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I


i.....Orbit element, Keplerian element, see inclination.

I.....Roman number for 1.

I-2K.....India, satellite bus, see ISRO I-2K.

I2B.....Russia, satellite, see POLYOT.

I2M.....Russia, satellite, see ASAT.

IA.....U.S., satellite, INTELSAT AMERICAS, name changed to GALAXY in 2007.

IA SRB-A.....Japan, launch vehicle motor, see SRB-A.

IAE.....Brazil, see Instituto de Aeronautical e Espaço.

IAE.....U.S. satellite, technology. INFLATABLE ANTENNA EXPERIMENT, failed to deploy, KSC STS 77. First launch 1996/05/19

IAF.....International, organization, International Astronautical Federation. Founded in 1950. Publishes Astronautic Acta, Vol 1 1955.

IAI.....Israel, company, aerospace, see Israel Aircraft Industries LTD.

Ianna.....Sumerian, Venus god.

IBM Federal Systems.....U.S. aerospace company. Purchased by Loral in 1993.

IBSS.....U.S., satellite, scientific. INFRARED BACKGROUND SIGNATURE SURVEY instrument, part of SPAS. First launch, KSC, STS 39 into Leo. 1991/05/01

ICBM.....Intercontinental Ballistic Missile, 5,000 miles or greater nuclear warhead range.

ICC.....U.S., satellite, INTEGRATED CARGO CARRIER. First launch 1999/05/27

ICE.....U.S., satellite, scientific. INTERNATIONAL COMET EXPLORER, formerly ISEE-3. Encountered Halley's Comet 1986/03/25. First launch 1978/08/12

ICE, CLOUD, AND LAND ELEVATION SATELLITE.....U.S., satellite, see ICESAT.

ICEBREAKER.....U.S., satellite, scientific, lunar orbit and landing.

ICECUBE.....U.S., satellite, technology, Cornell University, picosatellite that is a cubesat. First launch 2006/07/26

ICESAT.....U.S., satellite, scientific, LEO, laser altimetry. ICE, CLOUD, AND LAND ELEVATION SATELLITE. Part of the Earth Science Program. Was EOS LASER ALT - 1. Used the BALL BCP-2000 bus. First launch 2003/01/13

ICO.....Orbit. Intermediate circular orbit. See also MEO.

ICO Global Communications.....U.S. satellite, telecommunications, MEO, Inmarsat/Hughes led. Total of 12 satellite constellation. Renamed ICO-TELEDISC after Boeing purchased Hughes. First launch 2000/03/12

ICO Global Communications.....United Kingdom, company, commercial satellite operator, ICO. Symphony House, Cowley Business Park, Uxbridge, UB8 2AD, UK. www.ico.com.

ICO-TELEDISC.....U.S., satellite, communications, was ICO Global Communications.

First Launch 2001/06/19

IDCSP.....U.S. Air Force, satellite, communications. INITIAL DEFENSE COMMUNICATIONS SATELLITE PROJECT. 7 Satellites (IDCSP 1-7) launched at the ETR by a Titan IIIC into classified orbit. First launch 1966/06/16

IDEFIX.....France, satellite, amateur radio. IDEFIX is the pet dog of the French cartoon characters Asterix and Obelix. First launch 2002/05/4

IDONOS.....U.S., satellite, Earth resources.

IDSCS.....U.S., satellite, DSCS 1. See DSCS.

IFRB.....Switzerland, organization. International Frequency registration board. Oversees the allocation of orbiting positions for communication satellites. International Law limits spacing between communications satellites using the same frequency spectrum of less than 2o

ignition.....mise à feu (Fr),, zündung (D).

IGS.....Japan, satellite, military, imaging, radar, SSO. INFORMATION GATHERING SATELLITE. Also known as IGS OPTICAL or OPTICAL and IGS RADAR or RADAR. First launch 2003/03/28

IHE.....U.S., satellite, scientific. INTERNATIONAL HITCHHIKER EXTREME UV Far UV. A small Payload experiment. Launched at ETR on STS-69. First launch 1995/09/07

IHI.....Launch vehicle motor, Ishikawajima Heavy Industries Co., Ltd., Japan.

IHI.....Japan, company, aerospace, see Iskhikawajima-Harima Heavy Industries Co. Ltd.

II.....Roman number for 2.

II.....U.S., launch vehicle. See Atlas.

III.....Roman number for 3.

Ikar.....Ukraine, launch vehicle, see Tsyklon. Also known as RS-20, Satan, 15A18, R-36MU. Payload 4200 kg, LEO.

IKI.....Russia, satellite, Buran.

IKI.....Russia, organization. See Space Research Institute.

IKON.....U.S., satellite, reconnaissance, KH-12. Strategic reconnaissance, digital imagery, maneuverable. Upgraded KH-11.

ikonos.....Greece, image.

IKONOS.....U.S., satellite, commercial imaging, Athena 2, FTO.. First launch 1999/04/27

ILS.....U.S. & Russia, aerospace company. International Launch Services Company. Joint partnerships with Lockheed Martin (US) and Khrunichev (Russia). Address: 101 W. Broadway, Suite 2000, San Diego, CA 92008, USA.Launch vehicle Proton.

ILV.....Intermediate launch vehicle, capable of placing 9000 to 16,000 kg (20,000 to 35,000 lbs) into LEO.

IMAGE.....U.S., satellite, see MIDEX.

IMAGE FOR MAGNETOPAUSE-TO-AURORA GLOBAL EXPLORATION.....U.S. NASA, satellite, scientific, part of NASA's medium class Explorer Mission Program. Also known as IMAGE. See MIDEX.

ImageSat International.....U.S. & Israel, aerospace company, partners Israel Aircraft Industries LTD., Core Software Technology, Electro Optics Industries. Also known as ISI.

IMEX.....U.S., NASA, satellite, scientific, HEO. INNER MAGNETOSPHERE EXPLORER, part of NASA's University class Explorer (UNIX) program. IMEX has been selected as one of the first Missions of the NASA University-Class Explorers Program. Its mission is to study the dynamics of the inner magnetosphere during major geomagnetic storms. It will be the first mission in the inner magnetosphere to contain a full complement of field and particle detectors (especially ELECTRIC fields) while there is a full-time upstream monitor in the solar wind (the ACE mission).

