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K

K.....Russia, abbreviation for Korabl, which is Russian for ship.

K band.....Electromagnetic frequencies between 15.4 to 27.5 GHZ. See band.

K-1.....U.S., launch vehicle. See Kistler.

K-1.....Russia, launch vehicle, Energia., 194,000 lbs (88,000 kg) LEO. Sheldon Name K-1. See SL-17 or Energia & Energia/Buran.

K-TV.....U.S., satellite, communications, TV transmissions for Intelsat New SKIES Satellite Company. Satellite build by Matra Marconi Space.

K65M-RB.....Russia, launch vehicle, see Kosmos, Large, Kosmos 3M.

K9M.....Japan, Rocket.

Ka band.....Electromagnetic frequencies between 27.5 to 50 GHZ. See band.

KACST.....Saudi Arabia, Riyadh, organization, see King Abdulaziz City for Science and Technology

Kadenyuk, Leonid.....Ukraine, astronaut, STS-087, 1997/11/19. First launch 1997/11/19

Kagoshima Space Center.....Japan, space vehicle launch facility. ISAS Launch Site, scientific & technological satellites and rocket probes. Location 31.2o N, 131.1o E. Prefecture, location of the Tanegashima Space Center. Also called Uchinoura, is on the southern tip of Kyushu Island. Inaugurated in 1964 for the Lambda sounding rocket. First six satellites were launched from Kagoshima. Largest rockets launched are the Mu-series. Launch site for Kappa and Lambda sounding rockets, M and Mu launchers for low earth orbit. POC Kagoshima Space Center, Uchinoura, Kimotsuki-gum, Kagoshima 893-14, Japan.

KAISTSAT.....Korea, satellite, see STSAT.

Kaituozhe.....China, launch vehicle, see KT.

kakehashi.....Russia, bridge.

KAKEHASHI.....Japan, satellite, communications research. Before launch known as COMET.

KAKEHASHI, 1998/02/21, H-11, FTO, COMET.

First launch 1998/02/21

Kaleri, Alexander.....Russia, cosmonaut, SOYUZ TM-14, 1992/03/17, SOYUZ TM 24, 1996/08/17, SOYUZ TM 30 2000/04/04, SOYUZ TMA 3, 2003/10/18. First launch 1992/03/17

Kaliningrad.....Russia, city, location of Russia's mission control, TsUP. Was located at Yevpatoria in the Crimea. Moved to Kaliningrad in 1975.

KALPANA.....India, satellite, weather. Indiaís first weather satellite named after Astronaut Kalpana Chawla, Indian born, lost in the STS Columbia accident. Was the METSAT.

Kankakee AO 39.....USS Kankakee AO 39, recovery ship, part of the fleet which recovered or was on duty and capable of recovering the following: GEMINI 3.

KANTAKUN.....Japan, satellite, earth observation, LEO Sun-sync. First launch 2002/12/14

kappa.....Κ, κ, kappa, 10, Greek Alphabet.

Kappa 6.....Japan, rocket, upper atmosphere geophysics. First launch 1958/00/00

Kappa 9.....Japan, rocket, upper atmosphere geophysics. First launch 1962/00/00

KAPSULA.....Russia, КПСУЛА, capsule.

Kapustin Yar.....Russia, space vehicle launch facility. Location 48.4o N, 45.8o E. Near the Volgogard Cosmodrom. Used to launch the SL-7 (B-1) and Kosmos SL-8 (C-1) rockets. Selected in 1947/07/27. Was called Volgograd station.

KARI.....Korea, organization, see Korea Aerospace Institute.

Karshi.....China, organization. Satellite tracking stations in Xinjiang province. See China satellite tracking stations.

KASC.....Japan, space vehicle launch facility see Kagoshima Space Center.

Kaskaski AO 27.....USS Kaskaski AO 27, recovery ship, part of the fleet which recovered or was on duty and capable of recovering the following: MERCURY Atlas 8.

KASTAR.....U.S., satellite, communications, GEO. Also known as LADYBUG. First launch 2002/00/00

Katsuura.....Japan, organization, tracking station.

Kavandi, Janet.....U.S., astronaut, STS-099, 2000/02/11. First launch 2000/02/11

Kavandi, Lynn.....U.S., astronaut, STS-091, 1998/06/02, STS-104, 2001/7/12. First launch 1998/06/02

Kawaski Heavy Industries.....Japan, aerospace company. Address: World Trade Center Building, 2-4-1 Hammamatsu-cho, Minato-Ku, Tokyo, Japan.

