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J.....Japan or Japanese.

J.....Japan, launch vehicle.

- J-1, Stage 1, SRB-A motor. Stage 2, M-23 motor. Stage 3, M-3B motor. 2540 lbs (1154 kg), LEO.

- J-2, 6600 lbs (3000 kg), LEO.

First launch 1996/02/12

J-1.....Russia, launch vehicle., 30,300 lbs (13,740 kg) LEO. Sheldon Name J-1. See Sl-16 or Zenit.

J-1.....Japan, launch vehicle, see J, Japan, launch vehicle.

J-2.....U.S., launch vehicle motor, thrust 205,000 lbf (912 kN), pressure 703 psi (48 bar), liquid propellant LOX/LH2. Used on S-IVB, Saturn 1B, V.

Jabiru.....Australia, rocket, hypersonic research vehicle. Named after an Australian bird. Cover a range of modified and upgraded vehicles. Flown between July 1959 and November 1974. First launch 1959/07/00

Jahn, Sigmund.....Germany, cosmonaut, SOYUZ 31, 1978/08/26. First launch 1978/08/26

JAK.....U.S., satellite. Launched from OPAL (2000-004). See ARTEMIS. First launch 2000/02/12

James Owens DD 776.....USS James Owens DD 776, recovery ship, part of the fleet which recovered or was on duty and capable of recovering the following: GEMINI 5.

JAMES WEBB SPACE TELESCOPE.....U.S., satellite, scientific, see JWST.

January 26, 2007QUICKSCAT.....U.S., satellite, Earth observation, measures ocean waves, LEO SSO. QUICK SCATTERMETER MISSION. Replaces ADEOS satellite. Carries SEAWINDs SCATTERMETER, later to be flown on ASEOS-II. First launch 1999/06/19

Janus.....Saturn moon, one of 19. See Prometheus, Pandora, Atlas, Epimetheus, Janus, Mimas, Helene, Enceladus, Tethys, Calypso, Telesto, Dione, Pan, 1995-S4, Rhea, Titan, Hyperion, Laptus, Phoebe.

Japan.....1) Civilian space agency JAXA.

2) Launch Sites, Kagoshima, Tanegashima,

3) Launch vehicles, H, J, Lambda 4-S, Mu, N

4) Date format, year, month, day.

5) Currency - Yen .

6) First satellite OHSUMI, launched by Lambda 4S-5, at Kagoshima, Japan. 1970/02/11

Japan launch vehicle designation.....Japan, launch vehicle. NASDA launch vehicles use Roman numerical designations, e.g. N-I, N-II, N-III. Exception is the H series, which uses Arabic numbers. ISAS uses Arabic number designations, e.g., Mu-3. .

JAPAN AMATEUR SATELLITE.....Japan, satellite. Also known as JAS or FUJI. See FUJI.




JAPANESE EXPERIMENTAL MODULE.....Japan, satellite, module for ISSA. Also known as JEM. First launch 2008/00/00

Jarvis, Greg.....U.S., astronaut, STS-51L (25), 1986/01/28. First launch 1986/01/28

JAS.....Japan, satellite. JAPAN, satellite. See FUJI.

JASON.....U.S. NASA/Europe CNES, satellite, scientific. Long term global measurement of ocean topography. Follow-on to TOPEX-POSEIDON. First launch 2001/12/07

Javelin.....U.S., rocket, upper atmosphere geophysics. First launch 1959/00/00

JAWSAT.....U.S., satellite, military scientific and educational, LEO SSO. JOINT AIR FORCE ACADEMY/WEBER STATE SATELLITE. Satellite will investigate 3 axis control system. First launch 2000/01/26