- The mission and orbit are patterned after the CRRES mission - the orbit will be a low-inclination GTO 350-kilometer by 35,000-kilometer (217-mile by 21,748-mile) elliptical orbit (~10 hour period), and the apogee of IMEX's orbit will precess through all local times over a 17 month period.

- The spacecraft spin axis will point towards the sun to provide constant illumination to the solar panels, and to provide uniform illumination of the ELECTRIC field antennas to reduce spurious signals due to varying amounts of photo-electron emission.

- IMEX is scheduled for launch in mid-2001, just after the peak of solar cycle 23.

- Weight 160 kg (350 lbs).

- Launch Vehicle, Titan 4, spacecraft attached to the side of the IUS.

- Launch location, Cape Canaveral.

IMFS.....U.S., satellite. See IRIDIUM MFS.

IMINT.....Imagery Intelligence. Known as photographic reconnaissance.

IML.....U.S., satellite. See MICROGRAVITY LAB.

IMP.....U.S., satellite, scientific. INTERPLANETARY MONITORING PLATFORM. Used in the Explorer program for EXPLORER 18, 21, 28, 33, 34, 35, 41, 43, 47, 50.

impact.....When a satellite hits the surface. See also land.

IMPACTOR.....U.S., satellite, see DEEP IMPACT MISSION.

IMPROVED CRYSTAL.....U.S., satellite, see ADVANCED CRYSTAL.

IMPROVED TIROS SATELLITES.....U.S. satellite. See ITOS.

IN ORBIT VALIDATION......Europe, satellite, see GIOVE.

inauguration.....inauguration (Fr)., eräffnung (D).

inclination.....Orbital component. Keplerian elements. The angle a satellite orbit makes with the equator. An equatorial orbit has 0o inclination with the equator. Inclination, the angle between the orbit of a satellite and the equator, measured at the ascending node. It determines the northern most and southern most points on Earth passed over by the satellite. If the angle is 90o, the satellite is in a polar orbit. If the angle is between 90o and 180o, the orbit is known as a retrograde orbit. Symbol i.

inclined orbit.....The satellite travels across longitudinal lines, crossing the equator twice every 360o rotation about the earth.

Index number.....Russia, also known as article number. See Russia spacecraft and launch vehicle designation.

INDEX.....Japan, satellite, technology. Renamed REIMEI.

India.....1) ISRO is incharge of the India space program.

2) Launch facility: Srihirakota range, Balasore and Thumba rocket launching station.

3) Launch Vehicles: Augmented SLF, Polar SLV, Geosynch SLF.

4) Date convention: day month year.

5) Currency - Rupee R.

6) First launch ROHINI 1B, launched by Satellite Launch Vehicle (SLV) at Sriharikota on 1980/07/18

India Space Research Organization.....India, organization, Space agency. Address, Department of Space, Government of India, Antariksh Bhavan, New BEL Road, Bangalore, India 560 094. Abbreviation ISRO. Uikram Sarabhai Space enter, Calcutta, India.

ISRO Space Centers:

- Vikram Sarabhai Space Center, Trivandrum (VSSC)

- Shar Center, Sriharikota Island (SHAR)

- ISRO Satellite Center, Bangalore (ISAC)

- Space Applictions Center (SAC)

- Liquid Propulsion Systems Center, Trivandrum (LPSC)

- ISRO Telemetry, Tracking and Command Network, Bangalore (ISTRAC)

- INSAT Master Control Facility, Hassan (MCF)

- Development and Education Communication Unit, Ahmedabad (DECU).

Established 1969/08/15.

INDIA NATIONAL SATELLITE.....India, satellite. See INSAT.

INDIA REMOTE SENSING SATELLITE.....India, satellite. See IRS.

Indian Ocean region......See IOR

INDIGO.....U.S., satellite. See LACROSSE.

INDONESIA STAR.....Indonesia, satellite. See CAKRAWARTA or INDOSTAR.

Indonesian Domestic Communication Satellite System.....Indonesia, satellite. See PALAPA.

INDOSTAR.....Indonesia, satellite, direct broadcast TV, GEO. INDONESIA STAR. GEO. Launched at Kourou by an Ariane 44L into GEO. Also known as CAKRAWARTA. First launch 1997/11/11

Inertial guidance.....See Guidance.

Inertial Upper Stage.....U.S., launch vehicle. See IUS.

INFLATABLE ANTENNA EXPERIMENT.....U.S., satellite. See IAE.

INFORMATION GATHERING SATELLITE.....Japan, satellite, see IGS.

INFORMATOR.....Russia, satellite, communications. Collect and transmit information for the Ministry of Geology and experimental communications satellite. Launched at Plesetsk by SL-4 into LEO. First launch 1991/01/29

INFORMATR.....Russia, satellite. See INFORMATOR.

INFRA-RED ASTRONOMICAL SATELLITE.....U.S., satellite. See IRAS.

INFRA-RED SPACE OBSERVATORY.....ESA, satellite. See ISO.

Infrared.....Electromagnetic radiation whose wavelength is longer than the longest

visible red but shorter than radio waves.

Infrared guidance.....See Guidance.

INFRARED BACKGROUND SIGNATURE SURVEY.....U.S. satellite. See IBSS.

Ingraham DD 694.....USS Ingraham DD 694, recovery ship, part of the fleet which recovered or was on duty and capable of recovering the following: MERCURY Atlas 8.

Inhibited Red Fuming Nitric Acid.....Launch vehicle propellant, liquid. Composition RFNA 99.4%, hydrogen fluoride (HF) 0.6%. Hydrogen Fluoride is added for passivation by deposition of a protective metallic fluoride coating. See IRFNA.

Inhibited White fuming nitric acid.....Launch vehicle propellant, oxidizer. Anhydrous nitric acid (HNO3) with 0.6% hydrogen fluoride (HF). Hydrogen Fluoride is added for passivation by deposition of a protective metallic fluoride coating. See IWFNA.

INITIAL DEFENSE COMMUNICATIONS SATELLITE PROJECT.....U.S., satellite. See IDCSP.

injun.....U.S., Native American (slang).

INJUN.....U.S., satellites, scientific. Part of the Explorer series, 25 & 40.

Inmarsat.....UK, aerospace company, commercial satellite operator, INMARSAT. Address: 99 City Road, London EC1 YAX, United Kingdom.

