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L.....Orbital elements, see F & G Elements.

L.....Roman number for 50.

L band.....Electromagnetic frequencies between 1 to 2 GHZ. See band.

L'GERAKL'.....Russia, satellite, see ZENIT.

L-1.....Russia, satellite, dummy spacecraft, launched at Tyuratam, FTO. Used to test the N-1. First launch 1969/02/21

L-1011.....U.S., launch vehicle, see L1011.

L-1S.....Russia, satellite, see 11F92 and 7K-L1P.

L-4S.....Japan, launch vehicle, 57 lbs (26 kg), LEO. See Lambda 4S.

L-4S.....Japan, satellite, see LAMBDA satellite and Lambda launch vehicle. First launch 1966/09/26

L-SAT.....Europe, satellite. See OLYMPUS.

L-STAR.....Thailand, satellite, communications. direct-to-home television. LIMTHONGKUL-STAR. First launch ?

L1.....Orbit, see lagrange point.

L10.....China, launch vehicle motor, uses YF-3 engine.

L1011.....U.S., launch vehicle, Lockheed L1011 wide body jet named Stargazer, modified for use as the launch vehicle (stage 0) for the Pegasus launch vehicle.

L140.....China, launch vehicle. Uses YF-20 engine. Stage 1 of CZ-2C.

L15.....China, launch vehicle. Stage 3 of CZ-4.

L180.....China, launch vehicle. Uses YF-20 engine. Stage 1 of CZ-2E, 3A, 4.

L2.....India, launch vehicle motor, Liquid 2 tons. See PS4.

L2.....Orbit, see lagrange point.

L220.....ESA, launch vehicle, Ariane 4 stage 1, uses 4 Viking VC engines.

L3.....Orbit, see lagrange point.

L33.....ESA, launch vehicle, Ariane 4 stage 2, uses 1 Viking IVB engines.

L35.....China, launch vehicle, Uses YF-22 main engine with YF-23 verniers. Stage 2 of CZ-2C, 3A, 4.

L4.....Orbit, see lagrange point.

L40.....India, launch vehicle motor, Liquid 40 tons. See PS2.

L40.....ESA, launch vehicle, strap-on booster, liquid. Uses Viking V1 motor, used on Ariane 4.

L40H.....India, launch vehicle motor, Liquid 40 tons hypergolic. See PS2 and GSLV.

L5.....Orbit, see lagrange point.

L60.....China, launch vehicle motor, uses YF-2A engine.

L80.....China, launch vehicle. Uses YF-22 main engine and YF-23 verniers. Stage 2 of CZ-2E.

L9.....ESA, launch vehicle, Ariane 5 Upper stage, uses Aestus motor. See EPS.

LA.....Launch Area.

LA.....Abbreviation for Launch.

Laboratorie de Recherches Balistiques et Aérodynamiques.....France, see LRBA.

LACE.....U.S. DoD, satellite, scientific, LEO. LOW-POWER ATMOSPHERIC COMPENSATION EXPERIMENT (LACE) to measure distortions in laser beams targeting it from earth, built by the Naval Research Laboratory. Launched at the ESMC by a Delta 2 into a LEO. First launch 1990/02/14

LACROSSE.....U.S. CIA, satellite, imaging reconnaissance. Surveillance satellite series to overcome the problem of cloud cover. See USA.

- LACROSS 1 1988-106B, 1988/12/02, KSC, STS-27, LEO.

- LACROSS 2 1991-017A, 1991/03/08, KSC, Titan 4, LEO.

- LACROSS, 1997/10/24, KSC, Titan 4.

First launch 1982/01/21

LACROSSE ONYX.....U.S., satellite, reconnaissance, LEO, sun-sync. First launch 2000/08/17

Lada.....Jupiter moon, one of 16. See also Metis, Adrastea, Amalthea, Thebe, Io, Europa, Ganymede, Callisto, Leda, Sinope, Himalia, Lysithea, Elara, Ananke, Carme, Pasiphae.

LADYBUG.....U.S. satellite, broadband communications, GEO. See KASTAR.

Lagardere.....Europe, aerospace company, was Marconi until late 1990s.

LAGEOS.....Italy, satellite, scientific, LEO. LASER GEODYNAMIC SATELLITE, an Italian built laser ranging satellite to determine accurate distance between the satellite and ground. Can monitor the earth's crustal movement and other geodetic data. Launched by the U.S.

- LAGEOS 1, 1976/05/04, WTR, Delta, LEO.

- LAGEOS 2, 1992/10/22, ETR, STS-52, LEO.

First launch 1976/05/04

Lagrange orbit.....Orbit around the Lagrange point where the gravitational forces due to two or more bodies are balanced. Also known as the libration point. See Halo orbits, Lissajous orbits, Lyapunov orbits, and Moulton's orbits.

Lagrange point.....Orbital component. In a system dominated by two attracting bodies (such as the Sun and Earth), a point at which a third, much smaller body (such as a satellite) keeps the same position relative to the other two. Lagrange point where the gravitational forces due to two are more bodies balance. Also known as the libration point. Theoretically, the moon-Earth system has 5 Lagrange points:

ole10.gifFigure 27 Lagrange or Libration Point coordinate system. z axis is perpendicular to the Ecliptic Plane. y axis points to the direction of Earth's rotation around the Sun. x axis is a line conecting the Sun to Earth,

L1 - Is on a line between the Earth and moon and approximately 41,000 miles (76,000 km) from the moon, 930,000 miles from Earth.

L2 - On the Earth-moon line approximately 71,000 km beyond the orbit of the moon or about 1 million miles from Earth.

L3 - On the Earth-moon line but in lunar orbit 180o away from the moon.

L4 - In the lunar orbit but 60o ahead of the moon.

L5 - In the lunar orbit but 60o behind the moon.

ole11.gifFigure 28 Earth-Moon Lagrange or Libration points

       In the Sun-Earth system, only two are important: L1, on the sunward side of Earth, about 4 times the distance of the Moon, and L2 at approximately the same distance on the midnight side, approximatly 950,000 miles or 1,500,000 km from earth. Objects can settle in an orbit around a Lagrange point. Orbits around the three collinear points, L1, L2, and L3, are unstable. They last but days before the object will break away. L1 and L2 last about 23 days. Objects orbiting around L4 and L5 are stable because the Coriolis force keeps them spinning around the Lagrange point.

ole12.gifFigure 29 Sun-Earth Lagrange or Libration points

Lagrange points may also be refered to as Trojan Points. Seleno-Trojan points are the Lagrange points in the Earth-Moon system. Geo-Trojan points are the Lagrange points in the Sun-Earth system.

Lake Champlain CVS 39.....USS Lake Champlain CVS 39, recovery ship, part of the fleet which recovered or was on duty and capable of recovering the following: MERCURY Atlas 8. Primer recovery ship for MA-5 (Enos) (2 recovery ships), GEMINI 2, 5.

lambda.....Λ, λ, lambda, 11, Greek Alphabet.

