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M.....Roman number for 1000.

M.....U.S., satellite. See MURAL.

M.....manned, space flight with a human.

M.....Japan, launch vehicle. Series of launch vehicles, see Mu:

M. Dassault.....Europe, aerospace company, joined with Mreguet to become Dassault Aviation in 1970.

M-1.....U.S., satellite. See MAC-SAT.

M-10.....Japan, launch vehicle motor, used on Mu-4S stage 1 Thrust 161,000 lbf (719 kN), pressure ? psi (? bar).

M-100B.....Russia, rocket, upper atmosphere meteorology. First launch 1964/00/00

M-13.....Japan, launch vehicle motors, thrust 28,000 lbf (128 kN), pressure ? psi (? bar), solid propellant CTPB. Used on M-3S-II launch vehicle.

M-13-TVC .....Japan, launch vehicle motors, used on the Mu-3S. Thrust 228,000 lbf (1,019 kN), pressure psi ? (? bar).

M-14.....Japan, launch vehicle motor. Thrust 850,000 lbf (3780 kN), pressure 853 psi (59 bar), propellant HTPB (BP-204J). Manufactured by IHI Aerospace.

M-20.....Japan, launch vehicle motor, used on Mu-4S stage 2 Thrust 62,000 lbf (279 kN), pressure ? psi (? bar).

M-22-TVC.....Japane, launch vehicle motor, used on MU-3C launch vehicle stage 2. Thrust 62,000 lbf ( 280 kN), pressure psi ? (? bar).

M-23.....Japan, launch vehicle motor, thrust 524 lbf (118 Kn), pressure ? psi (? bar), solid propellant HTPB. Used on the M-3S-II launch vehicle, stage 2.

M-23.....Japan, launch vehicle motor, thrust 118,000 lbf (524 kN), pressure 800 psi (55 bar), solid propellant HTPB. Used on J-1 launch vehicle.

M-25.....Japan, launch vehicle motor. Thrust 340,000 lbf (1520 kN), pressure 1706 psi (118 bar), propellant HTPB (BP-208J). Used on M-5 launch vehicle. Manufactured by IHI Aerospace.

M-30.....Japan, launch vehicle motor, used on Mu-4S stage 3 Thrust 27,000 lbf (171 kN), pressure ? psi (? bar).

M-34.....Japan, launch vehicle motor. Thrust 65,000 lbf (290 kN), pressure 853 psi (59 bar), propellant HTPB (BP-205J). Used on M-5 launch vehicle. Manufactured by IHI Aerospace.

M-3A.....Japane, launch vehicle motor, used on Mu-3C launch vehicle stage 3. Thrust 12,000 lbf (57 kN), pressure psi ? (? bar).

M-3B.....Japan, launch vehicle motor, thrust 132 lbf (30 kN), pressure ? psi (? bar), solid propellant HTPB. Used on the Mu-3S-II launch vehicle, stage 3.

M-3B.....Japan, launch vehicle motor, thrust 30,000 lbf (135 kN), pressure 725 psi (50 bar), solid propellant HTPB. Used on J-1 launch vehicle.

M-3C.....Japan, launch vehicle, see Mu.

M-3H.....Japan, launch vehicle, see Mu.

M-3S.....Japan, launch vehicle, see Mu.

M-3S-II.....Japan, launch vehicle, see Mu.

M-40.....Japan, launch vehicle motor, used on Mu-4S stage 4 Thrust 4100 lbf (18 kN), pressure ? psi (? bar).

M-4S.....Japan, launch vehicle, see Mu 1970/02/11

M-5.....Japan, launch vehicle, see Mu.

M-55A1.....U.S., launch vehicle motor. Thrust 178,000 lbf (792 kN), pressure 741 psi (50 bar), propellant TP-H1011 Type II. Used on Minuteman ICBM stage 1 and Minotaur stage 1.

M-STAR.....U.S., satellite, communications, LEO. 72 satellite constellation to provide businesses with broad bandwidth communications links around the globe. Owned by Motorola. First launch 2000/00/00

M-V.....Japan, launch vehicle. Was the MV, M-V, see Mu, Mu-5

M2 INTEGRAL.....ESA, satellite, scientific, astronomy. See INTEGRAL.