Kawishiwi AO 146.....USS Kawishiwi AO 146, recovery ship, part of the fleet which recovered or was on duty and capable of recovering the following: GEMINI 10, GEMINI 11, GEMINI 12, APOLLO 13, APOLLO 15.

Kazakhstan.....Country. КАЗАКСТАН or КАЗАХСТАН, former member of the USSR (CCCP). Part of CIS. Location of Baikonur Cosmodrom.

KAZSAT.....Kazakhstan, satellite, communications, for Kazakh Investment Fund. First launch 2006/06/17

KB.....Russia, organization, shortened OKB or experimental design bureau.

KB Burevestnik.....Russia, organization. See MPO Molniya.

KB EnergoMash of NPO Energiya.....Russia, organization, Khimki. See OKB-456 and OKB-2.

KB Khimavtomatiki 11D458.....Russia, launch vehicle motor, see 11K65M.

KB Khimavtomatiki KVD-1M3.....Russia, launch vehicle motor, see KDV-1M3.

KB Khimavtomatiki RD-0124A.....Russia, launch vehicle motor, see RD-0124A.

KB Khimavtomatiki S5.98.....Russia, launch vehicle motor, see S5.98.

KB Khimicheskyo Avtomatiki.....Russia, Voronezh, organization. See OKB-154.

KB KhimMash.....Russia, Poblipki, Kaliningrad, Korolev, organization. Development bureau for Chemical Machine Building. See OKB-2.

KB Obshchego Mashinostroyeniya.....Russia, Moscow, organization. See GSKB SpetsMash.

KB Prikladnoy Mikhaniki.....Russia, Krasnoyarsk-26, organization. See OKB-10.

KB Salyut.....Russia, Fili, organization. See OKB-23.

KB Salyut of NPO Energiya.....Russia, Fili, organization. See OKB-23.

KB Salyut of GKNPTs Khrunichev.....Russia, Fili, organization. See OKB-23.

KB Saturn.....Russia, Moscow, organization. See OKB-165.

KB TransMash.....Russia, organization. See GSKB.

KB-4.....Russia, organization. See MPO Molniya.

KClO4.....Launch vehicle propellant, solid, oxidizer, see Potassium perchlorate.

KDU-414.....Russia, launch vehicle motor, used on early planetary probes. Manufactured by KM KhimMash.

KE.....Kinetic Energy. See orbital total energy.

Kearsarge.....USS Kearsarge, CV 33, prime recovery ship for MA-8, MA-9 Mercury-Cooper.}

Kegostrov.....Russia, tracking ship. See also tracking ships.

Keit DD 775.....USS Keit DD 775, recovery ship, part of the fleet which recovered or was on duty and capable of recovering the following: MERCURY Atlas 8.

Keldysh Institute of Applied Mathematics.....Russia, organization, IPM, 4, Miusskaya pl. 125047 Moscow, Telephone:(7 095) 972-3714, (7 095) 972-0737. IPM was founded for calculation and research work for rocket and space technology and nuclear power production. First Missions to the Moon, Venus and Mars were prepared here. Also the first methods for passive attitude control and gravity maneuvers were worked out at IPM. Currently IPM is participating in the preparation of large-scale national and international space projects ("Mars 94/96", "Radioastron", etc.). Founded 1953/00/00.

Kelly, James.....U.S., astronaut, STS-102, 2001/03/08, STS-114, 2005/07/26. First launch 2001/03/08

Kelly, Mark.....U.S., astronaut, STS-108, 2001/12/5, STS-121, 2006/07/04. First launch 2001/012/5

Kelly, Scott.....U.S., astronaut, STS-103, 1999/12/19. First launch 1999/12/19

Kelly Space & Technology.....U.S., aerospace company. Address: 294 S. Leland Norton Way, Suite 3, San Bernardino, CA 92408, USA.

KENNAN.....U.S. CIA, satellite imaging reconnaissance, surveillance satellites, Used the KH-11 camera, changed the name to CRYSTAL in 1988. See KEYHOLE.

- KENNAN 1, (1976-125A), 1976/12/19, WTR, Titan 23D, LEO, reentered 1979/01/28.

- KENNAN 2, (1978-60A), 1978/06/14, WTR, Titan 23D, LEO, reentered 1981/08/23.