Lambda 4S.....Japan, launch vehicle, LEO, placed first Japanese satellite OHSUMI in orbit. Stage 0, strap-on, 2 SB-310 solid fuel motors. Stage 1, 735UP solid fuel motor. Stage 2, 735UP solid fuel motor. Stage 3, 500BP solid fuel motor. Stage 4 480S solid fuel motor. Payload 57 lbs (26 kg) into LEO.

- 1966/09/26, Kagoshima, FTO.

- 1966/12/20, Kagoshima, FTO.

- 1967/04/13, Kagoshima, FTO.

- 1969/09/22, Kagoshima, FTO.

- 1970/02/11, Kagoshima, OSHUMI, HEO.

First launch 1966/09/26

LAMBDA.....Japan, satellite, see OHSUMI. Uses same name as the launch vehicle Lambda.

LAMPO.....U.S., satellite, reconnaissance, also known as 0.1 SQUARE METER TARGET, 1963-035B. Launched with CORONA. First launch 1963/08/29

LAN.....U.S., satellite, see LANDSAT.

lancement.....French for launch.

land.....When a satellite lands on the surface and continues to function. See also impact.

Land Launch.....U.S., Russia, launch vehicle. Boeing derivative of the Sea Launch Co. Launch vehicle. Will place in GTO 3.5 tons. 2 SLB will place 13 metric tons in LEO. 3 SLB will place 3 metric tons in GEO. Will be launched from a pad at Baikonur, Kazakhstan.

LAND SATELLITE.....U.S., satellite. See LANDSAT.

landesname.....German for name of country.

LANDSAT.....U.S., satellite, remote sensing. LAND SATELLITE, remote sensing of earth.

- LANDSAT 1, 1972/07/23, WTR, Delta, LEO, ERTS.

- LANDSAT 2, 1975/01/22, WTR, Delta, LEO.

- LANDSAT 3, 1978/03/05, WTR, Delta, LEO.

- LANDSAT 4, 1982/07/16, WTR, Thor Delta, LEO.

- LANDSAT 5, 1984/03/01, WTR, Delta, LEO.

First launch 1972/07/23

Langley Research Center.....U.S., organization. NASA facility. Oldest of NASA's field centers, LaRC is located in Hampton, Virginia, and focuses primarily on aeronautical research. Established in 1917 by the National Advisory Committee for Aeronautics, the Center currently devotes two-thirds of its programs to aeronautics, and the rest to space. LaRC researchers use more than 40 wind tunnels to study improved aircraft and spacecraft safety, performance, and efficiency Research Center, Hampton, VA 23665-5225. Basic research in aeronautics and space technology.

LANI BIRD.....U.S., satellite. See INTELSAT 2 F1

LANYARD.....U.S. CIA imaging reconnaissance, surveillance satellites, used KH-6 cameras.

- LANYARD, 1963/03/18, WTR, TAT Agena D, FTO, CORONA 61, LY1.

- LANYARD, 1963 16A, 1963/05/18, WTR, TAT Agena D, LEO, Decayed 1963/05/27, CORONA 64, LY2.

- LANYARD, 1963 32A, 1963/07/31, WTR, TAT Agena D, LEO, decayed 1963/08/11, CORONA 68, LY3.

First launch 1963/03/18

Lanzhou Gansu.....China, space vehicle launch facility. See Jiuquan.

LAP.....U.S., launch vehicle, Launch Assist Platform, K-1 stage 1, uses 2 AJ26-58 and 1 AJ26-59 engines.

Laptus.....Saturn moon, one of 19. See Prometheus, Pandora, Atlas, Epimetheus, Janus, Mimas, Helene, Enceladus, Tethys, Calypso, Telesto, Dione, Pan, 1995-S4, Rhea, Titan, Hyperion, Laptus, Phoebe.

Lararev, Vasili.....Russia, cosmonaut, SOYUZ 12, 1973/09/27. First launch 1973/09/27

LaRC.....U.S., organization. NASA, Langley Research Center, Langley, VA.

LARETS.....Russia, satellite, radar, SSO. First launch 2003/09/27

Large Kosmos.....Russia, launch vehicle. See Kosmos, large.

LARGE ASTEROID ORBITER.....U.S., NASA, satellites, scientific, co-orbit asteroid, maybe Ceres.

LARGE SOLAR ARRAY.....U.S., satellite, technology. Solar array unfolded on Space Shuttle STS-41D. Launched at the ETR. First launch 1984/09/01


Larissa.....Neptune moon, one of 8. See Triton, Naiad, Thalassa, Nereid, Despina, Galatea, Larissa, Proteus.

LARK.....Canada, satellite. See ALOUETTE.


LATINSAT.....Argentina, satellite, communications, relay, LEO. Also known as APRIZESAT. First launch 2002/12/20

Latitude.....The angle measured between the equator and the pole. The angle between the equator (0 degrees) and the north pole (90 degrees north). The angle between the equator and the south pole (90 degrees south). For example Vandenberg AFB is 24.7 degrees North.

launch.....lancement (Fr),, start (D).

launch vehicle propellant.....Chemicals used in a spacecraft launch vehicle to provide thrust. e.g rocket. See propellant.

Launch facility.....See Space Vehicle Launch Facility.

Launch Site.....See Space Vehicle Launch Facility.

Launch vehicle.....Any device that propels and guides a spacecraft/satellite into orbit about the earth or into a trajectory to another celestial body. Also called a booster or rocket. The device can contain 1 or more stages which fall away or are ejected when no longer needed.

       Major Launch Vehicles of the World that have successfully launched an object into orbit;

- Ariane (Europe)

- Athena (U.S.)

- Atlas (U.S.)

- Black Arrow (Great Britain) Retired

- Chang Zheng (China)

- Delta (U.S.)

- Diamant (France) Retired

- Dnepr (Russia)

- Energia (Russia) Retired

- H (Japan)

- J (Japan)

- Juno (U.S.) Retired

- Jupiter (U.S.) Retired

- Kosmos (Russia)

- Mu (Japan)

- Minotaur (U.S.)

- Molniya (Russia)

- N (Japan) Retired

- Pegasus (U.S.)

- Proton (Russia)

- Redstone (U.S.) Retired

- Rockot (Russia)

- Satellite Launch Vehicle (India)

- Saturn (U.S.) Retired

- Scout (U.S.) Retired

- Shavit (Israel)

- Shtil (Russia)

- Soyuz (Russia)

- Space Shuttle (U.S.)

- Sputnik (Russia) Retired

- Taurus (U.S.)

- Thor (U.S.) Retired

- Titan (U.S.)

- Tsyklon (Ukraine)

- Vanguard (U.S.) Retired

- Volna (Russia)

- Voskhod (Russia) Retired

- Vostok (Russia) Retired

- Zenit (Ukraine)

Many others have been proposed or are under development but have not yet launched an object into space.

Launch Vehicle designation.....U.S. See DoD Designation. Russia, see Russia Launch Vehicle Designation. Japan, see Japan Launch Vehicle Designation.