INMARSAT.....European, satellite, communications, GEO. INTERNATIONAL MARITIME SATELLITE.

First launch 1990/10/30

INNER MAGNETOSPHERE EXPLORER.....U.S., NASA, satellite. See IMEX.

Innovation Enterprise "Lunokhod".....Russia, organization. Address: 24, Leningradskoye sh., 141400 Khimki (Moscow region), Telephone:(7 095) 573-0075, FAX: (7 095) 571-2345, This enterprise was founded in 1991 as a department of the Lavochkin Scientific and Production Association for the research, development, production and market promotion of new types of scientific-intensive articles. The output of "Lunokhod" includes tight containers, units for temperature control, power supply and communications systems of spacecraft, ground facilities for space communications, high precision drives and positioning systems, scientific instruments for space research, measuring and control systems based on tensor resistors. Founded 1991/00/00.

INPE.....Brazil, organization. Instituto National de Pesquisas Espaciais, translated into English means National Institute for Space Research, San Jose dos Campos, Zemin. Manufactures satellites.

Insat 3.....India, satellite bus, ISRO, GEO.

INSAT.....India, satellite, meteorological, communications, and television broadcasting, GEO.INDIA NATIONAL SATELLITE.

INSAT 2D-R formally ARABSAT 1C.

First launch 1982/04/10

INSAT Master Control Facility.....India, organization, see ISRO. Also known as MCF.

INSIDE.....U.S., satellite, scientific, Jovian orbit, dynamic evaluation of Jupiter.

INSPECTOR.....German, satellite, technological, LEO. Extended inspection of MIR and ISS. First launch 1997/10/05

INSPEKTOR.....Russia, satellite, robotic spacecraft to inspect MIR, launched to MIR on Progress M-37.

Institut für Weltraumforschung.....Austria, organization, see Space Research Institut.

Institute 651.....China, organization, created in 1965. Special Bureau of the Chinese Academy of Sciences.

Institute of Power Source/Institute 18.....China, Tianjin, organization, solar panels and batteries.

Institute of Space & Astronautics Sciences, Japan.....Japan, organization. See ISAS.

Institute of Space Medico-Engineering.....China, Beijing, organization. Preparation for manned spaceflight.

Instituto de Aeronautical e Espaço.....Brazil, also known as IAE. Instituto de Aeronautical e Espaço, translated means, Institut of aeronautics and space.

Instituto National de Pesquisas Espaciais.....Brazil, organization, see INPE.

INTA-225.....Spain, rocket, upper atmosphere geophysics. First launch 1969/00/00

INTASAT.....Spain, satellite, scientific, LEO. Built by INTA. SATELLITE measures the density of the ionosphere and test radio propagation. Launched at the WTR by a Thorad Delta. First launch, 1974/11/15

INTEGRAL.....ESA, satellite, scientific, astronomy, HEO. INTERNATIONAL GAMMA-RAY ASTROPHYSICS LABORATORY. Also known as M2 INTEGRAL. First launch 2002/10/17

INTEGRATED MISSILE EARLY WARNING SATELLITE.....U.S., satellite. See MEWSS.

INTEGRATED RENDEZVOUS TARGET.....U.S. satellite. See IRT.

INTEGRATED TRUSS STRUCTURE.....U.S., satellite, see ISS or ISSA.

Intelsat.....U.S., aerospace company, commercial satellite operator, INTELSAT. Address: 3400 International Dr., NW, Washington, D.C. 20008, USA. www.intelsat.com.

INTELSAT.....U.S., satellite, communications, GEO. INTERNATIONAL TELECOMMUNICATIONS SATELLITE Consortium, organization of many nations to set up the first worldwide communications system. Established by the Communications Act of 1962. The interest in telecommunication satellites started in the 1940's. Telecommunication satellites were first predicted by Arthur C. Clarke, in an article in Wireless World, October 1945, pages 305-308. The first telecommunications satellite was the ECHO 1, (launched on 1960/12/08, 1960 009A, by a Thor Delta 270/D2 rocket from Cape Canaveral, FL and placed into a low earth orbit). It was a passive communications satellite. Signals were bounced off the ECHO 1 Satellite and reflected back to earth. The first commercial telecommunications satellite was INTELSAT 1,(International Telecommunications Satellite) (launched on 1965/06/04, 1965-028A, by a Delta D rocket from Cape Canaveral, FL, into a geosynchronous orbit (GEO), positioned over the Atlantic Ocean). The satellite was renamed Early Bird and was an active telecommunication satellite, in that it received signals from earth, amplified them, and sent the signals back to earth. Early Bird was owned by Intelsat.

       Intelsat was the operating arm of a consortium that began on1964/8/20, because many governments and other organizations o realized the capability of satellite communications, and also realized the tremendous cost to create the infrastructure. The International Telecommunications Satellite Consortium was initially composed of 11 participating countries. In 1973, the name was changed to International Telecommunications Satellite Organization (ITSO), had grown to 80 countries and organizations. The ITSO has no operational role, but ensures the implementation of the public service commitments of Intelsat.

       Intelsat is the world's largest commercial satellite communications services provider. Intelsat currently has over 100 members and provides service to over 600 Earth stations in more than 149 countries, territories and dependancies. In 2000, Intelsat started on the road from treaty based, international cooperative to private company and received formal approval from its owners and governments. Intelsat maintains its headquarters at 3400 International Drive N.W., Washington, D.C. 20008-3098 USA. Spacecraft operations are controlled through ground stations in Fucino (Italy), Clarksburg (Maryland, USA), Beijing (PRC), Raisting (Germany), Perth (Australia), and Paumalu (Hawaii, USA). Intelsat's primary source of revenue comes from satellite usage fees which, after deduction of operating costs, are redistributed to ITSO members in proportion to their shares as repayment of capital and compensation for use of capital.

       Another organization, called Comsat, was the sole U.S. company that provided INTELSAT services to U.S. companies and organizations. Comsat Inc., was created by the U.S. Congress in 1962. Comsat operated as an independent company until 2000, when Lockheed Martin (6560 Rock Spring Drive, Bethesda, MD 20817 USA) purchased and incorporated Comsat into Lockheed Martin. In the 1980's, the regulations were changed to allow other communication satellites and services to operate, kicking off the communications satellite boom that started in the mid 1980's.