- KENNAN 3, (1980-10A), 1980/02/07, WTR, Titan 23D, LEO, reentered 1982/10/30.

- KENNAN 4, (1981-85A), 1981/09/03, WTR, Titan 23D, LEO, reentered 1984/11/23.

- KENNAN 5, (1982-111A), 1982/11/17, WTR, Titan 23D, LEO, reentered 1985/08/13.

- KENNAN 6, (1984-122A), 1984/12/04, WTR, Titan 23D, LEO, reentered, USA 6.

- KENNAN 7, 1985/08/28, WTR, Titan 23D, FTO.

- KENNAN 8, (1987-090A), 1987/10/26, WTR, Titan 23D, LEO, reentered, USA 27.

- KENNAN 9, (1988-099A), 1988/11/06, WTR, Titan 23D, LEO, reentered, USA 33.

- KENNAN, (1996-072A), 1996/12/20, WTR, Titan 4, LEO, ADVANCED KH-11 #3.

First launch 1976/12/19

Kennedy DD 850.....USS Kennedy DD 850, recovery ship, part of the fleet which recovered or was on duty and capable of recovering the following: GEMINI 6, GEMINI 7, GEMINI 12, APOLLO 4.

Kennedy Space Center.....U.S., space vehicle launch facility. NASA space center. John F. Kennedy Space Center (KSC), Kennedy Space Center, FL 32899. Location 28.5o N, 81.0o W. NASA's major spaceport and primary launch site, located on the east coast of Florida on Merritt Island with over 14,000 Acers. Next to it is the Cape Canaveral Air Station, launch site for the Eastern Range, which extends southeastward across the Atlantic. KSC has only two launch pads, 39A and 39B. These were used for all but one of the APOLLO Launches, and for all the shuttle launches. All expendable rocket launches and all pre-APOLLO manned launches were from the Cape Canaveral Air Force Station, where most of the pads have now been deactivated. KSC also host a giant vehicle-assembly building and related processing buildings and firings rooms, as well as a 15,000 foot runway for returning space shuttles. The KSC is responsible for the assembly, checkout and launch of the Space Shuttle vehicles and their payloads, landing operation and the turn-around of Space Shuttle orbiters, as well as preparation and launch of unmanned vehicles. KSC is The Center handles the preparation, integration, checkout, and launch of space vehicles and their payloads. KSC is the Shuttle's home port, where orbiters are serviced and outfitted between Missions, and then assembled into a complete Shuttle "stack" before launch. The Center also manages the testing and launch of unpiloted space vehicles from an array of launch complexes, and conducts research programs in areas of life sciences related to human spaceflight. KSC, USAF Eastern Range and CCAFS make up th Cape Canaveral Space Port.

- pre 1962 Air Force Reservation, Cape Canaveral existed.

- pre 1962 Port Canaveral existed.

- pre 1962 City of Cape Canaveral existed.

- 1962 NASA Launch Operations Center created (known as MILA), next to Cape Canaveral.

- 1964, NASA Launch Operations Center renamed John F. Kennedy Space Center.

See also Eastern Range.

KEPLER.....U.S. NASA, satellite, scientific, telescope, heliocentric orbit, one AU behind Earth. Part of the Discovery Program. First launch 2006/00/00

Kepler's three laws of motion.....Any spacecraft launched into orbit obeys the same laws that govern the motions of the planets around our sun, and the moon around the Earth. Johannes Kepler formulated three laws that describe these motions:

       1) Each planet revolves around the sun in an orbit that is an ellipse with the sun as its focus or primary body Kepler postulated the lack of circular orbits-only elliptical ones-determined by gravitational perturbations and other factors. Gravitational pulls, according to Newton, extend to infinity although their forces weaken with distance and eventually become impossible to detect. (See Newton's law of universal gravitation.) Spacecraft orbiting the Earth are primarily influenced by the Earth's gravity and anomalies in its composition, but they also are influenced by the moon and sun and possibly other planets. See Elliptical Orbits.

wpdoc2.gifFigure 26 Elliptical Orbit, Keplerís 2nd Law

       2) The radius vector--such as the line from the center of the sun to the center of a planet, from the center of Earth to the center of the moon, or from the center of Earth to the center of gravity of a satellite--sweeps out equal areas in equal periods of time.