Launch Vehicle Motor/Engine manufacturers abbreviation.....U.S. DoD Launch Vehicle Motor/Engine manufacturers abbreviation. See also DoD Designation.

AB - Allegany Ballistics Lab.

AC - AMOCO Chemicals Corp.

AD - Allison Div. (General Motors)

AE - Aerodyne Corp. (formerly AD)

AI - Astropower, Inc.

AJ - Aerojet General Corp.

AN - Aeronutronics Corp.

AR - Atlantic Research Corp.

AS - Astrosystems, Inc.

BA - Bell Aerosystems Co.

BG - B.F. Goodrich Co. (formerly G)

CA - Continental Aviation And Engineering Corp.

CF - CFM International

CP - United Aircraft of Canada Ltd.

CW - Curtiss-Wright Corp.

GA - AiResearch Div. (Garrett Corp.)

GE - General Electric Co.

IHI - Ishikawajima Heavy Industries Co., Ltd., Japan

HP - Hercules Powder Co.

HT - Hughes Tool Co.

LHT - Light Helicopter Turbine Engine Co. (LHTEC)

LD - Lycoming Div. (AVCO)

LP - Lockheed Propulsion Co.

MA - Marquardt Corp.

MAN - Maschinenfabrik Augsburg-Nürnberg, Germany

MT - Microturbo

MTU - Motoren- und Turbinen-Union (DaimlerChrysler), Germany

NA - North American Rockwell Corp. (Rocketdyne)

NC - Northrop Carolina Corp.

NM - Naval Missile center

NP - Naval Propellant Plant No. 5

NW - Naval Weapons center

OM - Olin Mathieson Co.

PA - Picatinny Arsenal

PW - Pratt & Whitney

RC - Rocket Research Corp. (formerly RR)

RD - Rocketdyne (now Rockwell/Hercules)

RM - Reaction Motors Div. (Thiokol)

RP - Rocket Power, Inc.

RR - Rolls Royce Ltd.

SP - Sunstrand Power Systems

TC - Thiokol Chemical Corp.

TR - TRW Systems

UT - United Technology Center

WA - Curtiss-Wright Corp. (cancelled, use CW)

WR - Williams Research Corp.

WV - United Aircraft of West Virginia

ZZ - any contractor not listed (also used, if contractor is not yet determined).

Launch Vehicle Technology.....China, organization. See China Academy of Launch Vehicle Technology

Laveikin, Alexander.....Russia, cosmonaut, SOYUZ TM-2, 1987/02/06. First launch 1987/02/06

Lavochkin NPO.....Russia, organization, see NPO Lavochkin. Developed interplanetary satellites. Also known as OKB-577, Babakin Research Institute.

Lavochkin Scientific and Production Association.....Russia, organization. NPOL, Address: 24, Leningradskoye sh., 141400 Khimki (Moscow region), Telephone:(7 095) 573-5565, 573-9056, FAX:(7 095) 573-3595. NPOL was founded as an aircraft manufacturer. Today it is the country's leading developer of unmanned spacecraft for planetary exploration and astrophysical research. Main activities: Design and manufacturing of interplanetary stations, spacecraft for near-Earth space research and orbital astrophysical observatories, design and manufacturing of communications and remote- sensing spacecraft, design, testing and manufacturing of reentry modules, small stations, penetrators and planetary rovers, development of future space technologies for spacecraft production, investigation of space flight dynamics, reentry and landing, ground testing of systems, subsystems, integrated spacecraft full cycle of preflight preparation and launch, flight control, design and manufacturing of universal Boosters to put various spacecraft in orbit. Founded 1937/00/00.

Lawe DD 763.....USS Lawe DD 763, recovery ship, part of the fleet which recovered or was on duty and capable of recovering the following: GEMINI 9, GEMINI 10.

Lawrence, Wendy.....U.S., astronaut, STS-67, 1995/03/02, STS-086, 1997/09/25, STS-091, 1998/06/02, STS-114, 2005/07/26. First launch 1995/03/02

Lazarev, Vassili.....Russia, cosmonaut. See Lavarv.

Lazoutkine, Alexandre.....Russia, cosmonaut, TM-25, 1997/02/19. First launch 1997/02/10

LB180.....China, launch vehicle. Stage 1 of CZ-3B.

LB35.....China, launch vehicle. Stage 2 of CZ-3B.

LB40.....China, launch vehicle. Stage 0 (strap-on) of CZ-2E.

lbf.....Pound force, force. 1 lbf = 0.45 kg = 4.45 Newtons.

lbm.....Units of measure, pound mass [lb]. 1 pound =0.453 kilograms [kg]

LC.....Launch complex.

LCROSS.....U.S., NASA, satellite, Moon orbit, LUNAR CRATER OBSERVATION AND SENSING SATELLITE. Launched with S-S/C and LRO. First launch 2008/10/00

LCS.....U.S. satellite, passive aluminum sphere for radar calibration studies.

- LCS 1, 1965/05/06, ETR, Titan IIIA, LEO.

- LCS 2, 1965/10/15, ETR, Titan IIIC, LEO, decayed 1972/07/27.

- LCS, 1968/08/16, ETR, Atlas Burner II, FTO.

First launch 1965/05/06

LD.....Launch vehicle motor, Lycoming Div. (AVCO).

LDEF.....U.S. Satellite, scientific, LEO. LONG DURATION EXPOSURE FACILITY, to gather exposure data during a one-year period in space. Recoverable by the STS-32.

- 1984/04/06, ETR, STS-41-C, returned 1990/01/20.

First launch 1984/04/06

LDREX.....Japan, satellite, technology test, HEO. LARGE-SCALE DEPLOYABLE REFLECTOR EXPERIMENT. First launch 2001/12/20

LE-3.....U.S./Japan, launch vehicle stage. Thrust ? lbf (? kN), pressure ? psi (? bar), liquid propellant N2O4/UDMH-hydrazine. Used on the Japanese N-I, Stage 2, SSPS.

LE-5.....Japan, launch vehicle motor, Mitsubishi Heavy Industries (MHI), also known as MHI LE-5. Used on the H-I launch vehicle. Thrust 23,000 lbf (102 kN), pressure 540 psi (37 bar), liquid propellant LOX/LH2

LE-5A.....Japan, launch vehicle motor, Mitsubishi Heavy Industries (MHI), also known as MHI LE-5A. Used on the H-II launch vehicle. Thrust 23,300 lbf (121 kN), pressure 555 psi (38 bar), liquid propellant LOX/LH2

LE-5B.....Japan, launch vehicle motor, Mitsubishi Heavy Industries (MHI), also known as MHI LE-5B. Used on the H-IIA launch vehicle. Thrust 30,000 lbf (137 kN), pressure 526 psi (36 bar), liquid propellant LOX/LH2

LE-7.....Japan, launch vehicle motor, Mitsubishi Heavy Industries (MHI), also known as MHI LE-7A. Used on the H-IIA launch vehicle. Long nozzle thrust 189,000 lbf (843 kN), pressure 1850 psi (127 bar), liquid propellant LOX/LH2

LE-7A.....Japan, launch vehicle motor, Mitsubishi Heavy Industries (MHI), also known as MHI LE-7A. Used on the H-IIA launch vehicle. Long nozzle thrust 247,000 lbf (1098 kN), pressure 1750 psi (121 bar), liquid propellant LOX/LH2

LEASAT.....U.S. Navy, satellite, communications, GEO. Ultra high frequency communications satellites Replacement for the FLATSATCOM satellites. Replaced by UFO.