JAXA.....Japan, organization, Japan Aerospace Exploration Agency, formed 1/10/2003, known in Japanese as Uchu kohkuh kenkyu kaihatsu kikou (roughly, Space-Aviation Research and Development Organization). Japan reorganized its space effort by merging three agencies into one. The early Japanese sounding rocket and satellite program was carried out by a group at the University of Tokyo which in 1964 became ISAS, the Institute of Space and Aeronautical Sciences, separated from the university and renamed the Institute of Space and Astronautical Science in 1981. In Japanese ISAS is called Uchu kagaku kenkyujo (roughly, Space Science Research Institute). ISAS developed the Lambda, Mu and M-V space launch vehicles and the Japanese scientific satellites and planetary probes. Japanese applications satellites have been developed by NASDA, the National Space Development Agency (Uchu kaihatsu jigyodan, Space Development Agency) which grew out of the STA (Science and Technology Agency). NASDA was founded in 1964 as NSDC (National Space Development Center) and renamed in 1969; it developed the N-1, H-1, H-2 and H-2A launch vehicles as well as satellites like ETS/Kiku, GMS/Himawari and ADEOS/Midori. A third agency, the National Aerospace Laboratory (NAL, or Kohkuh uchu gijutsu kenkyujo - roughly, Aviation Space Engineering Institute) has participated in spaceplane development.

JB.....China, satellite, see JIAN BING.

JC-SAT.....Japan, satellite, see JCSAT.

JCSAT.....Japan, satellite, JAPAN, COMMERCIAL COMMUNICATIONS SATELLITE, GEO. Operated by Japan Satellite System Inc.

First launch 1989/03/06

JD.....U.S., satellite, see PARCAE.

jeder.....German for each.

Jeft, Bren.....U.S., astronaut, STS-097, 2000/12/1. First launch 2000/12/01

JEM.....Japan, satellite, ISSA, see 1J.


JEM ELM.....Japan, satellite, ISSA, see 1J/A.

Jemison, Mae.....U.S., astronaut, STS-47, 1992/09/12. First launch 1992/09/12

Jernigan, Tamara.....U.S., astronaut, STS-40, 1991/06/05, STS-52, 1992/10/22, STS-67, 1995/03/02, STS-80, 1996/11/19, STS-096,1999/5/27. First launch 1991/06/05

JERS.....Japan, satellite, observation. JAPAN EARTH RESOURCES SATELLITE. Launched at Tanegashima by H-1 into sun synchronous orbit. Also known as FUYO.

First launch 1992/02/11

Jet propulsion....."Means of locomotion whereby a reaction force is imparted to a device by the momentum of ejected matter" See also propulsion, integral rocket-ramjet, ducted rocket.

Jet Propulsion Laboratory.....U.S., organization. NASA, Jet Propulsion Laboratory (JPL), Pasadena, CA 91109. Government owned California Institute of Technology operated facility. The Laboratory is engaged in activities associated with deep space automated scientific Missions, deigns and tests flight systems, including complete spacecraft. Its primary focus is the scientific study of the solar system, including exploration of the planets with automated probes. Most of the lunar and planetary spacecraft of the 1960s and 1970s were developed at JPL. JPL also operates the Deep Space Communications Complete, one of three Deep Space Networks (DSN) which tracks all planetary spacecraft. Early address was 4800 Oak Grove, Pasadena, CA. Was the Rocket Research Center. Started. 1944/11/01.

Jett, Brent.....U.S., astronaut, STS-72, 1996/01/11, STS-81, 1997/01/12, STS-115, 2006/09/09. First launch 1996/01/11

ji shu shiyan weixing.....China, Technical Test Satellite .

JI SHU SHIYAN WEIXING.....China, satellite, test. Means technical test satellite. Also known as CHANG KONG. First launch 1975/07/26

JIAN BING.....China, satellite, see FSW 1-14. Jian Bing means pathfinder. Also known as the JB-4 series. Earlier FSW series was JB-1. ZY-2 or ZIYUAN were also designated JB-3.First launch 1993/10/08


jikiken.....Japan, magnetosphere.

JIKIKEN.....Japan, satellite. Also known as SS-06. See EXOS.