Keplers 2nd Law

a1 = a2

t1 = t2

a1, a2, = areas swept out by spacecraft moving from A to B [m2}

t = time for spacecraft to move from A to B. [s]

       3) The square of a planet's orbital period is equal to the cube of its mean distance from the sun times a constant. As extended and generalized, this means that a satellite's orbital period increases with its mean distance from the planet. See Newton's law of universal gravitation and laws of motion.

Keplerian elements.....Also known as satellite orbital elements. The set of six independent constants which define an orbit-named for Johannes Kepler (1571-1630). The constants define the shape of an ellipse or hyperbola, orient it around its central body and define the position of a satellite on the orbit. The classical orbital elements are:

A - semimajor axis, gives the size and shape of the orbit,

e - eccentricity, gives the shape of the orbit,

i - inclination angle, gives the angle of the orbit plane to the central body's equator, or the angle between the equatorial and orbital plane.

Ω - right ascension of the ascending node, which gives the rotation of the orbit plane from reference axis, "twist" of the orbit.

ω - argument of perigee is the angle from the ascending nodes to perigee point, measured along the orbit in the direction of the satellites motion, usually the perigee

γ - true anomaly gives the location of the satellite on the orbit. See also F & G elements.

kerosene.....Launch vehicle motor propellant. Liquid, fuel, hydrocarbon distillate, refined #2 distillate.

Kerwin, Joe.....U.S., astronaut, APOLLO/SKYLAB 2, 1973/05/22. First launch 1973/05/25

Kestrel.....U.S., launch vehicle motor, used on Falcon 1 stage 2. Thrust 7500 lbf (33 kN), pressure 150 psi (10 bar), propellant LOK/kerosene.

Keyhole.....Designation given to cameras used in spy satellites.

- KH-1, CORONA 1959/02/28 to 1960/09/13.

- KH-2, CORONA 10/26/1060 to 1961/10/23.

- KH-3, CORONA 1961/08/30 to 1962/01/13.

- KH-4, CORONA 1962/02/27 to 1963/12/21.

- KH-4A, CORONA 1963/08/25 to 1969/09/22.

- KH-4B, CORONA 1967/09/15 to 1972/05/25.

- KH-5, ARGON 1961/02/17 to 1964/08/21.

- KH-6, LANYARD 1963/03/18 to 1963/07/31.

- KH-7, GAMBIT 1963/07/12 to 1967/06/04

- KH-8, GAMBIT 1966/07/29 to 1984/04/17.

- KH-9, HEXAGON 1971/06/15 to 1986/04/18.

- KH-10, Manned Orbiting Laboratory (MOL).

- KH-11, KENNAN 1976/12/19 to 1985/08/25.

- KH-11, CRYSTAL 1987/10/26 to 1988/11/06, 250 mile orbit, resolution 3-4 in (8-10 cm)

- ADVANCED KH-11, see KH-11 CRYSTAL.

- KH-12, IKON ?

- KH-13, ?

KEYHOLE.....U.S., Air Force and Central Intelligence Agency (CIA), satellite, reconnaissance. (Code 1010) most sophisticated reconnaissance satellites. Also known as KH. Many times the name listed in satellite listing as none or USA. The version known as KH-11 was first launched in 1976, looked much like the HUBBLE SPACE TELESCOPE with solar arrays aligned parallel with the main body of the spacecraft, and were labeled Strategic Response Satellites. Second version was launched between 1984 and 1988. A third version was launched between 1992 and 1996, which may include larger solar arrays, and an optical telescope mirror up to 150 inches in diameter with a resolution of about 6 in (15 cm).. See KENNAN.

First launch 1976/12/19

KF.....China, satellite, see KUA FU.

KH.....U.S., satellites, reconnaissance and cameras. See KEYHOLE.

Khashi tracking station.....China, organization, tracking station located in Xinjiang province. See Xian Satellite Monitor and Control Center.

Khephri.....Egypt, sun god.

Khimavtomatika KB.....Russia, organization, Voronezh, rocket engine design. Also known as Kosberg KB.

Khrounov, Evgueny.....Russia, cosmonaut. See Khrunov.

Khrunichev State Research and Production Space Center.....Russia, organization. Produces the Proton heavy-lift launcher, building-block for MIR, and ALMAZ radar reconnaissance satellite. Address ?

Khrunichev State Space NPO.....Russia, organization, Retov. Manufactures the Proton launch vehicle, Kristall. Was part of the Chelomey.

Khrunov, Yevgeny.....Russia, cosmonaut, SOYUZ 05, 1969/01/15. First launch 1969/01/15

Khurnichev Yakhta.....Russia, satellite bus.