- LEASAT 1 1984/08/31, ETR, STS-41D, GEO, SYNCOM IV-2.

- LEASAT 2 1984/11/10, ETR, STS-51A, GEO, SYNCOM IV-1.

- LEASAT 3 1985/04/13, ETR, STS-51D, GEO, SYNCOM IV-3.

- LEASAT 4 1985/08/29, ETR, STS-51I, GEO, SYNCOM IV-4.

- LEASAT 5 1990/01/10, ETR, STS-32, GEO.

First launch 1984/08/31

Lebedev, Velentin.....Russia, cosmonaut, SOYUZ T5, 1982/05/13, SOYUZ 13, 1973/12/18. First launch 1982/05/13

LEDA.....ESA, satellite, scientific, lunar orbit. LUNAR EUROPEAN DEMONSTRATION APPROACH. End of mission 2006/00/00. First launch 2005/00/00

Lee, Mark.....U.S., astronaut, STS-30, 1989/05/04, STS-47, 1992/09/12, STS-64, 1994/09/09, STS-82, 1997/02/11. First launch 1989/05/04

Leestma, David.....U.S., astronaut, STS-41G (13), 1984/10/05, STS-28, 1989/08/08, STS-45, 1992/03/24. First launch 1984/10/05

LEM.....U.S., satellite, scientific, manned. Lunar Excursion Module from the APOLLO program, renamed LUNAR MODULE. See LM.

Lenin.....Russia, launch vehicle, see N-1.

Lenoir, William.....U.S., astronaut, STS-5, 1982/11/11. First launch 1982/11/11

Leo.....Astrological Sign, Lion, 7/23-8/22.

Leo One, USA.....U.S. aerospace company. Address: 150 North Meramec, Suite 200, St. Louis, MO 63105, USA.

LEO.....low earth orbit, greater than 100 mile altitude but less than approximately 1500 miles. Can see about 5% of the Earth's surface at any one time. Signal delays are about.005 to.010 seconds.

LEO ONE PANAMER.....Mexico, satellite, mobile communications, LEO.

LEO ONE USA.....U.S., satellite, mobile communications, GEO. 48 satellite constellation.

LeoLink.....Israel, launch vehicle, see LK or Shavit.

Leonard Mason.....USS Leonard Mason, DD 852, prime recovery ship for GEMINI 8.

Leonardo.....Leonardo da Vinci, 1452-1519, scientist and artist.

LEONARDO.....Italy, satellite, see ALENIO LEONARDO.

Leonov, Alexi.....Russia, cosmonaut, VOSKHOD 2 (DIAMOND), 1965/03/18, SOYUZ 19, 1975/07/15. First launch 1965/03/18

LEOSAT.....U.S., satellite, mobile communications, LEO.

LeoStar 200.....France, satellite bus, Matra Marconi Space, LEO.

LeoStar 500.....France, satellite bus, Matra Marconi Space, LEO.

LEOStar.....U.S., satellite bus, Orbital Sciences Corp. LEO.

LeRC.....U.S., organization. See the John H. Glenn Research Center.

LES.....U.S. USAF & USN, satellite, scientific. LINCOLN EXPERIMENTAL SATELLITE, experimental comsat

- LES 1, 1965/02/11, ETR, Titan IIIA, LEO.

- LES 2, 1965/05/06, ETR, Titan IIIA, HEO.

- LES 3,

- LES 4, 1965/12/21, ETR, Titan IIIC, HEO, decayed 1977/08/01.

- LES 5, 1967/07/01, ETR, Titan IIIC, ?

- LES 6, 1968/09/26, ETR, Titan IIIC, GEO.

- LES 7,

- LES 8, 1976/03/15, ETR, Titan IIIC, GEO.

- LES 9, 1976/03/15, ETR, Titan IIIC, GEO.

First launch 1965/02/11

Leslie, Fred.....U.S., astronaut, STS-73, 1995/10/20. First launch 1995/10/20

Levchenk, Anatoly.....Russia, cosmonaut, SOYUZ TM 04, 1987/12/21. First launch 1987/12/21

Levtchenko, Anatoli.....Russia, cosmonaut. See Levchenko.

Lewis.....Meriwether Lewis, 1774-1809, explorer.

Lewis & Clark.....U.S., explorers of the northwest.

Lewis Research Center.....U.S., organization. Changed to John H. Glenn Research Center in 1998/10/00.

LEWIS.....U.S., NASA, satellite, technology demonstration, LEO. Also known as SSTI. Launched at the WTR by a LMLV-1. Parto f LEWIS and CLARK satellite program. First launch 1997/08/22

LEWIS AND CLARK.....U.S. satellite. See LEWIS satelltie and CLARK satellite.

LF.....Lunar liftoff.

LGM-118.....U.S., launch vehicle, see Peacekeeper.

LGM-25C.....U.S., launch vehicle, Titan II.

LGM-30.....U.S., launch vehicle, Minuteman.

LGM-30F.....U.S., launch vehicle, Minuteman 2. 660 lbm (300 kg) LEO.

LGM-30G.....U.S., launch vehicle, Minuteman 3, 1100 lbm (500 kg) LEO.

LHA.....U.S. Naval abbreviation for Amphibious Assault class naval ships.

LHT.....Launch vehicle motor, Light Helicopter Turbine Engine Co. (LHTEC).

Liakhov, Vladimir.....Russia, cosmonaut. See Lyakhov.

Liapunov orbit.....See Lyapunov orbit.

Liberty Star.....U.S., ship. recovers the STS solid rocket Boosters after each launch. Sister ship is Freedom Star. Until 1984, the shippes were leased by NASA from UTC and were known as the UTC Freedom and UTC Liberty. In 1984 Mortion Thiokol took over the ships and renamed them Freedom Star and Liberty Star.

LIBERTY BELL 7.....U.S., satellite, manned spacecraft MERCURY MR-4. Launched at the ETR by an Atlas D into LEO. Returned1961/9/13. First launch 1961/09/13

Libra.....Astrological Sign, Scales, 9/23-10/22.

LIBRA.....U.S., satellite, reconnaissance, also known as NOSS 2. First launch 2001/09/08

Libration point.....Orbital component. See Lagrange point.

Libration Point Orbit.....Orbital component. See Lagrange Point orbits.

Libreville.....Gabon, organization. West Africa, tracking Station for the European Space Agency Launches from Kourou, French Guiana

LIBRIS.....Russia, satellite, scientific, based upon a Prognoz-M2 spacecraft bus, Earth/Moon L2. Also known as vRELIKT 2.

