Used on Ariane 1, 2,3, 4 Stage 3.

HM7B.....ESA, launch vehicle motor, Snecma, thrust 14,000 lbs (62.7 nM), pressure 508 psi (35 bar), liquid propellant LOX/LH2 Used on Ariane 4 and 5 ESC-A. Stage 3.

HMG.....Algeria, space vehicle launch facility, see Hammaguir.

Hobaugh, Charles O......U.S., astronaut, STS-104, 2001/7/12. First launch 2001/07/12

HOCKEYPUCK.....U.S., satellite, see MASAT.

Hoffman, Jeff.....U.S., astronaut, STS-51D (16), 1985/04/12, STS-35, 1990/12/02, STS-46, 1992/07/31, STS-61, 1993/12/02, STS-75, 1996/02/22. First launch 1985/04/12

Hohman transfer orbit.....Orbit. The least energy orbit to another planet. Two impulse minimum energy transfer between co-planar orbits.

ole7.gifFigure 21 Hohman Transfer Orbit.

Holder DD 819.....USS Holder DD 819, recovery ship, part of the fleet which recovered or was on duty and capable of recovering the following: GEMINI 2.

Hollister DD 788.....USS Hollister DD 788, recovery ship, part of the fleet which recovered or was on duty and capable of recovering the following: GEMINI 12.

Homing guidance.....See Guidance.


Honeysuckle Creek Tracking Station.....Australia/U.S., organization, NASA, STDN, Spaceflight Tracking and Data Network. DSS44. Relocated to Tidbinbilla as DSS46. See Canberra Deep Space Communication Complex.

hong tian.....China, aerospace. See also HT.

Hong Kong Satellite Technology Group.....China, company, see HKSTG.

Hope Shuttle.....Japan, Space shuttle under development. "H-II Orbiting Plane". First launch 1992/02/15

HOPE.....Japan, satellite, ISS Experimental module. Also known as KIBO. First launch 2006/00/00

Hope-X.....Japan, shuttle. See Hope Shuttle.

HORIZON.....U.S., satellite, communications, GEO, 3 satellite constellation. INMARSAT Satellite.

HORIZON.....Japan, satellite, satellite, communications, GEO. Used Boeing 601HP bus. Considered part of GALAXY 13 satellite. C Band payload refered to as GALAXY 13. Ku Band is referred to as HORIZONE-1 First launch 2003/10/01

HORIZON.....Israel, satellite. See OFFEQ.

Hornet.....USS Hornet, CVS 12, prime recovery ship for APOLLO 3, 11, 12.

Horowitz, Scott.....U.S., astronaut, STS-75, 1996/02/22, STS-82, 1997/02/11, STS-101, 2000/5/19, STS-105, STS-104, 2001/7/12. First launch 1996/02/22

Horus.....Egypt, god of sun, light.

Horus.....Greece, Sun god.

HORUS.....France and Germany satellite, Radar spy satellite.

hoshi.....Japanese for star.

starjap.gifFigure 22 Japanese, Hoshi, Star

HOT BIRD.....Europe, satellite, see EUTELSAT. EUTELSATs starting with 2-F1 renamed HOT BIRD.

HOTBIRD.....Brazil, satellite, communications, GEO, direct TV.

- HOTBIRD 1, 1995/03/28, Kourou, Ariane 44LP V71, GEO.

- HOTBIRD 2, 1996/11/21, ETR, Atlas 2A.

- HOTBIRD 4, 1998/02/27, Kourou, Ariane 4 V106.

First launch 1995/03/28

HOTBIRD.....Europe, satellite, see HOT BIRD.

HOTOL.....U.K., launch vehicle, horizontal take-off and landing, SSTO. Capable of placing several metric tons in LEO. Program cancelled.

Howley.....U.S., astronaut, STS-82, 1997/02/11. First launch 1997/02/11

HP.....U.S., satellite bus, Hughes, High Power.

HP.....Launch vehicle motor, Hercules Powder Co.

HPM.....India, launch vehicle motor, see HPS3.

HPS3.....India, launch vehicle motor, thrust 58,500 lbf (260 kN), pressure 876 psi (60 bar), solid propellant HTPB. High Performance S 3. Also known as HPM and S7. Used on PSLV Stage 3.}

HRMS.....U.S. High Resolution Microwave Study. After October 1993 SETI took it over. 1992/10/12

HS.....U.S., satellite bus, now BSS.

HS-303.....U.S., satellite bus, Hughes.

HS-312.....U.S., satellite bus, Hughes.

HS-333.....U.S., satellite bus, Hughes.

HS-351.....U.S., satellite bus, Hughes.

HS-353.....U.S., satellite bus, Hughes.