Ki.....Sumerian Earth god.

kibo.....Japan, means hope.

KIBO.....Japan, satellite, see HOPE.

Kiku.....Japan, Chrysanthemum.

KIKU.....Japan, satellite. See ETS.

Kinetic Energy......See orbital total energy. Also known as KE.

King Abdulaziz City for Science and Technology.....Saudi Arabia, Riyadh, organization. Also known as KACST, King Abdulaziz City for Science and Technology.

Kiowa.....USS Kiowa, ATF-72, prime recovery ship for Able & Baker. Recovery 1959/05/28

Kirari.....Japan, glitter or twinkle.

KIRARI.....Japan, satellite, experimental communication, See OPTICAL INTER-ORBIT COMMUNICATIONS ENGINEERING TEST SATELLITE, OICETS. 2005/08/23

Kiritimati.....U.S., space vehicle launch facility, see KLA.

Kistler.....U.S. launch vehicle, Kistler Aerospace Corp. launch vehicle, K-1. U.S. Kistler Aerospace Corp. 2 stage reusable satellite launch vehicle for low or medium earth orbit capability. 10,000 lbs (4400 kg), LEO. Stage 1 LAP uses 2 AJ26-58 and 1 AJ26-59 engines. Stage 2 uses AJ26-60 and 1 OMS. Active Dispenser, Aerojet motor with no designation.. First launch 1999/00/00

Kistler Aerospace Corp......U.S., aerospace company. Address: 3760 Carillon Point, Kirkland, WA 98033, USA.

KIT.....Korea, organization, see Korea Institute of Technology.

KITCOM.....Australia, satellite, mobile communications, LEO.

KITSAT.....South Korea, satellite, technology. South Korea built experimental satellite, houses an earth imaging system. Also known as URIBYOL. Launched by Ariane.

KITSAT 1 (A), 1992/08/10, Ariane 42P, V52, LEO, OSCAR 23.

KITSAT 2, 1993/09/26, Kourou, Ariane 40 V59, LEO.

First launch 1992/08/10

Kitty Hawk.....Geographical location, U.S., location in North Carolina where the Wright brothers first flew.

KITTY HAWK.....U.S., satellite, manned spacecraft APOLLO 14, CSM-110. Launched by Saturn 5 at KSC. CDR Alan Shepard, LMP Edgar Mitchell, CMP Stuart Rossa. LA 1971/01/31, LL 1971/02/04, LF 1971/02/06, R 1971/02/09, PRS U.S.S. New Orleans (LPH-11). First launch 1971/01/31

Kizim, Leonid.....Russia, cosmonaut, SOYUZ T3, 1980/11/27, SOYUZ T10, 1984/02/08, SOYUZ T15, 1986/03/13. First launch 1980/11/27

KLA.....U.S., Kiritimati Launch Area, Pacific Ocean, location, 0o N by 154o W, Boeing Sea Launch area.

KLC.....U.S., space vehicle launch facility, see Kodiak.

Klimouk, Piotr.....Russia, cosmonaut. See Klimuk

Klimuk, Pyotr.....Russia, cosmonaut, SOYUZ 13, 1973/12/18, SOYUZ 18, 1975/05/24, SOYUZ 30, 1978/06/02. First launch 1973/12/18

KM-D.....Japan, launch vehicle motor, thrust 3,900 lbf (16 kN), pressure ? psi (? bar), solid propellant HTPB. Used on M-3S-II, stage 4.

KM-M.....Japan, launch vehicle motor, thrust 7,200 lbf (31.7 kN), pressure ? psi (? bar), solid propellant HTPB. Used on M-3S-II, stage 4.

KM-P.....Japan, launch vehicle motor, thrust 7,000 lbf (31 kN), pressure ? psi (? bar), solid propellant HTPB. Used on M-3S-II, stage 4.

KM-V1.....Japan, launch vehicle motor. Thrust 11,700 lbf (52 kN), pressure 710 psi (49 bar), propellant HTPB. Manufactured by IHI Aerospace.

KMR.....U.S., space vehicle launch facility, see Kwajalein.

kN.....Units of measure. Kilo Newtons [kgm/t2], force. 1 kN = 1000 Newtons = 1x108 dynes = 102 kg = 224 lbf.

KN.....Launch vehicle propellant, solid, oxidizer, Potassium nitrate.

KNO3.....Launch vehicle propellant, solid, oxidizer, Potassium nitrate.