Licensed Commercial Spaceports.....U.S., In order to operate a commercial launch or landing site in the United States, it is necessary to obtain a license from the federal government through FAA/AST. While the majority of licensed launch activity still occurs at U.S. federal ranges, much future launch and landing activity may originate from private or state-operated spaceports. As of 2003, FAA/AST has licensed four non-federal launch sites. Three of these are co-located with federal launch sites, including the California Spaceport at VAFB, Spaceport Florida at Cape Canaveral, and the Virginia Space Flight Center (VSFC) at Wallops Flight Facility. The fourth licensed non-federal spaceport is Kodiak Launch Complex in Alaska. See also space vehicle launch facility.

Lichtenberg, Byron.....U.S., astronaut, STS-9, 1983/11/28, STS-45, 1992/03/24. First launch 1983/11/28


LIDOS.....U.S. Navy, satellite, scientific. Investigate earth's sphericity and gravitational fields. Launched at the WTR by Atlas Burner II, FTO. First launch 1968/08/16

light.....Electromagnetic radiation that is visible to the eye.

Light.....See visible light.

Light Lift Low Earth Orbit.....See LLEO.

LIGHTSTAR.....U.S., satellite, remote sensing.

LIM.....U.S. & Peru, organization. See NASA STDN tracking station, Lima, Peru. Closed.

LIMTHONGKUL-STAR.....Thailand, satellite. See L-STAR.


Lind, Don.....U.S., astronaut, STS-51B (17), 1985/04/29. First launch 1985/04/29

Lindsey, Steven.....U.S., astronaut, STS-087, 1997/11/19, STS-095, 1998/10/29, STS-104, 2001/7/12, STS-121, 2006/07/04. First flight 1997/11/19

line-of-apsides.....Orbital component. A line drawn from perigee to apogee. See elliptical orbits.

Linear eccentricity.....Orbital component. The distance between the two foci of the elliptical path traced by a satellite in orbit. Also known as c.

Linenger, Jerry.....U.S., astronaut, STS-64, 1994/09/09, STS-81, 1997/01/12. First launch 1994/09/09

Linnehan, Richard.....U.S., astronaut, STS-78, 1996/06/20, STS-090, 1998/04/17, STS-109, 2002/03/01. First launch 1996/06/20

Linteris, Gregory.....U.S., astronaut, STS-083, 1997/04/04, STS-094, 1997/07/01. First launch 1997/04/04

Liquid Fuel.....See liquid propellant.

Liquid hydrogen.....Launch vehicle liquid propellant, cryogenic, fuel. Chemical symbol H2. Hydrogens boiling point at -423 0F (-253 0C). Also known as LH.

Liquid oxygen.....Launch vehicle propellant liquid, oxidizer, cryogenic. Chemical symbol, O2. Oxygen’s poiling point is -297.4 0F (-183 0C). Also known as LOX.

Liquid propellant.....A propellant that is stored and used as a liquid in the launch vehicle. See also liquid fuel. Several categories of liquid propellants are used:Koelle

- LOX/Kerosene, Is up to 300.

- LOX/LH2, Is up to 390.

- LOX/Hydrazine, Is up to 310.

- LOX/UDMH, Is up to 310.

- LOX/Hydyne

- LOX/alcohol

- Nitrogen Tetroxide/Hydrazine, Is up to 290.

- Nitrogen Tetroxide/UDMH/Hydrazine, Is up to 289.

- Nitrogen Tetroxide/RP-1, Is up to 290.

- Nitrogen Tetroxide/MMH, Is up to 289

- Red fuming nitric acid/UDMH/Hydrazine, Is up to 279.

- Red fuming nitric acid/RP-1, Is up to 270.

- White fuming nitric acid/UDMA

- Hydrogen peroxide/RP-1, Is up to 297.

Liquid Propulsion Systems Center.....India, organization, see ISRO. Also known as LPSC.

Liquid Strap-on.....ESA, launch vehicle, strap-on booster, see L40 or PAL.

Lira.....Currency of Italy.

LISA.....Europe, satellite, scientific, gravity wave detection, heliocentric, 3 satellite constellation. Also known as LISA PATHFINDER.

First launch 2010/00/00

Lissajous orbit.....Orbits around the libration points with a component in all three dimensions. See also Halo orbits, lagrange, libration points.

phasing.gifFigure 30 WMAP Trajectory to L2, showing Phasing Orbits and Lissajous Orbits.

Lissajous orbit insertion.....The point when a spacecraft enters the Lissajous orbit. See Lissajous orbit.

l1.gifFigure 31 Lissajous Orbit Insertion (LOI) of the Genisis Spacecraft.

LITE.....U.S., NASA, satellite, technology. LIDER IN TECHNOLOGY EXPERIMENT, and experiment for measuring the surface of the Earth using radar. Launched at KSC by STS-64. First launch 1994/09/09

Little Joe.....U.S. rocket, Used to test MERCURY space capsules.

Little Miss Sam, 1960/10/21, Little Joe, sub orbital.

First launch 1959/10/04

Little Joe II.....U.S., rocket, test of APOLLO launch escape system. First launch 1963/08/28

Little LEO.....Little low earth orbit. Satellites proved delayed communication primarily for date storage and forwarding such as meter reading, paging and messaging services.

LITTLE LEO MESSAGING SYSTEM.....Belgium, satellite. See LLMS.

Litton Precision Gear.....U.S., aerospace company. Became part of Boeing in 1995.

LITTT.....China, organization, also known as Luoyang Institute of Tracking, Telecontrol, and Telemetry. See China Satellite Launch and Tracking Control General.

LK.....Russia, satellite, lunar lander, also known as 11F94.

- 1970/11/24, Baikonur, Soyuz, LEO, COSMOS 379.

- 1971/02/26, Baikonur, Soyuz, LEO, COSMOS 398.

- 1971/08/12, Baikonur, Soyuz, LEO, COSMOS 434.

First launch 1970/11/24

LK.....Israel, launch vehicle, derived from Shavit.

- LK-1 or A, 770 lbs (350 kg), LEO. LeoLink. Similar to Shavit 1. Stage 3, star 48 motor..

- LK-2, 2800 lbs (1300 kg), LEO.

First launch 2002/05/28

LK-1.....Israel, launch vehicle, see LK.

LK-A.....Israel, launch vehicle, see LK.

LL.....Lunar landing.

LL1.....Orbit, Lunar Lagrange Point 1. Same for LL2 through LL5.

LLEO.....Light Lift Low Earth Orbit. Satellite launch vehicle capable of placing a small satellite into low earth orbit.

LLMS.....Belgium, satellite, communications and messaging. LITTLE LEO MESSAGING SYSTEM. First launch

LLO.....Low Lunar orbit.

LLV.....U.S. launch vehicle, Lockheed Launch Vehicle. See Athena. First launch 1995/08/15

LM.....U.S., satellite, manned spacecraft APOLLO, LUNAR MODULE, included the ASCENT STAGE and DESCENT STAGE.

LM.....China, launch vehicle. Long March. See CZ

LM-100.....U.S., satellite bus, Lockheed Martin, LEO.