M2A.....Indonesia, satellite, telecommunication. MULTIMEDIA ASIA.

M5.....Japan, launch vehicle. Was the MV, M-V, see Mu, Mu-5

M5-T5.....Japan, satellite. See SAKIGAKE.

M55A1.....U.S., launch vehicle motor, see M-55A 1.

M8.....U.S., launch vehicle. Army, Redstone, IRBM.

MA.....Launch vehicle motor, Marquardt Corp.

MA.....U.S., satellite, MERCURY Atlas. See MERCURY.

MA.....U.S., launch vehicle motor, manufactured by Rocketdyne.

MA-1.....U.S., launch vehicle motor, used on the Atlas A. 2 Chamber booster, 1 chamber sustainer, 2 vernier engines. Thrust booster, each 135,000 lbf (594 kN), sustainer 54,000 lbf, (238 kN), vernier each 1,000 lbf (4.4 kN), pressure ? psi (? bar), liquid propellant LOX/Kerosene.

MA-2.....U.S., launch vehicle motor. Stage 1, 2 XLR-89N A 5, booster thrust 300,000 lbf (1,320 kN) total, pressure ? psi (? bar), liquid propellant LOX/RP-1. Stage 1, sustainer, XLR-105N A 5, thrust 60,000 lbf (267 kN), pressure ? psi (? bar), liquid propellant LOX/RP-1. Vernier, 2 at thrust ? lbf (? kN), pressure ? psi (? bar), liquid propellant LOX/RP-1. Used on Atlas-Able, Atlas-Agena A, Atlas-Mercury, and Atlas-Score launch vehicles.

MA-3.....U.S., launch vehicle motor. Stage 1, 2 booster thrust 330,000 lbf (1,470 kN) total, pressure 580 psi (40 bar), liquid propellant LOX/RP-1. Stage 1, sustainer, thrust 60,000 lbf (267 kN), pressure 720 psi (49 bar), liquid propellant LOX/RP-1. Vernier, 2 at thrust 670 lbf (3 kN), pressure 258 psi (18 bar), liquid propellant LOX/RP-1. Used on Atlas E launch vehicle.

MA-5.....U.S., launch vehicle motor, Boeing - Rocketdyne, used on Atlas I launch vehicles, 2 booster, 1 sustainer. Thrust booster ea 377,000 lbf (1,680 kN), pressure 639 psi (44 bar ), sustainer 60,000 lbf (269 kN), pressure 735 psi (50 bar), vernier thrust 670 lbf (3 kN), pressure 258 psi (18 bar), propellant LOX/RP-1.

MA-5A.....U.S., launch vehicle motor, Rocketdyne, used on Atlas II launch vehicles, 2 booster, 1 sustainer. Thrust booster ea 416,000 lbf (1854 kN), pressure 639 psi (44 bar ), sustainer 59,000 lbf (266 kN), pressure 735 psi (50 bar), propellant LOX/RP-1.

MABES.....Japan, satellite, see FUJI.

Mabuhay Phillippines Satellite Corporation.....Philippine, aerospace company, commercial satellite operator, AGILA. Address: 26/F Rufino Pacific Tower, 6784 Makati City, 1200, Philippines.

MABUHAY AGILA.....Philippine, satellite, see AGILA.

MAC-SAT.....U.S. DoD, satellite, communications. MULTIPLE ACCESS COMMUNICATIONS SATELLITE, global store/forward relay.

- MAC-SAT-1, 1990/05/09, WSMC, Scout, M-1.

- MAC-SAT-2, 1990/05/09, WSMC, Scout, M-2.

First launch 1990/05/09


Mackenzie DD 836.....USS Mackenzie DD 836, recovery ship, part of the fleet which recovered or was on duty and capable of recovering the following: GEMINI 5, GEMINI 6, GEMINI 7, GEMINI 8, GEMINI 9.

MacLean, Steven.....U.S., astronaut, STS-52, 1992/10/22, STS-115, 2006/09/09. First launch 1992/10/22

MACSAT.....U.S. satellite. See MAC-SAT.