KOBAL'T......Russia, satellite, see KOBALT.

Kobalt.....Russia, Cobalt, element, atomic number 27.

KOBALT.....Russia, satellite, photo reconnaissance, LEO, 4th generation YANTAR. 77 satellites launch to date. First launch

KODAMA.....Japan, satellite, communications, GEO, meas echo. Also known as DRTS. First launch 2002/09/10

Kodiak.....U.S., space vehicle launch facility, Kodiak, Alaska, 400 km from Anchorage. The Kodiak Launch complex (KLC) includes Poker Flats sounding rocket range.. First launch 2001/09/29

Kodiak Island.....U.S., launch complex, see Kodiak.

Kodiak Launch complex.....U.S., space vehicle launch facility, see Kodiak.

Kokee Tracking Station.....U.S., organization, NASA, STDN, Spaceflight Tracking and Data Network. Kokee Tracking Station, Attention: Senior Manager, P.O. Box 538, Waimea, Kauai HI. 96976 U.S.

KOLIBRI-2000.....Russia, microsatellite. Launched from PROGRESS M1-7. Joint Russian-Australian educational project to allow school children to monitor low frequency waves and particle fluxes in low earth orbit. Built by IKI/Moskva. First launch 2002/03/19

KOLTSO.....Russia, satellite, calibration. Also known as 17F115.

Komandir.....Russia, commander.

Komarov, Vladimir.....Russia, cosmonaut, SOYUZ 01, 1967/04/23, VOSKHOD 1, (RUBY). First launch 1967/04/23

Kometa OKB.....Russia, organization, Moscow. See TSNII Kometa.

KOMETA.....Russia, satellite, photo reconnaissance and military terrain mapping, LEO. Version used for civilian mapping. 3rd generation YANTAR. Was also known as SILUET, 11F630. 20 satellites launched. Ministry of Defense name SILUET/KOMETA. Design Bureau name YANTAR 1KFT. First launch 1981/00/00

KOMETA/SPIN 2.....Russia, satellite, civilian mapping using photo reconnaissance satellite, KOMETA. Space information/2 meter resolution. First launch 1998/02/17

KOMPASS.....Russia, satellite, geodetic, seismic detection. First launch 2001/12/10

Komplex-MIT Center.....Russia, organization, manufactures Start and Start-1 launch vehicles.

Kompomash.....Russia, company.

Kompressor Plant SKB SpetsMash.....Russia, Moscow, organization. See GSKB SpetsMash

KOMPSAT.....South Korea, satellite, remote sensing, LEO SSO. KOREA MULTIPURPOSE SATELLITE. First launch 1999/12/20

Kondakova, Helena.....Russia, cosmonaut, SOYUZ TM 20, 1994/10/03. First launch 1994/10/03

KONVERT.....Russia, satellite, communications, LEO. 8 satellite constellation. Also known as COURIER. First launch

KOPERKNIKUS DFS.....German, satellite, communications. DEUTSCHER FERNMELDE SATELLIT. See DFS Koperknikus.

Kopernik.....Nikolai Kopernik, 1473-1543, heliocentric cosmology. See also Copernicus.

KOPPL.....Russia, satellite. First launch 1984/00/00

KORABL'-SPUTNIK.....Russia, satellite, КОРАБЛ СПНИК means ship or vessel satellite. See SPUTNIK.

Korea Aerospace Institute.....Korea, organization. Also known as KARI. Manufacturers liquid and solid rocket Boosters.

Korea Institute of Technology.....Korea, organization. Also known as KIT. Manufacturers satellites.

Korea Satellite Launch Vehicle.....South Korea, see KSLV.

Korea Telecom.....Korea, company, commercial satellite operator, KOREASAT. Satellite Operations Center, 206, Jungja-don, Bundang-gu, Sungnam, 463-711, S. Korea, www.kt.co.kr.

KOREA MULTIPURPOSE SATELLITE.....Korea, satellite. See KOMPSAT.

KOREASAT.....Republic of Korea, satellite, television and telecommunications. Korea satellite.

- KOREASAT 1 1995/08/05, ESMC, Delta 2, GEO.

- KOREASAR 2 1996/01/14, ESMC, Delta 2, GEO.

First launch. 1995/08/05

Korolev.....Russia, organization, was the Energia NPO, formally OKB-1.