LM-4000.....U.S., satellite bus, Lockheed Martin. GEO/MEO.

LM-700.....U.S., satellite bus, Lockheed Martin. LEO.

LM-7000.....U.S., satellite bus, Lockheed Martin. GEO/MEO.

LM-900.....U.S., satellite bus, Lockheed Martin, LEO.

LM A2100X.....U.S., satellite bus, built by Lockheed Martin.

LM-03.....U.S., satellite, see APOLLO 9.

LM-04.....U.S., satellite, see APOLLO 10.

LM-05.....U.S., satellite, see APOLLO 11.

LM-06.....U.S., satellite, see APOLLO 12.

LM-07.....U.S., satellite, see APOLLO 7.

LM-08.....U.S., satellite, see APOLLO 8.

LM-10.....U.S., satellite, see APOLLO 15.

LM-11.....U.S., satellite, see APOLLO 16.

LM-12.....U.S., satellite, see APOLLO 17.

LM-2C Top Stage.....China, launch vehicle, see CTS.

LM-EELV.....U.S. launch vehicle, Lockheed Martin EELV. See Atlas.

LMDE.....U.S., launch vehicle motor, Lunar Module Descent Engine, manufactured by TRW. Thrust 10,000 lbf (44.5 kN), pressure psi ( bar), liquid propellant N2O4. 50-50 blend of N2H4/UDMH.

LMI.....U.S., Russia, satellite, communications, GEO.First launch 1999/09/26

LMLV.....U.S. launch vehicle, Lockheed Martin Launch Vehicle. See Athena.

- LMLV. First launch 1995/08/15, WTR, GEMSTAR 1 satellite, FTO.

- LMLV 01. First launch 1997/08/22, WTR, LEWIS satellite.

First launch 1995/08/15

LMP.....Lunar Module Pilot (APOLLO.)

LOADS.....U.S., satellite, see LOFFI. First launch 1968/07/11

LOBO.....Italy, satellite, scientific. LOW FREQUENCY BACKGROUND OBSERVATORY satellite.

LOCALSAT.....Brazil, satellite, direct broadcast TV, GEO.

Lockeed International Launch Services.....U.S. & Russia, company, partners Lockheed Martin, Khrunichev Enterprise, & RSC Energia.

Lockhart, Paul.....U.S., astronaut, STS-111, 2002/06/05. First launch 2002/06/05

Lockheed.....U.S. aerospace company, joined Martin Marietta to form Lockheed Martin in 1995.

Lockheed Aircraft Company.....U.S., aerospace company, established in 1926. Formed the Missile Systems Division in 1953. Became Lockheed Martin Corporation.

Lockheed Launch Vehicle.....U.S., launch vehicle. See LLV

Lockheed Martin.....U.S., aerospace company, commercial satellite operator, INMARSAT. Manufactures Titan, Atlas, launch vehicles and satellites. Was the Lockheed Aircraft Company. Address: Lockheed Martin Crop., Space & Missile Section, 6801 Rockledge Dr., Bethesda, MD 20817. Phone 301-897-6000. Formed by joining Lockheed and Martin Marietta in 1995. Combined Lockeed, Martin Marietta, GE Aerospace, General Dynamics, Loral, and IBM Federal System Division. Joint Ventures: Earth Observation Satellite Co. (EOSAT), partners: Boeing. Lockeed International Launch Services; partners Khrunichev Enterprise, RSC Energia. Space Imaging Inc., partners Raytheon. United Space Alliance, partners: Boeing.

Lockheed Martin A2100AX.....U.S. satellite bus, see A2100AX.

LOCSS.....Russia, satellite, remote sensing.. First launch

LOCSYST.....Russia, satellite, communications and data. Constellation of 24 satellites. First launch ?

Lofberg 759.....USS Lofberg 759, recovery ship, part of the fleet which recovered or was on duty and capable of recovering the following: MERCURY Atlas 9.

Loft.....U.S., rocket. E'Prime Aerospace Corporation, first commercial launch from CC, sub orbital. Bob G. Davis, President, E'Prime Aerospace Corp., P.O. Box 792, Titusville, FL 32781-0722 (Out of business) 1988/11/17

LOFTI.....U.S. Air Force, satellite, scientific. Very low frequency experiment. Launched at the WTR by Thor Agena D into a LEO. First launch 1963/06/15

LOGACS.....U.S., satellite. First launch 1967/05/22

Logicon.....U.S. aerospace company, purchased by Northrop Grumman in 1996.

LOI.....See Lissajous orbit insertion.

LOK.....Russia, abbreviation for Lunnyy orbital’nyy korbal, Lunar orbital ship.

Loki Rockoon.....U.S. rocket, balloon launched, geophysical research. First launch 1955/00/00

LOMO.....Russia, organization, see Joint Stock Company "LOMO".

LOMONSOV.....Russia, satellite, telescope. First launch ?

Lompoc.....U.S., California, space vehicle launch facility. Location of the Vandenberg Air Force Base space vehicle launch facility.

Lonchakov, Yuriy.....Russia, cosmonaut, SOYUZ TMA 1, 2002/10/30. First launch 2002/10/30

Long March.....China, launch vehicle, Long March Launcher.

- Long March 1.

- Long March 2C.

- Long March 2E.

- Long March 3.

- Long March 4.

See CZ Launch vehicle.

Long March 1.....China, launch vehicle. Also known as CZ-1, LEO. First launch 1970/04/24

Long March 2C.....China, launch vehicle. Also known as CZ-2, LEO, recoverable satellites. First launch 1975/07/26

Long March 2E.....China, launch vehicle. Also known as CZ-2E, GEO. First launch 1990/07/16

Long March 3.....China, launch vehicle. Also known as CZ-3, GEO. First launch 1984/01/29

Long March 4.....China, launch vehicle. Also known as CZ-4, GEO. First launch 1988/09/08

Long Tom.....Australia, rocket, sounding, range instrumentation testing and upper atmosphere research. First successful Australian sounding rocket. First launch 1957/10/00


LONG RANGE MARES ROVER.....U.S. NASA, satellite, scientific, Mars orbit and landing.

LONG ROD.....U.S., Navy, satellite, see NAVSPASUR ROD.

longitude of the ascending node.....See right ascension of ascending node.

Longitude.....The angular distance from the Greenwich (0 degree) meridian, along the equator. It can be measured either east or west to the 180th meridian (180 degrees) or 0 to 360 degrees west. For example Vandenberg AFB is 120.6 west longitude or 239 east longitude. Can also be written as 120.60 W.

Lopez-Alegria, Michael.....U.S., astronaut, STS-73, 1995/10/20, STS-092, 2000/10/11, STS-113, 2002/11/24, SOYUZ TMA 09 Expedition 14, 2006/09/18. First launch 1995/10/20

Loral.....U.S. aerospace company, purchased by Lockheed Martin in 1996, except Loral Space & Communications.

Loral Skynet.....U.S., company, commercial satellite operator, TELSTAR. 500 Hills Drive, Bedminster, NJ, USA.