JIMO.....U.S., NASA, satellite, scientific, JUPITER ICY MOON ORBITER Probe to Europa, Ganymede, and Callisto. Uses electrical nuclear power. Also known as JOVIAN ICY MOON ORBITER.First launch 2009/00/00

Jindai.....Japan, Cherry tree.

JINDAI.....Japan, satellite, see FUJI.

JIPC.....U.S., Joint Industry Press Center, Kennedy Space Center, FL

Jiuquan Satellite Launch Center.....China, space vehicle launch facility. See China Jiuquan Satellite Launching Center.

JLRPG.....U.S., space vehicle launch facility. Joint Long Range Proving Ground, forerunner to Patrick Air Force Base, part of the Eastern Range. First launch Bumper 1950/10/21

Johannesburg.....South Africa/U.S., organization, NASA, STDN, Spaceflight Tracking and Data Network. Johannesburg, S. Africa, NITR/CSIR.

Johannesburg DSN facility......South Africa, organization. Location of one of NASA's DSN facilities. Closed in 1973.

John F. Kennedy Space Center.....U.S., space vehicle launch facility. See Kennedy Space Center.

John H. Glenn Research Center.....U.S., organization. NASA research center. Lewis Research Center became the John H. Glenn Research Center at Lewis Field in 1999/03/01, 21000 Brookpark Road, Cleveland, OH 44135. Lead center for research, technology and development in aircraft propulsion, space propulsion, space power and satellite communications. It is located outside Cleveland, Ohio, conducts a varied program of research in aeronautics and space technology. Aeronautical research includes work on advanced materials and structures for aircraft. Space-related research focuses primarily on power and propulsion. Another significant area of research is in energy and power sources for spacecraft, including the Space Station, for which LeRC is developing the largest space power system ever designed.

John Herrington.....U.S., astronaut, STS-113, 2002/11/24. First launch 2002/11/24

John Hopkins University Applied Physics Laboratory,.....U.S., organization. John Hopkins University Applied Physics Laboratory (APL), Space Department, John Hopkins Road, Laurel, MD, 20723 U.S.A.

John L. Stennis Space Center.....U.S., organization. See Stennis Space Center.

John R. Pierce.....USS John R. Pierce (SS 753), prime recovery ship for MA-7.

Johnson Space Center.....U.S., organization. NASA space center, Lyndon B. Johnson Space Center, Houston, TX, 77058, U.S. Johnson Space Center has primary responsibility for design, development and testing of spacecraft for manned flight. Originally known as the Manned Spacecraft Center and renamed 1973/02/21. Johnson Space Center, located between Houston and Galveston, Texas, is the lead center for NASA's manned space flight program. JSC has been Mission Control for all piloted space Flights since 1965, and now manages the Space Shuttle program. JSC's responsibilities include selecting and training astronauts; designing and testing vehicles and other systems for piloted space flight; and planning and executing space flight Missions. The center has a major role in developing the Space Station. In addition, JSC directs operations at the White Sands Test Facility in New Mexico, which conducts Shuttle-related tests. The nearby White Sands Missile Range also serves as a backup landing site for the Space Shuttle.

Joint Long Range Proving Ground.....U.S., space vehicle launch facility. JLRPG, Forerunner to Patrick Air Force Base.

Joint Stock Company "LOMO".....Russia, organization. LOMO, 20, Chugunnaya ul., 194044 St. Petersburg, Telephone: (7 812) 248-5407, FAX: (7 812) 542-1839. This organization was founded in 1914. Among its activities are the development of space and military technology, the development of different kinds of photometers, multiband spectrometers, telescopes and telescopic sights, cameras and lenses. Founded 1914/00/00.