Madrid.....Spain/U.S., organization, NASA, STDN, Spaceflight Tracking and Data Network. Madrid Space Station, Madrid, Spain. Facility Manager, c/o American Embassy, NASA/INTA (Madrid) APO NY 09285.

Madrid Space Station.....Spain. See Madrid.

Magellan.....Fernao de Magalhaes, 1480-1521, explorer.

MAGELLAN.....U.S., NASA, satellite, scientific, Venus Planetary probe. Launched at KSC by the STS 30 into Venus orbit. Also known as VRM.

- Orbit around Venus 1990/08/10.

- Lowered orbit 1993/08/03.

- Entered Venusian atmosphere 1994/10/13.

First launch 1989/05/05

MAGION.....Czechoslovakia, satellite, communications. Receives radio signals from INTERKOSMOS. MAGNETOSPHERE IONOSPHERE satellite. Launched by Russia.

- MAGION 1, 1978/10/24, Plesetsk, SL-8, LEO,1981/9/11.

- MAGION 2, 1989/09/28, Plesetsk, F-2, LEO.

- MAGION 3, 1991/12/28, SL-14, HEO.

- MAGION 4, 1995/08/02, Plesetsk, SL-6, HEO.

- MAGION 5, 1996/08/29, Plesetsk, SL-6, HEO.

First launch 1978/10/24

MAGNE-RAY SATELLITE.....U.S., satellite, see VANGUARD satellite.


MAGNETOMETER SATELLITE.....U.S., satellite, see VANGUARD satellite.

magnetosphere.....The region around Earth, extending to about 40,000 miles in space, that encompasses the Van Allen radiation belt.



MAGNUM.....U.S. CIA, satellite, signal intelligence, GEO. Replaced RHYOLITE, renamed ORION. Launched at the KSC by STS-51C, into GEO, 1985-10B, USA 008. First launch 1985/01/24

Magnus, Sandra.....U.S., astronaut, STS-112, 2002/10/07. First launch 2002/10/07

MAGSAT.....U.S. NASA Satellite, scientific, LEO. MAGNETIC FIELD SATELLITE, measure the near earth magnetic field. Launched at the WTR by a Scout G into LEO, decayed 1980/06/11. First launch 1979/10/30

MAILSTAR.....Sweden, satellite, communication, polar orbit. Used for electronic mail.

MAK.....Russia, satellite, scientific. Launched from MIR Space Station. 1991/06/17

Makarov, Oleg.....Russia, cosmonaut, SOYUZ 12, 1973/09/27, SOYUZ 18, 1975/04/05, SOYUZ 27, 01/10/1078, SOYUZ T-3, 1980/11/27. First launch 1973/09/27

Makeyev Rocket Design Bureau.....Russia, organization, manufactures the SS-N-18 ICBM. It is launched from a Russian Delta III submarine. When used to launch satellites into space, the launch vehicle is called Volna.

Malenchenko, Yuri.....Russia, cosmonaut, SOYUZ TM 19, 1994/07/01, STS-101, 2000/05/19, STS-106, 2000/09/08, SOYUZ TMA 2, 2003/04/26. First launch 1994/07/01

Malentchenko, Yuri.....Russia, cosmonaut. See Malenchenko.

Malerba, Franco.....U.S., astronaut, STS-46, 1992/07/31. First launch 1992/07/31

Malyshev, Yuri.....Russia, cosmonaut, SOYUZ T2, 1980/06/05, SOYUZ T11, 1984/04/03. First launch 1980/06/05

MAN.....Launch vehicle motor, Maschinenfabrik Augsburg-Nürnberg, Germany.

Manakov, Gennadi.....Russia, cosmonaut, SOYUZ TM 10, 1990/08/01, SOYUZ TM 16, 1993/01/24. First launch 1990/08/01

Manarov, Musa.....Russia, cosmonaut, SOYUZ TM 04, 1987/12/21, SOYUZ TM 11, 1990/12/02. First launch 1987/12/21

Maneuver and Transfer Vehicle.....U.S., launch vehicle, see MTV.

Manitoba Aerospace Technology Program.....Canada, organization. 500-15 Carlton St., Winnipeg, Manitoba R3C 3H8, Canada. POC for Churchill Research Range.