Loral Space & Communications.....U.S., aerospace company. Address: 600 Third Avenue, New York, NY 10016, USA. Was part of Loral until 1996. Part of Loral Global Alliance. Also has a division known as SS/L, Space Systems/Loral.

LORAL ORION.....U.S., satellite, communications, see ORION.

LORAL SATELLITE.....U.S., satellite. See LORALSAT.

LORALSAT.....U.S., satellite, communications, GEO. LORAL SATELLITE. First launch 2002/00/00

Loria, Christopher.....U.S., astronaut, STS-113, 2002/11/24. First launch 2002/11/24

Lorikeet.....Australia, rocket, sounding, high altitude geophysics. Named after an Australian bird. An improved version of the HAD rocket. Four were fired between 1974 and 1973. First launch 1974/03/20

LOSAT.....U.S. satellite. See GPS.

LOUISE.....U.S., satellite, launched from OPAL satellite. First launch 2000/02/14

Lounge, Michael.....U.S., astronaut, STS-51I (20), 1985/08/27, STS-26, 1988/09/29, STS-35, 1990/12/02. First launch 1985/08/27

Lousma, Jack.....U.S., astronaut, APOLLO/SKYLAB 3, 1973/07/29, STS-3, 1982/03/22. First launch 1973/07/29

Lovell, James.....U.S., astronaut, GEMINI 7, 1965/12/04, GEMINI 12, 1966/11/11, APOLLO 8, 1968/12/21, APOLLO 13, 1970/04/11. First launch 1965/12/04

Low, David.....U.S., astronaut, STS-32, 1990/01/09, STS-43, 1991/08/02, STS-57, 1993/06/21. First launch 1990/01/09

Low Earth orbit.....See LEO.

Low Lunar orbit.....See LLO.



Lowary.....USS Lowary, recovery ship, part of the fleet which recovered or was on duty and capable of recovering the following: MERCURY Redstone 4.

LOX.....Launch vehicle propellant, liquid, cryogenic, oxidizer, liquid oxygen.

LP.....Launch vehicle motor, Lockheed Propulsion Co.

LPA.....U.S., Naval Ship, Amphibious transport.

LPD.....U.S., Naval Ship, Amphibious transport dock.

LPH.....U.S. Naval abbreviation for Amphibious Assault class naval ships, Landing Platform, Helicopters.

LPO.....Libration Point Orbit. See Lagrange Point orbits.

LPSC.....India, organization, see ISRO. Also known as Liquid Propulsion Systems Center.

LPSC.....India, launch vehicle motor, used on GSLV.

LR-101.....U.S., launch vehicle motor, DoD Rocket Motor Designation, Rocketdyne, Atlas SM-65, CGM-16 Vernier, and Thor SM-75, PGM-17 Vernier.

LR-101-5.....U.S., launch vehicle motor, verniers, thrust 1,000 lbf (4.45 kN), pressure ? psi (? bar), liquid propellant LOX/Kerosene. Used on Atlas Agena A.

LR-101-NA-11.....U.S., launch vehicle motor, vernier, Rocketdyne, thrust ? lbf (? kN), pressure ? psi (? bar), liquid propellant LOX/RP-1.

LR-105.....U.S., launch vehicle motor, DoD Rocket Motor Designation, Rocketdyne, SM-65, CGM-16, Atlas.

LR-50.....U.S., launch vehicle motor, DoD Rocket Motor Designation, General Electric X-405, Vanguard Stage 1.

LR-52.....U.S., launch vehicle motor, DoD Rocket Motor Designation, Aerojet AJ-10,Vanguard Stage 2.

LR-79.....U.S., launch vehicle motor, DoD Rocket Motor Designation, Rocketdyne S-3D, SM-75, PGM-17, SM-78, PGM-19.

LR-79N A 11.....U.S., launch vehicle motor, see XLR-79N A 11 or MB-3.

LR-79N A 13.....U.S., launch vehicle motor. See MB-3 Block 3. Also known as XLR-79N A 13

LR-79N A 5.....U.S., launch vehicle motor, see XLR-79N A 5 or MB-1.

LR-83.....U.S., launch vehicle motor, DoD Rocket Motor Designation, North American, XSM-64A, Navaho Booster.

LR-87-AJ-11.....U.S., launch vehicle motor, thrust 551,000 lbf (2452 kN), pressure 829 psi (57 bar), liquid propellant N2O4/Aerozine-50. Manufactured by Aerojet. Used on the Titan IVB stage 1.

LR-87-AJ-5.....U.S., launch vehicle motor, thrust 474,000 lbf (2090 kN), pressure 829 psi (57 bar), liquid propellant N2O4/Aerozine-50. Manufactured by Aerojet. Used on the Titan II stage 1.

LR-89.....U.S., launch vehicle motor, DoD Rocket Motor Designation, Rocketdyne, SM-65, CGM-16 stage 1, Atlas. Also known as XLR-89.

LR-91.....U.S., launch vehicle motor, DoD Rocket Motor Designation, Aerojet, SM-68, LGM-25 stage 2.

LR-91-AJ-11.....U.S., launch vehicle motor, thrust 106,000 lbf (472 kN), pressure 827 psi (57 bar), liquid propellant N2O4/Aerozine-50. Manufactured by Aerojet. Used on the Titan III and IVB stage 2.

LR-91-AJ-5.....U.S., launch vehicle motor, thrust 100,000 lbf (440 kN), pressure 827 psi (57 bar), liquid propellant N2O4/Aerozine-50. Manufactured by Aerojet. Used on the Titan II stage 2.

LRB.....Japan, launch vehicle stage, uses 2 LE-7A engines. Use on the H2 launch vehicle.

LRBA.....France, launch vehicle motor, Laboratorie de Recherches Balistiques et Aérodynamiques (Army). Manufactured the Vixen Engine for the Diamant launch vehicle.

LRE.....Japan, satellite, geodetic, HEO. Launch from Hengeshima by H2A. First launch 2001/08/29

LRO.....U.S., NASA, satellite, research. Lunar orbit. LUNAR RECONNAISSANCE ORBITER. Launched with S-S/C and LCROSS satellites. First launch 2008/10/00

LS-1300.....U.S., satellite bus, Space Systems/Loral. GEO/MEO.

LS-2020.....U.S., satellite bus, Space Systems/Loral. GEO/MEO.

LS-400.....U.S., satellite bus, Space Systems/Loral. LEO.

LS-10 A.....U.S., satellite, DoD designation, see SBR.

LS-1300HL.....U.S., satellite bus, Space Systems/Loral. GEO/MEO.

LS-3 A/B.....U.S., satellite, DoD designation, see DSP, LS-3A; DSP-I, LS-3B.

LSD.....U.S., Naval Ship, dock landing ship.

LTA-2R.....U.S., satellite, see APOLLO 6.

LTA-B.....U.S., satellite, see APOLLO 8.

LTO.....Lunar trajectory orbit. Orbit that a spacecraft follows to reach the moon. Also known as translunar orbit.