Joint Stock Company SOVZOND.....Russia, organization. Address, 53, Aviamotornay ul. 111250 Moscow, Telephone: (7 095) 273-9346. The Joint Stock Company was founded in December 1992 by the Russian Scientific and Research Institute of Space Device Engineering and a group of individuals. Main activities: organization of, and participation in, the projects in Earth remote sensing and adjacent fields os space science and technology; realization on the world market of articles, technologies and services offered by Russian institutions, scientists and specialists; services in advertising, marketing and selling; conducting export and import operations using own and loaned currency. Founded 1992/12/00.


Jolobov, Vitali.....Russia, cosmonaut. See Zholobov

jonction.....French for docking.

Jones DD 932.....USS Jones DD 932, recovery ship, part of the fleet which recovered or was on duty and capable of recovering the following: MERCURY Atlas 8, GEMINI 3.

Jones, Thomas.....U.S., astronaut, STS-59, 1994/04/09, STS-68, 1994/09/30, STS-80, 1996/11/19, STS-098, 2001/02/07. First launch 1994/04/09

JOP.....U.S., satellite, see GALILEO.

JOUST.....U.S. OSC, rocket, suborbital, used the Prospector. First launch 1991/06/18

Jove.....Roman, ruler god, synonymous with Jupiter.

Jovian Planet.....Any of the four biggest planets: Jupiter, Saturn, Uranus, and Neptune.

JOVIAN ICY MOON ORBITER.....U.S., satellite, see JIMO.

JPL.....U.S., organization. See Jet Propulsion Laboratory.

JPL Baby Sergeant.....U.S. launch vehicle motor, see Sargent.

JQ.....China, space vehicle launch facility, see Jiuquan.

JRMS.....Japan, satellite, ISSA. See 1J.

JSAT.....Japan, satellite, see JCSAT.

JSAT Corporation.....Japan, company, commercial satellite operator, JCSAT, N-STAR. Pacific Century Place Marunochi 17/18F, 1-11-1 Marunouchi Chiyoda-ku, Tokyo 100-6218, Japan.

JSC.....U.S., organization, NASA, STDN, Spaceflight Tracking and Data Network. Johnson Space Center, Houston, TX 77058.

JSLC.....China, organization. See Jiuquan Satellite Launch Center.

JSSW.....China, satellite. See JI SHU SHIYAN WEIXING.

Jules Verne.....France, Author, science fiction.

JULES VERNE.....Europe, satellite, see ATV.

Julian day.....The Julian day figure is the count of the number of days that a particular date is from the beginning of the year (January 1 would have a Julian day of 1. February 28 would be 59).

Juliet.....Uranus moon, one of 17. See Miranda, Ariel, Umbriel, Titania, Oberon, Puck, Belinda, Rosalind, Portia, Juliet, Dosdemona, Cressida, Bianca, Ophelia, Cordelia, Caliban, Sycorax.

JUMPSEAT.....U.S. Air Force, SIGINT satellite, advanced version known as Advanced JUMPSEAT was renamed TRUMPET. First launch 1971/03/21

Junkers.....Europe, aerospace company, became part Boelkow in late 1950s.

Jnlng, Fi.....China, Yuhangyuan, SHENZHOU 6, 2005/10/12. First launch 2005/10/12

Juno.....Russia, mission title for Soyuz TM-12. First launch 1991/05/18

Juno.....Roman, queen goddess.

Juno I.....U.S., launch vehicle, LEO. Juno I Launcher, U.S. Army, place the first U.S. satellite in orbit. Was the satellite launch version of the Jupiter C. Based upon the 3 stage Jupiter (Redstone 1st stage and clusters of baby Sergeant motors for the 2nd and 3rd stages). Was named Juno I when the 4 stage was added to place the Explorer I satellite in orbit. Capable of placing 20 lbs (9 kg) into LEO. First launch 1958/01/31

Juno II.....U.S., launch vehicle. Army, based upon Jupiter missile with 3 additional Sargent solid fuel stages, the some as on the Jupiter C/Juno 1. Capable of placing 90 lbs (41 kg) into LEO. The Juno II was the Jupiter IRBM 1st stage with the 2nd and third stage from the Jupiter C (Juno I). Stage 1, S-3D engine. Stage 2, 11 Sergeant motors. Stage 3, 3 Sergeant motors. Stage 4, Sergeant motor. Juno II Flights:

- 1958/12/06, ETR, PIONEER 3.