Manley DD 940.....USS Manley DD 940, recovery ship, part of the fleet which recovered or was on duty and capable of recovering the following: GEMINI 5.

manmade.....Anything made by Homo sapiens.

manned lunar orbit.....First manned lunar orbit APOLLO 8, 10 orbits. 1968/12/24

manned satellite.....A satellite which contains a human, e.g. APOLLO. See manned satellite program.

manned satellite, first.....First manned flight, Yuri Gagarin, VOSTOK 1. 1961/04/21

manned space flight, first.....Yuri Gagarin, VOSTOK 1. 1961/04/21

manned space flight, U.S. first.....Alan Shepard, MERCURY-Redstone 3. First U.S. Manned flight into space. First launch 1961/01/31

manned space flight, longest.....Russia, SOYUZ, Manned spacecraft for flight in Earth orbit, 365 days, 22 hours, 39 minutes, SOYUZ TM-4/TM-6, Vladimir Titov, Musa Manarov, from 1987/12/21 to 1988/12/21

manned space flight.....Humans the traveled higher than 60 miles from the surface of the Earth.



- ISSA, U.S., Russia.


- MIR, Russia, U.S.

- Orion, U.S.

- Program 921, China.


- SALYUT, Russia.

- SOYUZ, Russia.

- SpaceshipOne, U.S.

- STS, U.S.

- VOSKHOD, Russia

- VOSTOK, Russia.

- X-15, U.S.

See also Human space flight and human/manned Satellite Programs.

Manned Flight Network.....U.S., communications with MERCURY Astronauts.

1) MERCURY Control Center, Cape Canaveral, FL.

2) Computing and Communications Center, Goddard Space Flight Center, Greenbelt, MD.

3) Grand Bahama Island.

4) Grand Turk Island.

5) Bermuda Island.

6) Atlantic Ocean ship.

7) Grand Canary Island.

8) West Central Africa, Kano, Nigeria.

9) East Africa, Zanzibar, Tanzania.

10) Indian Ocean ship.

11) Mucha, Australia.

12) Woomera, Australia.

13 Canton, Island.

14) Kauai Island, Hawaii.

15) Poin Arguello, California.

16) Guaymas, Mexico.

17) White Sands, New Mexico.

18) Corps Christi, Texas.

19) Eglin Gulf Coast, Florida.

Manned Maneuvering Unit.....U.S. See MMU.

Manned satellite programs.....- APOLLO, U.S.


- ISSA, U.S., Russia.


- MIR, Russia, U.S.

- Orion, U.S.

- Program 921, China.


- SALYUT, Russia.

- SOYUZ, Russia.

- STS, U.S.

- VOSKHOD, Russia

- VOSTOK, Russia.

Manned Spacecraft Center.....U.S., NASA, organization. Early name for Johnson Space Flight Center, Houston, TX. Changed 1973/02/21.

Mansfield DD 728.....USS Mansfield DD 728, recovery ship, part of the fleet which recovered or was on duty and capable of recovering the following: MERCURY Atlas 9, GEMINI 11.

MAO.....China, satellite. Part of DONG FANG HONG series of satellites. Also known as CHINA 1. First satellite launched by China. Named after Chairman Mao. First launch 1970/04/24

MAP.....U.S., NASA, satellite, scientific, L2 Earth-moon orbit. Also known as MIDEX 1. Study's the universes origin and evolution through the cosmic microwave background. MICROWAVE ANISOTROPY PROBE. Renamed WILKINSON MICROWAVE ANISOTROPY PROB, WMAP, for David T. Wilkinson (1935-2002) one of the leades of COB and MAP satellites. Its mission is to measure the Anisotropy (MAP) [temperature differences ("Anisotropy")] in the cosmic microwave background radiation. WMAP will probe conditions in the early universe by measuring the properties of the cosmic microwave background radiation over the full sky.

- Launch vehicle will be a Med-Lite Delta II 7425-10.

- Launch from Cape Canaveral, FL.

- Halo orbit about L2 Sun-Earth Lagrange point, 1.5 million km (1 million miles) from Earth. WMAP will follow a trajectory for an Earth-Moon phasing loops with lunar assist to L2.