LTTAT.....U.S., Launch vehicle, Long-Tank Thrust Augmented Thor, fuel and oxygen tanks lengthened, Polar LEO 3000 lbs (1360 kg). See Thor, U.S. Air Force Intermediate Range Ballistic Missile.

LTV Missiles.....U.S. aerospace company, purchased by Loral in 1992.

LTV Vought Aircraft.....U.S. aerospace company, purchased by Northrop Grumman in 1994.

Lu, Edward.....U.S., astronaut,, STS-084, 1997/05/15, STS-101, 2000/05/19, STS-106 2000/09/08, SOYUZ TMA 2, 2003/04/26. First launch 1997/05/15

luch.....Russia, beam or light.

LUCH.....Russia, satellite, geosynchronous data relay, similar to NASA TDRS. Launched at Tyuratam by a SL-12 into GEO. First launch 1994/12/16

Lucid, Shannon.....U.S., astronaut, STS-51G (18), 1985/06/17, STS-34, 1989/10/18, STS-43, 1991/08/02, STS-58, 1993/10/18, STS-76, 1996/03/31, STS-79, 1996/09/16. First launch 1985/06/17

LUCK.....Russia, satellite, Communications, military. See 11F669. First launch 1985/10/25

Lugalmeslam.....Sumerian, Mars god.

Luna.....Russia, launch vehicle, also known as 8K72, U.S. DOD designation SL-3, U.S. Library of Congress designation A-1. Based upon the R-7 ICBM, payload 280 kg into a translunar trajectory. First launch 1958/09/23

Luna.....Roman, moon goddess.

LUNA.....Russia, lunar probe satellites. Also known as LUNIK, YE-1, YE-1A, YE-2A, YE-3/2F,YE-8, YE-8-5, YE-8-5M, YE-8-LS.. First launch 1958/06/25

LUNA GLOB.....Russia, satellite, scientific. Deliver 10 penetraters to the Lunar surface to form seismic network plus 3 probes.

LUNA GRUNT.....Russia, satellite, scientific. Return Lunar sample.

LUNA POLYGON.....Russia, satellite, scientific, Lunar laboratory.

LUNA ROVER.....Russia, satellite, scientific, robot lander.

lunar EVA.....First lunar EVA, Neil Armstrong. 1969/07/21

lunar landing.....First manned lunar landing, APOLLO 11. 1969/07/20

lunar orbit.....Orbit around the moon. Also known as selenocentric orbit.

lunar orbit, first.....Russia, satellite, ZOND 5, first satellite to circle the moon. First launch 1968/09/15

Lunar.....Earth's moon.

Lunar Flights.....Satellites successfully launched to the Moon.





LUNAR ORBITER.....U.S. satellite, scientific, Lunar orbit. LUNAR ORBITERs (LO) 1 through 5 were designed to orbit the Moon and image various sites being studied as landing areas for the manned APOLLO Missions of 1969-1972. The probes also contributed greatly to our understanding of lunar surface features, particularly the lunar far side. All Five probes of the series, launched from 1966 to 1967, were essentially successful in their Missions. They were the first U.S. probes to orbit the Moon. All LOs were eventually crashed into the lunar surface to avoid interference with the manned APOLLO Missions.

- LUNAR ORBITER 1, 1966/08/10, ETR, Atlas Agena D, Impact 1966/10/29.

- LUNAR ORBITER 2, 1966/11/06, ETR, Atlas Agena D, Impact 1967/10/11.

- LUNAR ORBITER 3, 1967/02/05, ETR, Atlas Agena D, Impact 1967/10/09.

- LUNAR ORBITER 4, 1967/05/04, ETR, Atlas Agena D, Impact 1967/10/06.

- LUNAR ORBITER 5, 1967/08/01, ETR, Atlas Agena D, Impact 1968/01/31.

First launch 1966/08/10

LUNAR PROSPECTOR.....U.S. NASA Ames, satellite, scientific. Part of NASA's Discovery low cost satellite program. Orbit the moon and obtain data on the lunar regolith and volatiles, and water. End of primary mission 10/98.

- LUNAR PROSPECTOR, 1998/01/06, CC, Athena 2.

First launch 1998/01/06

LUNAR RECONNAISSANCE ORBITER.....U.S., satellite, scientific, developed by Goddard Space Flight Center. See LRO. Orbit the moon. First launch 2008/00/00

LUNAR SURFACE ACCESS MODULE.....U.S., satellite, manned. To be used with the CEV for landing on the moon.

LUNAR-A.....Japan, ISAS, satellite, scientific, orbit around moon. Drop penetrators into the Moon's surface for seismology and surface test experiments. First launch 2003/00/00

LUNARSAT.....Europe, satellite, lunar scientific, Lunar orbit. Also known as LUNAR ACADEMIC AND RESEARCH SATELLITE. First launch 2003/00/00

lune.....French for moon.

LUNIK.....Russia, satellite, lunar probe. See LUNA. The term LUNIK may have been invented by an American newspaperman. The Russian's official name was Cosmic Rocket No. II, launched 1958/01/02. Only the first had a name of MECHTA.

Lunnyy orbital’nyy korbal.....Russia, see LOK.

lunokhod.....Russia, moonwalker.

Luoyang Institute of Tracking, Telecontrol, and Telemetry.....China, organization, also known as LITTT. See China Satellite Launch and Tracking Control General .

LUSAT.....Argentina, satellite, telecommunications. Also known as MICROSAT 4 or OSCAR 19. Launched at Kourou by an Ariane 4 V36 into a LEO. First launch 1990/01/22

LV.....Launch Vehicle.

LV-3A.....U.S. launch vehicle. See Atlas LV-3A.

LV-3B.....U.S. launch vehicle. See Atlas LV-3B.

LV-3C.....U.S. launch vehicle. See Atlas LV-3C.

LX.....Roman number for 60.

LXX.....Roman number for 70.

LXXX.....Roman number for 80.

LY.....U.S. satellite. See LANYARD.

Lyakhov, Vladimir.....Russia, cosmonaut, SOYUZ 32, 1979/02/25, SOYUZ T9, 1983/06/27, SOYUZ TM 06, 1988/08/29. First launch 1979/02/25

Lyapunov orbit.....Orbits around the libration points with no component out of the eliptical plane. Also known as Planar Lyapunov Orbits. See Halo orbits, lagrange, libration points.

ole13.gifFigure 32 Lagrange or Libration Point coordinate system with a Lyapunov orbit. Z axis is perpendicular to the Ecliptic Plane. Y axis points to the direction of Earth’s rotation around the Sun. X axis is a line connecting the sun to Earth

LYMAN ALPHA SATELLITE.....U.S., satellite, see VANGUARD satellite.

Lyndon B. Johnson Space Center.....U.S., organization. See Johnson Space Center.

Lysithea.....Jupiter moon, one of 16. See also Metis, Adrastea, Amalthea, Thebe, Io, Europa, Ganymede, Callisto, Leda, Sinope, Himalia, Lysithea, Elara, Ananke, Carme, Pasiphae.

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Updated 2007/2/01