- 1959/03/03, ETR, PIONEER 4.

- 1959/07/16, ETR, FTO, EXPLORER S-1.

- 1959/08/14, ETR, FTO, BEACON 2.

- 1959/10/13, ETR, EXPLORERS 7.

- 1960/03/23, ETR, FTO, EXPLORER S-46.

- 1960/11/03, ETR, EXPLORER 8.

- 1961/02/24, ETR, FTO, EXPLORER S-45.

- 1961/04/27, ETR, EXPLORER 11.

- 1961/05/24, ETR, EXPLORER S-45A.

First launch 1958/12/06

JUNO.....U.S., satellite, scientific, orbit planet Jupiter. Solar cell powered. Trans Jupiter orbit will us Earth gravity assist. Will arrive at Jupiter in about 5.2 years. First launch 2011/00/00

Jupiter.....The 5th planet from the Sun, 483 million miles from the Sun, period of revolution 11.86 years, diameter 88,700 miles, 16 satellites, 1 ring. Has 16 moons. See also Metis, Adrastea, Amalthea, Thebe, Io, Europa, Ganymede, Callisto, Leda, Sinope, Himalia, Lysithea, Elara, Ananke, Carme, Pasiphae , Apojove, High point (apoapsis) of an orbit around Jupiter Other names for Jupiter, the Roman god: Mesopotamian Marduk, god; Greece Zeus, god; India Guru.

jupiter.gifFigure 25 Jupiter, graphic symbol.

Jupiter.....U.S. rocket. Army, Intermediate Range Ballistic Missile (IRBM), single stage. Based upon the rocket engine from the Navaho booster and was essentially the same engine used for the Thor. With additional stages the rocket was known as Juno II. First launch 1956/03/14

Jupiter C.....U.S. Army, launch vehicle. Stretched Redstone IRBM with upper stages, where "C" is for composite, meaning the combination of different rockets.

Used the smaller engine from the Navaho booster, which was a derivation from the German V-2. Stage 1, Redstone IRBM, thrust 75,000 lbf (334 kN), pressure ? psi (? bar), liquid propellant LOX/Ethyl Alcohol. Stage 2, 11 scaled down Sargent solid propellant motors. Stage 3, 3 scaled down Sargent solid propellant motors. Stage 4, scaled down Sargent motor. Officially the Juno 1 is the satellite launch version of the Jupiter C. DoD designation PGM-19 A. DoD designation pre 1963 SM-78 Jupiter C launches;

- 1958/02/01, ETR, EXPLORER 1.

- 1958/03/05, ETR, FTO, EXPLORER 2.

- 1958/03/26, ETR, EXPLORER 3.

- 1958/07/26, ETR, EXPLORER 4.

- 1958/08/24, ETR, FTO, EXPLORER 5.

- 1958/10/23, ETR, FTO, BEACON 1.

First launch 1958/02/10

Jupiter orbit.....Orbit around the planet Jupiter, Apojove, high point (apoapsis) of an orbit around Jupiter, closes approach is perijove.

JUPITER ICY MOON ORBITER .....U.S., NASA, satellite, see JIMO.

JWST.....U.S., NASA, satellite, scientific, L2. View space, near and far, at infrared wavelengths.JAMES WEBB SPACE TELESCOPE. Was the NEXT GENERATION SPACE TELESCOPE, NGST. Built by TRW using the T-330 bus. The mirror is 21.6 ft (6.6 m) in diameter, Will orbit at L2 (940,000 miles, 1,500,000 km from Earth.) First launch 2013/00/00

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Updated 2007/2/01