HS-356.....U.S., satellite bus, Hughes.

HS-376.....U.S., satellite bus, Hughes. Became Boeing 376 when Boeing purchased Hughes.

HS-381.....U.S., satellite bus, Hughes.

HS-389.....U.S., satellite bus, Hughes.

HS-393.....U.S., satellite bus, Hughes.

HS-601.....U.S., satellite bus, Hughes. See Boeing 601.

HS-601HP.....U.S., satellite bus, Hughes. Became Boeing 601 when Boeing purchased Hughes.

HS-702.....U.S., satellite bus, Hughes.Becaming Boeing 702 when Boeing purchased Hughes.

HS-GEM.....U.S., satellite bus, Hughes.

HS-376HP.....U.S., satellite bus, Hughes.

HS-601HP.....U.S., satellite bus, Hughes.

HSC.....U.S., company, Hughes Space and Communications, now part of Boeing Satellite Systems.

HSPA.....U.S., satellite, see HISPASAT A.

HSPB.....U.S., satellite, see HISPASAT B.

HST.....U.S., satellite. See HUBBLE SPACE TELESCOPE.

HT.....Launch vehicle motor, Hughes Tool Co.

HT.....Abbreviation for Hong Tian, Chines for Aerospace.

HTM-25B.....U.S., launch vehicle, Titan I.

HTPB.....Launch vehicle propellant, solid, fuel. See Hydroxyl terminated polybutadiene.

HTPE.....Launch vehicle propellant, solid, fuel and binder. See Hydroxyl terminated polyether.

HTSL.....China, satellite, technology, FTO. First launch 2002/09/15

HTV.....Japan, satellite, LEO. H-II TRANSFER VEHICLE. Unmanned orbital carrier to the ISS. Ferry supplies to the ISS. First launch 2008/00/00

HTXS.....U.S., NASA, satellite, scientific. Perform high-resolution x-ray spectroscopy. First launch 2005/00/00

Hubble.....Edwin Hubble, 1889-1953, discovered expanding universe.

HUBBLE SPACE TELESCOPE.....U.S. Space Telescope, satellite. Launched at KSC by the STS 31 into LEO. The HUBBLE SPACE TELESCOPE (HST) is the first and flagship mission of NASA's Great Observatories program. Designed to complement the wavelength capabilities of the other spacecraft in the program, HST was a 2.4 m’s, f/24 Ritchey-Chretien telescope capable of performing observations in the visible, near-ultraviolet, and near-infrared (1150 A to 1 mm). The objectives of the HST are to: (1) investigate the composition, physical characteristics, and dynamics of celestial bodies; (2) examine the formation, structure, and evolution of stars and galaxies; (3) study the history and evolution of the universe; and (4) provide a long-term space-based research facility for optical astronomy. It is named after Erwin Hubble (1889-1953), the astronomer who discovered the expanding universe.          The HUBBLE SPACE TELESCOPE is a cooperative program of the European Space Agency (ESA) and the National Aeronautics and Space Administration (NASA), Marshall Space Flight Center, and manufactured by Lockheed Martin. HST is an observatory first dreamed of in the 1940s, designed and built in the 1970s and 80s, and operational only in the 1990s. Since its preliminary inception, HST has been designed to be a different type of mission for NASA -- a long term space based observatory; design life is 15 years. The spacecraft provides an order of magnitude better resolution than is capable from ground-based telescopes at the time of launch. To accomplish this goal and protect the spacecraft against instrument and equipment failures, NASA has planned on regular servicing Missions. Hubble has special grapple fixtures, 76 handholds, and stabilized in all three axes.

       Responsibility for conducting and coordinating the science operations of the HUBBLE SPACE TELESCOPE rests with the Space Telescope Science Institute (STScI) at Johns Hopkins University’s Homewood Campus in Baltimore, Maryland. STScI is operated for NASA by the Association of Universities for Research in Astronomy, Inc. (AURA). A three-year cycle of on-orbit servicing has been adopted. The mission’s troubles began soon after the launch with the discovery that the primary mirror was spherically aberrated. In addition, problems with the solar panels flexing as the spacecraft passed from the Earth's shadow into sunlight caused problems with the pointing stability. Steps were taken to correct these problems, including replacement of the solar panels, replacement of the Wide Field and Planetary Camera with a second-generation version with built-in corrective optics, and replacement of the High-Speed Photometer with COSTAR (Corrective Optics Space Telescope Axial Replacement) to correct the aberration for the remaining instruments.

       The two HST servicing Missions in December 1993 (STS-61) and February 1997 (STS-82) were enormous successes. The STS-61 (Endeavor) mission of December 1993 fully obviated the effects of spherical aberration and fully restored the functionality of HST. Future servicing Missions are tentatively planned. Contingency Flights can still be added to the shuttle manifest to perform specific tasks that cannot wait for the next regularly scheduled servicing mission (and/or required tasks that are not completed on a given servicing mission).