       Intelsat currently has a 20 satellites constellation in GEO. In the next two years, they will launch 9 new satellites, expanding their constellation to 24 satellites while retiring several older satellites. Telecommunication satellites have several major systems which include:

       - Solar cells for power,

       - Antennas for receiving and sending communications signals,

-Transponders which are electronic devices that receives, amplifies, and retransmits signals on a different frequencies,

- Satellite operation and control hardware and software, and

- Station keeping propulsion.

       It is interesting to observe the technology advances over the last 37 years by comparing the first Intelsat with the latest:

- Early Bird: Two transponders with 50 MHZ bandwidth, 240 voice circuits or one TV channel, serving the USA and Europe, solar cells providing over 12 w of power, weight was 39 kg, operational for 3.5 years.

- Intelsat 902: Launched 2001/30/08 by an Ariane launch vehicle from Kourou. The satellite has 42 C-band transponders to serve the entire the Atlantic Ocean Region, as well as 12 Ku-band transponders that will provide spot beam coverage for Europe. Capable of handling over 22,000 telephone calls and 3 color TV broadcasts simultaneously. Solar cells provide over 8 kW power. Weight is 4,723 kg, operating life of 15 years.

The following is a brief history of Intelsat:

1960s :In 1965, Intelsat launched the world's first commercial communications satellite, the Early Bird built by Hughes. Within four years, established the first global satellite communication system, with spacecraft covering the three major ocean regions. In 1969, Intelsat transmitted footage of the historic Apollo XI lunar landing, providing the first live global television broadcast.

1970s :In 1974, Intelsat created the world's first international digital voice communications service. Later that year, Intelsat activated a direct "hot line" link between the White House and the Kremlin. In 1977, their satellites were used in international tests of the triple-network Internet — a key step in developing the Internet of today. The following year, an estimated one billion people in 42 countries watched World Cup soccer matches via Intelsat satellites, setting a record for television coverage.

1980s:More powerful satellites allowed broadcasters to use small, transportable earth stations to broadcast major news events, live, from anywhere in the world for the first time. In 1986, Intelsat demonstrated this technology in a ship-to-shore transmission from the Queen Elizabeth II cruise ship during U.S. Independence Day celebrations. The following year, Intelsat engineered the largest international teleconference in history, linking over 50,000 people in 79 cities to discuss world hunger.

1990s:In the early 1990s, customers began using their satellites for commercial Internet applications and their emerging requirements for multimedia. In 1995, Intelsat helped launch the first multipurpose, pan-Russian, digital satellite business network, facilitating important transactions between banks, and government and corporate offices. In 1997, Intelsat offered the world's first, global, pay-as-you-go, shared-access satellite service for low-demand areas. This enabled public telecom operators to connect many rural villages and remote areas for the first time.

2000+:Intelsat brought the very first television images of the year 2000 to millions of viewers around the globe. In cascading coverage of millennium celebrations in every time zone, Intelsat carried a record volume of 1,650 program-hours over one weekend for over 50 broadcasters.

2007+:Intelsat changed the names of 16 satellites, Galaxy (G) replaces the Intelsat Americas (IA) brand, Intelsat (IS) replaces the PanAmSat brand (PAS).

       Intelsat has used several designations for their satellites since 1964. Early satellites were given names, e.g. Early Bird. The designation was later changed to a Roman numeral or Hindu-Arabic number for a series of similar satellites (blocks), e.g. Roman Number IV designated the 4th series (or 4th block) of satellites, and a letter and number designation for the number of the satellite in a block, e.g. F6, for the 6th satellite of the block. For example, a satellite could be designated as IV F6 or 4 F6 or 4-6. Starting with Block 7 in 1993, the designation was changed to all Hindu-Arabic numbers, e.g. 703 is a Block 7 satellite series; and 3 being the 3rd satellite in that block. Typically, the higher the block number the more sophisticated and powerful the satellite. Also note that the satellite may have multiple designation during its life. The satellite may have one designation for assembly, launch and orbital checkout, and another designation after the satellite is turned over to Intelsat from the satellite manufacturer. The designation described above is for working satellites in orbit after they have been turned over to Intelsat. Intelsat also uses several satellite manufactures (e.g. Hughes, Loral, Lockheed Martin, Boeing) and launch vehicles (e.g. Delta, Atlas, Ariane, Titan, CZ, Soyuz) spreading the cost amongst its members. Finally, Comsat and Intelsat, may be used as generic names for communication type satellites.

- INTELSAT I, 240 voice channels or 1 TV channel.

- INTELSAT II, 240 voice channels or 1 TV channel

- INTELSAT III, 1500 voice channels, up to 4 TV channels.

- INTELSAT IV, 3750 voice channels plus 2 TV channels.

- INTELSAT IV-A, 6250 voice channels plus 2 TV channels

- INTELSAT V, 12,000 voice channels plus 2 TV channels.

- INTELSAT VA, 15,000 voice channels plus 2 TV channels

- INTELSAT VI, 33,000 voice channels plus 4 TV channels.

First launch 1965/04/06

INTELSAT AMERICAS.....U.S., satellite, communications, GEO, SS/L’s 1300 satellite bus. Named changed to GALAXY in 2007. First launch 2007/00/00

INTERBALL.....Russia, satellite, scientific. Investigate the "Tail" of earths magnetosphere. Also known as AURORAL PROBE, and PROGNOZ M.

- INTERBALL 1, 1995/08/02, Plesetsk, SL-6, HEO.

- INTERBALL 2, 1996/08/29, Plesetsk, Molniya, AURORAL PROBE.

First launch 1995/08/02

INTERBOL.....Russia, satellite. See INTERBALL.

Intercontinental Ballistic Missile.....See ICBM

Intercosmos.....USSR, multilateral space exploration program formed in 1967. Nine members, Russia, Czechoslovakia, East Germany, Poland, Bulgaria, Hungary, Vietnam, Mongolia, and Cuba.

INTERCOSMOS.....Russia, satellite, see INTERKOSMOS.

INTERKOSMOS.....Russia, satellite, scientific. International experiments in UV, x-rays. Also known as ACTIVNY.

- INTERKOSMOS 1, 1969/10/14, Kapustin Yar, SL-7, LEO, Reentered 1970/01/02.