Korolev.....Russia, tracking station near Moscow. Cyrillic КОРОЁВ,

Korolev Rocket and Space Corporation "Energiya".....Russia, organization, RKK "Energiya", 4A, Lenina ul., 141070 Kaliningrad (Moscow region), Telephone:(7 095) 284-5398, FAX:(7 095) 187-9877. RKK "Energiya" is the leading organization dealing with the design and manufacturing of manned space stations and heavy launch vehicles.

KORONAS.....Russia & Ukraine, satellite. UV and X-ray instruments to map the sun and plasma monitors to study the ionosphere and magnetosphere.

KORONAS-1, 1994/03/02, Plesetsk, Tsylkon 3, LEO.

First launch 1994/03/02

Korzoun, Valeri.....Russia, cosmonaut. See Korzun.

Korzun, Valeri.....Russia, cosmonaut, SOYUZ TM 24, 1996/08/17, STS-111, 2002/06/05. First launch 1996/08/17

Kosberg KB.....Russia, organization, see Khimavtomatika KB.

Kosmodrom.....Russia, space center, see cosmodrom.

KOSMOLJOT.....Russia, satellite, reusable orbital space shuttle, renamed BURAN .

kosmos.....Russia, space.

Kosmos.....Russia, launch vehicle. See Kosmos, Small

Kosmos.....Russia, launch vehicle, with Breeze M upper stage. Based on SS-19 ICBM, also known as RS-18.

Kosmos 3M.....Russia, launch vehicle, 3100 lbs (1400 kg), LEO. See Kosmos Large. First launch 1961/10/21

Kosmos, large.....Russia, launch vehicle. In the west known as C-1 or SL-8, article number 11K65M, the large Kosmos, or Kosmos. Based upon the R-3 or in the west as the SS-5 Skean. It is a two stage vehicle. Capable of placing about 3000 lbs (1300 kg) into LEO

- Kosmos 2, 2 Stages, 65S3,

- Kosmos 3, 2 stages, 11K65.

- Kosmos 3M, 2 stages, 1165M, K65M-RB. Stage 1 used RD-216/11D614, 2 sets of pumps and 4 nozzles. Stage 2, uses 11K49 engine with verniers. Can place 3300 lbm (1500 kg) in LEO.

First launch 1964/08/18

Kosmos, small.....Russia, launch vehicle, 1962-1977. Based upon the Medium range ballistic missile (MRBM), SS-4 Sandal. Capable of placing about 1300 lbs (600 kg) into LEO. The MRBM is the first stage of the 2 stage Kosmos, B-1, 63S1, 11K63, or SL-7. 12} First launch 1961/10/26

Kosmos U.....Russia, launch vehicle, 1600 kg, LEO. Also known as Vzlyet. First launch

KOSMOS.....Russia, satellite series, many different types of satellites. Also known as COSMOS. Total through the end of 2000 is 2376. First launch 1961/10/21

Kosmotras.....Russia and, Ukraine company, see ISC Kosmotras.

Koubassov, Valeri.....Russia, cosmonaut. See Kubasov.

Kourou.....Guiana, space vehicle launch facility, location. See Guiana Space Center.

Kovalenok, Vladimir.....Russia, cosmonaut. See Kovalyonok.

Kovalyonok, Vladimir.....Russia, cosmonaut, SOYUZ 25, 10/09/77, SOYUZ 29, 1978/06/15, SOYUZ T4, 1981/03/12. First launch 1977/10/09

Kozeev, Konstantin.....Russia, cosmonaut, SOYUZ TM 033, 2001/10/21. First launch 2001/10/21

KP.....Launch vehicle propellant, solid, oxidizer, see Potassium perchlorate.

Krasnaya Zvezda NPO.....Russia, organization, Moscow, manufactures nuclear space power plants.

Kraus.....USS Kraus, recovery ship, part of the fleet which recovered or was on duty and capable of recovering the following: GEMINI AGENA 6.

Kregel, Kevin.....U.S., astronaut, STS-70, 1995/07/13, STS-78, 1996/06/20, STS-087, 1997/11/19, STS-099, 2000/2/11. First launch 1995/07/13

kreisbahn.....German for orbit.

Krikalev, Sergei.....Russia, cosmonaut, SOYUZ TM 07, 1988/11/26, SOYUZ TM 12, 1991/05/18, STS-60, 1994/02/03, SOYUZ TM 31 & Expedition 1, 2000/10/31. SOYUZ TMA 6 Expedition 11, 2005/04/15 First launch 1988/11/26

Krikalyov, Sergey.....Russia, cosmonaut, SOYUZ TM 31 & Expedition 1, 2000/10/31. First launch 2000/10/31

kristall.....Russia, crystal, chemical, transparent form of quartz.