First launch 1990/04/25

Hughes Electronics.....U.S. aerospace company. See G.M. Hughes.

Hughes-Fulford, Millie.....U.S., astronaut, STS-40, 1991/06/05. First launch 1991/06/05

Hunt DD 674.....USS Hunt DD 674, recovery ship, part of the fleet which recovered or was on duty and capable of recovering the following: MERCURY Atlas 7.

Hunting.....Europe, aerospace company, became part British Aircraft Corp. in 1965.

Huntsville.....USNS Huntsville. See tracking ship.

Huntsville, AL.....U.S.,location of the Marshall Space Flight Center.

HURRICANE HUNGER.....U.S., satellite, see TIROS 3 First launch 1961/07/12

Husband, Rick D......U.S., astronaut, STS-096,1999/05/27, STS-107, 2003/01/16. First launch 1999/05/27

Hustler 8048.....U.S., launch vehicle motor. Thrust 15,500 lbf (68 kN), pressure ? psi (? bar), liquid propellant IRFNA/UDMH. Used on Thor-Agena A, stage 2. Also known as XLR-81-BA-5 and Bell 8048.

Hustler 8081.....U.S., launch vehicle motor. Thrust 16,000 lbf (70 kN), pressure ? psi (? bar), liquid propellant IRFNA/UDMH. Used on Thor-Agena B, stage 2. Also known as Bell 8081.

Hustler 8096.....U.S., launch vehicle motor. Thrust 16,000 lbf (71 kN), pressure ? (Bar ?), liquid propellant IRFNA/UDMH. Also known as Bell 8096.

HUYGEN.....ESA, satellite. See CASSINI/HUYGEN.

Huygens.....Christiaan Huygens, 1629-1695, discovered Titan.

HW-2.....Germany, rocket, liquid fuel development. First launch 1932/00/00

HY.....China, satellite, oceanography, HAI YANG, means ocean. Uses the CAST968 satellite bus. Also known as OCEANSAT. First launch 2002/05/15

Hybrid propellant.....Launch vehicle propellant which is a combination of a solid fuel and liquid oxidizer and stored in separate containers in the launch vehicle. See propellant. Many combinations of hybrid propellant formulations are possible. However, only a few are typically used in Spacecraft launch vehicles and the formulation will given in the description of the propellant oxidizer and fuel. The literature typically refers to the propellant by the oxidizer/fuel name.

- Oxidizer

- Hydrogen peroxide

- Liquid oxygen

- Fuel


Hydrazine.....Launch vehicle propellant, liquid, fuel. See N2H4.

Hydrogen.....Launch vehicle propellant, gas or liquid. See H2, liquid hydrogen, LH.

Hydrogen peroxide.....Launch vehicle propellant, liquid, oxidizer or mono propellant, chemical symbol H2O2.

Hydroxyl ammonium nitrate.....Launch vehicle propellant liquid, mono propellant. Chemical symbol NH2OH+NO3. Also known as HAN.

Hydroxyl terminated polybutadiene.....Launch vehicle propellant, fuel, solid. See HTPB. HTPB’s typical formulation is HTPB + AP + Al + small amounts of additives, Is up to 265. See Solid propellant for more information.

Hydroxyl terminated polyether.....Launch vehicle propellant, fuel, solid and binder. Also known as HTPE. See Solid propellant for more information.

Hydyne.....Launch vehicle propellant, liquid. 60% UDMH, 40% diethyleneriamine.

Hyflex.....Japan, NASDA, ISAS. hypersonic glider, Hypersonic Flight Experiment. First launch 1996/02/12

HYLAS.....U.K., satellite, televison and communications, GEO. HIGHLY ADAPTABLE SATELLITE. First launch 2008/00/00

Hyman DD 732.....USS Hyman DD 732, recovery ship, part of the fleet which recovered or was on duty and capable of recovering the following: MERCURY Atlas 9.

Hyperbolic orbit.....Orbit that is an escape trajectory. The satellite orbit is not captured by the planet. It flies by in a hyperbolic path, with the vertex of the hyperbola being the closest approach point to the planet.

Hyperion.....Saturn moon, one of 19. See Prometheus, Pandora, Atlas, Epimetheus, Janus, Mimas, Helene, Enceladus, Tethys, Calypso, Telesto, Dione, Pan, 1995-S4, Rhea, Titan, Hyperion, Laptus, Phoebe.

HYPERSAT.....Japan, satellite, earth observation and communication, LEO.

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Updated 2007/2/01