- INTERKOSMOS 2, 1969/12/25, Kapustin Yar, SL-7, LEO, Reentered 1970/06/07

- INTERKOSMOS 3, 1970/08/07, Kapustin Yar, SL-7, LEO, Reentered 1970/12/06

- INTERKOSMOS 4, 1970/10/14, Kapustin Yar, SL-7, LEO, Reentered 1971/01/17

- INTERKOSMOS 5, 1971/10/02, Kapustin Yar, SL-7, LEO, Reentered 1972/04/07

- INTERKOSMOS 6, 1972/04/07, Tyuratam, SL-4, LEO, Recovered 1972/04/11

- INTERKOSMOS 7, 1972/06/30, Kapustin Yar, SL-7, LEO, Reentered 1972/10/05

- INTERKOSMOS 8, 1972/11/30, Plesetsk, SL-7, LEO, Reentered 1973/03/20

- INTERKOSMOS 9, 1973

- INTERKOSMOS 10, 1973/10/30, Plesetsk, SL-8, LEO, Reentered 1977/07/01

- INTERKOSMOS 11, 1974/03/17, Kapustin Yar, SL-8, LEO, Reentered 1979/09/06

- INTERKOSMOS 12, 1974/10/31, Plesetsk, SL-8, LEO, Reentered 1975/03/19

- INTERKOSMOS 13, 1975/06/03, Plesetsk, SL-8, FTO

- INTERKOSMOS 14, 1975/12/11, Plesetsk, SL-8, LEO, Reentered 1983/02/27

- INTERKOSMOS 15, 1976/06/19, Plesetsk, SL-8, LEO, Reentered 1979/11/18

- INTERKOSMOS 16, 1976/07/27, Kapustin Yar, SL-8, LEO, Reentered 07/10/1079

- INTERKOSMOS 17, 1977/09/24, Plesetsk, SL-8, LEO, Reentered 1979/11/08

- INTERKOSMOS 18, 1978/10/24, Plesetsk, SL-8, LEO, Reentered 1981/03/17

- INTERKOSMOS 19, 1979/02/27, Plesetsk, SL-8, LEO

- INTERKOSMOS 20, 1979/11/01, Plesetsk, SL-8, LEO, Reentered 1981/03/05

- INTERKOSMOS 21, 1981/02/06, Plesetsk, SL-8, LEO, Reentered 1982/07/07

- INTERKOSMOS 22, 1981/08/07, Plesetsk, SL-3, LEO, BULGARIA 1300

- INTERKOSMOS 23,

- INTERKOSMOS 24, 1989/09/28, Plesetsk, SL-14, LEO, ACTIVNY

- INTERKOSMOS 25, 1991/12/18, Plesetsk, SL-14, LEO

- First launch 1969/10/14

Intermediate circular orbit.....Orbit. See ICO or MEO.

Intermediate Range Ballistic Missile.....See IRBM.

International Designation for satellites.....See satellite designation.

International Launch Services Company......U.S. & Russia, aerospace company. See ILS

International Maritime Satellite Organization.....U.S., organization. Established in 1979 to provide communication to sea going users (INMARSAT). Later expanded to include land and air users.

International Space Science Institute.....Switzerland, organization. See ISSI

International Telecommunications Union.....Assigns frequencies for communications satellite use.

INTERNATIONAL COMET EXPLORER.....U.S., satellite. See ICE.

INTERNATIONAL EXTREME UV FAR UV HITCHHIKER.....U.S., satellite. See IHE.

INTERNATIONAL GAMMA-RAY ASTROPHYSICS LABORATORY.....U.S., satellite. See INTEGRAL.

INTERNATIONAL HITCHHIKER EXTREME UV FAR UV.....U.S. satellite. See IHE.

INTERNATIONAL MARITIME SATELLITE.....U.S., satellite. See INMARSAT.

INTERNATIONAL MICROGRAVITY LABORATORY.....U.S., satellite. Also known as IML. See MICROGRAVITY LAB.

INTERNATIONAL RADIATION INVESTIGATION SATELLITE.....Europe, satellite. See IRIS.

INTERNATIONAL SOLAR POLAR MISSION.....Europe, satellite. See ISPM or ULYSSES.

INTERNATIONAL SPACE STATION ALPHA.....U.S., satellite. See ISSA.

INTERNATIONAL SUN EARTH EXPLORES.....U.S., ESA, satellite. See ISEE.

INTERNATIONAL TELECOMMUNICATION SATELLITE.....U.S., satellite. See INTELSAT.

INTERNATIONAL ULTRAVIOLET EXPLORER.....U.S., satellite. See IUE.

interplanetary craft.....Any craft which leaves the gravity of the Earth, travels to another planet, moon, asteroid, comet, or star. It may be captured by that objects gravity in which it either orbits the planet or lands (sometimes crashes) on the surface. Some interplanetary probes pass near another planet to be turned in another direction or gain speed to a different destination. See slingshot orbit or gravity assist orbit.

interplanetary orbit.....Orbits around the Sun or heliocentric orbit. The nearest point of the orbit to the Sun is called the perihelion. The farthest point of the orbit to the Sun is called the aphelion.

INTERPLANETARY MONITORING PLATFORM.....U.S. satellite. See IMP.

INTERPLANETARY STATION.....Russia, satellite, see SPUTNIK 8. First launch 1961/02/12

Interspace.....France, aerospace company. Address: 18 avenue Edouard-Belin BP 4356, Toulouse Cedex 31029, France.

Intersputnik.....Russia, aerospace company. Address: 2nd Smolensky, 1/4 Moscow 121099 Russia.

INTERSPUTNIK.....Russia, satellite, communications. CIS equivalent to Intelsat. Use RADUGA satellites.

interstellar.....Orbit. Spacecraft's orbit leaves the solar system, escapes the Suns gravitational pull.

Intraspace Corp.....U.S., aerospace company. Address: 400 W 900 North building, North Salt Lake City, UT 84054, USA

Intrepid.....USS Intrepid, CVS-11, prime recovery ship for GEMINI 3 and capable of recovering MA-7.

Intrepid.....U.S., launch vehicle, 440 lbs (200 kg) LEO.

INTREPID.....U.S., satellite, manned spacecraft APOLLO 12, LM-6. See YANKEE CLIPPER, CSM-108. First launch 1969/11/14

Io.....Jupiter moon, one of 16. See also Metis, Adrastea, Amalthea, Thebe, Io, Europa, Ganymede, Callisto, Leda, Sinope, Himalia, Lysithea, Elara, Ananke, Carme, Pasiphae.