KRISTALL.....Russia, satellite, technology, manned, LEO. Mir's third expansion module, dedicated to materials processing,. Launched at Tyuratam by an SL-13 into LEO. First launch 1990/05/30

KSC.....U.S., space vehicle launch facility. NASA, STDN, Spaceflight Tracking and Data Network. KSC, Attention: Station Director, MILA STDN, Mail Code MILA, JFK Space Center, KSC, FL 32899 See Kennedy Space Center. FL

KSC-WLOD.....U.S., Vandenberg, organization. Part of the NASA KSC launch operations, and known as the Western Launch Operations Division (WLOD). See also Vandenberg Air Force Base.

KSI.....Russia, satellite, see 11F76.

KSLV.....South Korea, launch vehicle. Powered by Russian Khrunichev engine. Korea Satellite Launch Vehicle. First launch 2007/00/00

KT.....China, launch vehicle, 3 stage, solid fuel, based upon DF-31 ballistic missile, Kaituozhe. Launch failure. First launch 2003/09/16

KT Corporation.....South Korea, company, satellite operator, see Korea Telecom.

KTDU-1.....Russia, launch vehicle motor, used on Vostok. Manufactured by KM KhimMash.

KTDU-35.....Russia, launch vehicle motor, used on early SOYUZ. Manufactured by KM KhimMash.

KTDU-53.....Russia, launch vehicle motor, used on ZOND. Manufactured by KM KhimMash.

KTDU-5A.....Russia, launch vehicle motor, used on LUNA soft landings. Manufactured by KM KhimMash.

KTDU-61.....Russia, launch vehicle motor, used on LUNA 16 ascent stage. Manufactured by KM KhimMash.

KTV-1.....Netherlands, satellite, communications, GEO. Also known as NEWSKYES KTV-1 or K-TV.

Ku band.....Electromagnetic frequencies between 10.7 to 15.4 GHZ. See band.

KUA FU.....China, satellite, dummy or unknown.

KF 1, 1994 101B, 1994/02/08, Xi Chang, CZ-3A, GEO. First launch 1994/02/08

KUBAN.....Russia, satellite, photo reconnaissance, see ORLETS.

Kubasov, Valeri.....Russia, cosmonaut, SOYUZ 06, 1969/10/11, SOYUZ 19, 1975/07/15, SOYUZ 36, 1980/05/26. First launch 1969/10/11

Kuipers, Andre.....ESA, cosmonaut, Soyuz TMA 04, 2004/04/19. First launch 2004/04/19

KUPON.....Russia, satellite, communications. First launch 1997/11/12

KUTESAT.....U.S., satellite, technology, Kansas, picosatellite that is a cubesat. First launch 2006/07/26

kvant.....Russia. quantum.

Kvant.....Russia, launch vehicle, 11400 lbs (5200 kg) LEO. First launch

KVANT.....Russia, satellite, scientific, manned, LEO. Astrophysics expansion modules for the Mir space station. Also known as 37KE, TKM-E, and QUANT, QUANTUM.. Launched at Tyuratam by a SL-13 into a LEO.} First launch 1987/03/31

KVD-1.....Russia, launch vehicle motor, thrust 17,000 lbf (75 kN), pressure 826 psi (57 bar), liquid cryogenic propellant LOX/LH2. Used on India GSLV stage 3. Manufactured by KB KhimMash.

KVD-1M3.....Russia, engine, KB Khimavtomatiki, liquid LOX/LH2, 23,000 lbf (100 kN). Used on Angara 5 KVRB stage.

KVRB.....Russia, launch vehicle. Stage, motor, KVD-1M3. Used on Angara 5 KVRB.

Kwajalein.....U.S., space vehicle launch facility, Bucholz Army Airfield (PKWA), USAKA (Kwajalein Island), 167o W by 7.6o N, Marshall Islands, for HETE 2 satellite by Pegasus. Also known as KMR. First launch 2000/10/09

KWANGMYONGSONG.....North Korea, satellite, FTO. First launch 1998/08/31

kyokko.....Japan, aurora.

KYOKKO.....Japan, satellite. Also known as SS-05. See EXOS.


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Updated 2007/2/01