ION.....U.S., satellite, technology, University of Illinois, picosatellite that is a cubesat. First launch 2006/07/26

ION RELEASE MODULE.....Germany, satellite. Also known as IRM or AMPTE 2. See AMPTE.

IONOSFERNAYA.....Russia, satellite, part of KOSMOS series. First launch 1969/12/27

IONOSPHERE EXPLORER.....U.S., satellite. See EXPLORER 20

IONOSPHERE INVESTIGATION EXPERIMENTS, satellite.....U.S., Canada, satellite. See ISIS.

IONOSPHERE SOUNDING SATELLITE.....Japan, satellite. See ISO.

IONOSPHERE-THERMOSPHERE MAPPER MISSION.....U.S., satellite, scientific, geospace mission under NASA’s Living with a star contract with APL. First launch 2008/00/00

IOR.....Indian Ocean region. Area over the Indian Ocean where GEO satellites are positions.

iota.....Ι, ι, iota, 9, Greek Alphabet.

IOV.....Europe, satellite, n avigation. 4 satellites to validate the ESA's GALILEO Satellite constellation. See GIOVE.

IPM.....Russia, organization, see Keldysh Institute of Applied Mathematics.

IPSTAR.....Thailand, satellite, Earth observation, GEO. Loral broadband, SS/L 1300s bus. First launch 2003/00/00

IQSY Tomahawk.....U.S., rocket, upper atmosphere meteorology. First launch 1963/00/00

IRAQ.....Iraq, satellite. First satellite launched by Iraq. Satellite was the rocket 3rd stage of a 3 stage rocket at Al-Anba. First launch 1989/12/05

IRAS.....U.S. NASA, Netherlands and British, satellite, scientific. INFRA-RED ASTRONOMICAL SATELLITE. Launched at the WSMC by a Delta into a LEO. First launch 1983/01/25

IRBM.....Intermediate Range Ballistic Missile, nuclear warhead 1500 Mile range.

Ireland.....Member of ESA.

IRFNA.....Launch vehicle propellant, see Inhibited Red Fuming Nitric Acid,

Iridium.....U.S., aerospace company. Address: 1575 Eye Street, NW, Suite 500, Washington, D.C. 20005, USA.

Iridium.....Element, atomic number 77.

IRIDIUM.....U.S. satellites, telecommunications, LEO. For global hand-held telephone systems, lead by Motorola. Originally planned to be a 77 satellite system (hence the name Iridium, the 77 element) but was later reduced to a 66 satellite system with 6 spares in orbit.. Satellites renumbered prior 2000/to 07. Also known as SV.

- IRIDIUM 1-5, 1997/05/05, WTR, Delta 2, LEO.

- IRIDIUM, 1997/06/18, Baikonur, Proton

- IRIDIUM, 1997/07/09, WTR, Delta 2,

- IRIDIUM, 1997/08/20, WTR, Delta 2

- IRIDIUM, 1997/09/13, Baikonur, Proton

- IRIDIUM, 1997/09/26, WTR, Delta 2

- IRIDIUM,1997/11/8, WTR, Delta 2

- IRIDIUM, 1997/12/08, Taiyuan, Long March 2C

- IRIDIUM, 1997/12/20, WTR, Delta 2

- IRIDIUM 50, 52, 53, 54, 56, 1998/02/18, WTR, Delta 2, LEO

- IRIDIUM 51, 61, 1998/03/25, Taiyuan, Long March 2C, LEO

- IRIDIUM 55, 57, 58, 59, 60, 1998/03/30, WTR, Delta 2, LEO

- IRIDIUM 62, 63, 64, 65, 66, 67, 1998/04/06, Baikonur, Proton, LEO

- IRIDIUM 69, 71, 1998/05/02, Taiyuan, Long March 2C, LEO

- IRIDIUM 70, 72, 73, 74, 75, 1998/05/17, WTR, Delta, LEO

- IRIDIUM, 1998/09/08, WTR, Delta 2

- IRIDIUM, 1998/11/06, WTR, Delta 2

- IRIDIUM, 1998/12/19, Taiyuan, Long March 2C

First launch 1997/05/05

IRIDIUM MASS FREQUENCY SIMULATORS.....U.S., satellite. See IRIDIUM MFS.

IRIDIUM MFS.....U.S., satellite, communication. IRIDIUM MASS FREQUENCY SIMULATORS (IMFS). First launch 1997/09/01

IRIRANG.....Korea, satellite, see ARIRANG.

iris.....Flower.

Iris.....U.S., rocket, upper atmosphere geophysics. First launch 1960/00/00

IRIS.....Belgium, satellite, mobile communications, LEO SSO. First launch 1998/07/10

IRIS.....Japan, ISAS, satellite, scientific. Also known as ASTRO F. First launch 2003/00/00

IRIS.....Europe, ESRO, satellite, scientific. INTERNATIONAL RADIATION INVESTIGATION SATELLITE. See ESRO 2B.

IRIS-P6.....India, satellite. See RESOURCESAT.

IRM.....Germany, satellite, scientific. Released lithium ions. Also known as ION RELEASE MODULE or AMPT 2. See AMPT. First launch 1984/08/16

IRS.....India, satellite, polar orbit. INDIA REMOTE SENSING SATELLITE, to help map Indian terrain.TRW Space Log}.

- IRS 1A, 1988/03/17, Tyuratam, SL-3, LEO.

- IRS 1B, 1991/08/29, Tyuratam, SL-3, LEO.

- IRS 1C, 1995-072A, 1995/12/28, Tyuratam, SL-6, LEO.

- IRS 1E, 1993/09/20, Sriharikota, PSLV, D1, FTO.

- IRS D2, 1994/10/15, Sriharikota, PSLV, LEO, P2

- IRS D3, 1996/03/21, Sriharikota, PSLV, LEO.

- IRS P4, 01999/50/29, Sriharikota, PSLV, LEO.

First launch 1988/03/17

IRT.....U.S., satellite, technology. INTEGRATED RENDEZVOUS TARGET. Launched at the KSC by STS-41B into LEO. First launch 1984/02/05

Irwin, James.....U.S., astronaut, APOLLO 15, 1971/07/26. First launch 1971/07/26

Is.....Rocket motor, see specific impulse.

IS.....U.S., satellite, see INTELSAT. Was PAS.

IS.....Russia, ISTREBITEL SPUTNIKOV (Russian for fighter satellite). Also known as ASAT.

IS E1.....Russia, satellite, scientific, also known as LUNA 1.

IS-M.....Russia, satellite, part of KOSMOS series. First launch 1969/08/06

IS-MU.....Russia, satellite, see NARVAD.

IS-P.....Russia, satellite, see ASAT TARGET.

ISA.....Israel, organization. Israel Space Agency.

ISAC.....India, organization, see ISRO. Also known as ISRO Satellite Center.

Isaiah.....Prophet in the old testament of the Jewish and Christian Regions.

ISAIAH.....U.S. NASA & Israel, satellite, scientific. Israel Space Agency Investigation about comets. Payload experiment to study zero gravity by the Israel Space Agency on board the STS-47, launched from KSC. First launch 1992/09/12

ISAS.....Japan, organization. Institute of Space & Astronautics Sciences. Manages various smaller scientific satellites for Japan. Address: University of Tokyo, 5-1, Komaba 4-Chome, Megauro-ku, Tokyo 153.www.ISAS.ac.jp Responsible for the scientific space program. Now part of JAXA.

- Kogoshima launch center.

- Major companies are IHI, NIssan, and Rocket System Corp.

Isayev OKB.....Russia, organization, develops ramjets and rocket engines. Named after Aleksei M. Isayeva. Was the KB Khimmash.

ISC Kosmotras.....Russia and Ukraine, company. Operates the Dnepr Launch Vehicle. Consortium of 20 Russian and Ukrainian companies.

ISEE.....U.S., ESA Satellite, scientific. INTERNATIONAL SUN EARTH EXPLORES, study the ambiguities associated with the motion of the boundaries of space near earth.

- ISEE 1 & 2, 1977/10/22, ETR, Delta, HEO, decayed 1987/09/26.

- ISEE 3, 1978/08/12, ETR, Delta, comet rendezvous orbit, ICE.

First launch 1977/10/22

Ishtar.....Mesopotamian, Venus god.

ISI.....U.S. & Israel, aerospace company, see ImageSat International.

Isis.....Egypt, queen goddess, goddess of the moon, fertility, wisdom, knowledge.

ISIS.....U.S. NASA and Canadian Defense Research Board, satellite, scientific. IONOSPHERE INVESTIGATION EXPERIMENTS, satellite, successors to the Canadian ALOUETTE SATELLITES.

ISIS A, 1969/01/30, WTR, TAID, HEO.

ISIS B, 1971/03/31, WTR, Thor Delta, LEO.

First launch 1969/01/30

Iskhikawajima-Harima Heavy Industries Co. Ltd......Japan, company, aerospace. Address: Shin-Ohtemachi Bldg. 2-1, Ohtemachi 2-chome, Shiyoda-ku, Tokyo 100-8182, Japan. www.ihi.jp. Also known as IHI.

iskra.....Japan, spark.

ISKRA.....Russia, satellite, amateur radio satellites. Launched from the SALYUT Space Station by Hand. Also known as RK.

- ISKARA 2, 1982/05/17.

- ISKARA 3, 1982/11/18.

First launch 1982/05/17

Island Lagoon tracking station.....Australia/USA, organization. 30 kilometers from Woomera, location of NASA tracking station DSS41 operated by Australian staff and Baker-Nunn SC-23. Used to track Woomera launches. DSS-41 was closed in December, 1972. See Baker-Nunn Satellite Tracking Camera.

ISO.....Europe, ESA, satellite, scientific. INFRA-RED SPACE OBSERVATORY. Launched at Kourou by an Ariane 44P V 80 into an HEO. First launch 1995/11/17

ISP.....Russia, satellite, see URAN or ASAT.

ISPM.....U.S. NASA/Europe ESA, satellite. INTERNATIONAL SOLAR POLAR MISSION, renamed ULYSSES.

Israel.....1)

2) Launch site: Yavne, Negev Desert, Israel, Palmachim AFB, 31.9N 34.7E.

3) Launch Vehicle: Shavit

4) Date format: Day, month, year in Hindu-Arabic numbers.

5) Currency: Shekel

6) First satellite: HORIZON 1 (OFFEQ 1). launched by a Shavit at Yavne on 1988/09/19

Israel Aircraft Industries LTD......Israel, company, aerospace. Address Ben Gurion International Airport, 70100 Israel. www.iai.co.il. Partnerships: ImageSat International (ISI) partner: Core Software Technology, Electro Optics Industries. Spacecom Satellite Communications Services Ltd. partners Eurocom Group, GSSC, Mer Services Group.

ISRO.....India, organization. See India Space Research Organization

ISRO I-2K.....India, satellite bus.

ISRO Satellite Center.....India, organization, see ISRO. Also known as ISAC.

ISRO Telemetry, Tracking and Command Network.....India, organization, see ISRO. Also known as ISTRAC.

ISS.....U.S., Russia, Canada, Japan, satellite, manned, LEO. See INTERNATIONAL SPACE STATION ALPHA.

ISS.....Japan, satellite, scientific. IONOSPHERE SOUNDING SATELLITE.

- ISS-1, 1976/02/29, Tanegashima, N-1, UME-1.

- ISS-2, 1978/02/16, Tanegashima, N-1, UME-2.

First launch 1976/02/29

ISSA.....U.S., Russia, Canada, Japan, satellite, manned, LEO. INTERNATIONAL SPACE STATION ALPHA. Joint space station by many countries. Also known as ISS. Launch Schedule: will require about 45 launches to completely assemble the space station by 2010. See Appendix INTERNATIONAL SPACE STATION ALPHA

First launch 1998/11/20

ISSI.....Switzerland, organization. International Space Science Institute, Hallerstrasse, 6 CH-3012 Bern, Switzerland, http://www.issi.unibe.ch/.

ISTP.....International Solar and Terrestrial Program to determine cause and effect events starting to the Sun and propagating in into the Earth's atmosphere. Satellites includes CLUSTER, GEOTAIL, POLAR, SOHO, WIND.

ISTRAC.....India, organization, see ISRO. Also known as ISRO Telemetry, Tracking and Command Network.

ISTREBITEL SPUTNIKOV.....Russia, for fighter satellite or satellite interceptor, also known as IS or ASAT. Became operational in 1970's.

Italian Space Agency.....Italy, organization. See ASI.

Italian Space Research Center.....Italy, aerospace company, see CIRA.

Italsat.....Italy, space bus, manufactured by Alenia Aerospazio.

ITALSAT.....Italy, satellite, communications. ITALY NATIONAL COMMUNICATIONS SATELLITE, placed in geosynchronous orbit.

- ITALSAT 1, 1991/01/15, Kourou, Ariane 44L, V 41.

- ITALSAT 2, 1996/08/08, Kourou, Ariane 44L, V 90.

First launch 1991/01/15

Italy.....1) See San Marco range.

2) Member of ESA.

3) Currency - Lira L.

ITALY AMATEUR COMMUNICATIONS SATELLITE.....Italy, satellite. See ITAMSAT.

ITALY NATIONAL COMMUNICATIONS SATELLITE.....Italy, satellite. See ITALSAT.

ITAMSAT.....Italy, satellite, ITALY, AMATEUR COMMUNICATIONS SATELLITE, launched at Kourou by an Ariane 40 V 59 into a LEO. 1993/09/26

ITOS.....U.S., satellite, weather. IMPROVED TIROS SATELLITES, launched at the WTR into MEO. See also ESSA.

       As improved technologies became available, ESSA chose to start a new satellite designation, choosing the name IMPROVED TIROS OPERATION SYSTEM (ITOS). The first ITOS designated satellite was launched on 23 January, 1970, from Vandenberg AFB, California, into a 1400 mile (2240 km) polar sun synchronous orbit, with a period of 115 minutes. They carried more instrumentation and were the heaviest operational meteorological satellites to date, ranging between 682 to 750 lbs (254-279 kgs) each. They were rectangular, 40 inches (1 m) wide, 48 inches (1.2 m) long, and with solar cells deployed, 14 feet (4.27 m) wide. ITOS 1, A, and B were basically larger ESSA satellites, with both the AVCS and APT cameras and instruments. The satellites were stabilized, similar to the NIMBUS, so that the sensors always pointed to the Earth. They also carried more of the technology developed in the NIMBUS program. The big change came with ITOS D, which had more instruments, but no cameras.

       The ITOS program had two satellites that were non functional. ITOS B was placed into a highly elliptical orbit and soon decayed, never becoming a functional meteorological satellite. ITOS E, never made it to orbit because the second stage of the Delta launch vehicle malfunctioned. Excluding the two failures, the ITOS satellites function between 252 to 1463 days.

       The ITOS satellites did not follow the naming convention, and as a result, had several names. The first ITOS satellite followed the convention and was named ITOS 1 when successfully placed in orbit. While it was being designed and constructed, it was TIROS M. One would think it should have been TOS H, since it was in the ESSA pipeline before the names were changed. To add to the naming confusion, ESSA’s Weather Bureau was moved into the U.S. Department of Commerce’s, National Oceanic and Atmospheric Administration (NOAA) and the Weather Bureau’s name was changed to the National Weather Service by Nixon’s Presidential Decree of 3 October, 1970. NOAA included Bureau of Commercial Fisheries, U. S. Weather Bureau, Coast and Geodetic Survey, Environmental Data Service, National Satellite Center, and Research Libraries. The function of the National Weather Service continued to include weather prediction. I speculate that in 1970, NASA and ESSA new the name change was coming, so when ITOS A was being built, they used the name NOAA 1. I do not know what happened to ITOS C, but the designation was not used.

       ITOS D through H were very similar in design and function. They carried:

- a vertical temperature profile radiometer (VTPR) for measuring the temperature at various altitudes in the Earths atmosphere; and

- a high resolution radiometer (VHRR), but no cameras.

- ITOS 1, 1970/01/23, Delta N, MEO, TIROS M.

- ITOS A, 1970/11/12, Delta N, NOAA 1.

- ITOS B, 1971/10/21, Delta N, NOAA 2, FTO.

- ITOS C, designation not used.

- ITOS D, 1972/10/15, Delta 300, NOAA 2.

- ITOS E, 1971/07/16, Delta 300, NOAA 3, FTO.

- ITOS F, 1973/11/06, Delta 300, NOAA 3.

- ITOS G, 1974/11/15, Delta 2310, NOAA 4.

- ITOS H, 1976/07/29, Delta 2310, NOAA 5.

First launch 1970/01/23

ITS P5.....Japan, satellite, ISSA, see 1J/A.

ITV.....U.S., satellite, see ASAT TARGET BALLOON.

IUE.....U.S., satellite, scientific. INTERNATIONAL ULTRAVIOLET EXPLORER, cooperative venture between NASA, ESA and Britain's Science Research Council. Examine the ultra-violet region of the spectrum. Launched at the ETR by a Delta into a HEO. First launch 1978/01/26

IUS.....U.S., launch vehicle. Upper 2 stage launch vehicle, Inertial Upper Stage. Stage 1 SRM-1, Orbus 21. Stage 2, SRM-2, Orbus 6E. Designed to launch heavy payloads on both the Titan IV and STS, for GEO or interplanetary Missions. DoD designation SSB-7. First launch on a Titan, 1982/10/30

IV.....Roman number for 4.

Ivanchenkov, Alexander.....Russia, cosmonaut, SOYUZ 29, 1978/06/15, SOYUZ T6, 1982/06/24. First launch 1978/06/15

Ivanov, Georgi.....Russia, cosmonaut, SOYUZ 33, 1979/04/10. First launch 1979/04/10

Ivantchenkov, Alexandre.....Russia, cosmonaut. See Ivanchenkov

Ivins, Marsha.....U.S., astronaut, STS-32, 1990/01/09, STS-46, 1992/07/31, STS-62, 1994/03/09, STS-81, 1997/01/12, STS-098, 2001/02/7. First launch 1990/01/09

IWF.....Austria, organization, see Space Research Institute.

IWFNA.....Launch vehicle propellant, liquid, oxidizer. See Inhibited white fuming nitric acid.

Iwo Jima.....USS Iwo Jima, LPH 2, prime recovery ship for APOLLO 13.

IX.....Roman number for 9.


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Updated 2007/2/01