- Planned mission duration is 27 months (3 months transit to L2, 24 months observing). WMAP’s payload mass is 800 kg (365 lbs). The lead institution is Goddard Space Flight Center in partnership with Princeton University.

First launch 2001/06/30

MAQSAT.....ESA, satellite. MAQUETT SATELLITE (dummy satellite). Earth/moon orbit. First launch 1997/10/30

MARATHON.....Russia, satellite, mobile communications, elliptical orbit. For use in Russia and former Soviet Union. partners Interfromcosmos of Moscow, NPO Prikladnoi Mikhaniki of Krasnoyarsk, Russia. Would feature 5 ARCOS model satellites in geostationary orbit and 3 MAYAK spacecraft in highly elliptical orbits for arctic regions. Designated to support INMARSAT.

Marconi.....Europe, aerospace company, was Matra until 1980, became Lagardere in late 1990s. Marconi Electronics Division sold to British in 1999.

Marconi Electronic Systems.....Europe, aerospace company, was part of General Electric Crop (UK) (GEC). Became part of British Aerospace (BAe) in 1999.

Marcopolo.....Marco Polo, 1254-1324, explorer.

MARCOPOLO.....Great Britain, satellite. See BSB.

Marduk.....Mesopotamian, Jupiter god.

MARECS.....Europe, satellite, telecommunications, GEO.

- MARECS A, 1981/12/20, Kourou, Ariane L04.

- MARECS B2, 1984/11/10, Kourou, Ariane 3 V11.

First launch 1981/12/20


MARINE SATELLITE.....China, satellite, ocean observation.

MARINER.....U.S. satellites, scientific. Used to explore the inner planets (Mariner 1, 3, 8 failures, 2, 5 Venus, 4, 6, 7, 9 Mars, 10 Venus and Mercury).

- MARINER 1, 1962/07/22, ETR, Atlas Agena B, FTO.

- MARINER 2, 1962/08/27, ETR, Atlas Agena B, Venus Flyby 1962/12/14.

- MARINER 3, 1964/11/05, ETR, Atlas Agena D, FTO.

- MARINER 4, 1964/11/28, ETR, Atlas Agena D, Mars Flyby 1965/07/14.

- MARINER 5, 1967/06/14, ETR, Atlas Agena D, Venus Flyby 1967/10/19.

- MARINER 6, 1969/02/24, ETR, Atlas Centaur, Heliocentric Orbit, Mars Flyby 1969/07/31.

- MARINER 7, 1969/03/27, ETR, Atlas Centaur, Heliocentric Orbit, Mars Flyby 1969/08/05.

- MARINER 8, 1971/05/08, ETR, Atlas Centaur, FTO.

- MARINER 9, 1971/05/30, ETR, Atlas Centaur, Areocentric Orbit, Mars Orbit 1971/11/13.

- MARINER 10, 1973/11/03, ETR, Atlas Centaur, Heliocentric Orbit,

- Venus Flyby 02/05/1074.

- Mercury Flyby #1 1974/03/29.

- Mercury Flyby #2 1974/09/21.

- Mercury Flyby #3 1975/03/16.

First launch 1962/07/22

MARINER VENUS MERCURY 73 .....U.S., satellite, see MARINER 10. Also known as MVM 73.

MARISAT.....U.S., satellite, communications. MARITIME COMMUNICATIONS SATELLITES, for COMSAT, RCA Global Communications, Western Union International, and ITT World Communications. Provide communications to ships of all nations. All launched from the ETR by a Delta into GEO orbit.

MARISAT 1, 1976/02/19.

MARISAT 2, 1976/06/10.

MARISAT 3, 1976/10/14.

First launch 1976/02/19

Maritime Tracking and Control Center.....China, organization. See China Satellite Maritime Tracking and Control Center.


MAROC-TUBSAT.....Germany & Morocco, satellite, Earth observation. First launch 2001/12/10

Mars.....Missions to the planet Mars:

- MARS, 1960/10/10, Tyuratam, Molniya, Flyby failure, 1M.

- MARS, 1960/10/14, Tyuratam, Molniya, Flyby failure.

- MARS, 1962/10/24, Tyuratam, Molniya, Flyby failure, 2MV-4.

- MARS 1, 1962/11/01, Tyuratam, Molniya, Flyby failure.

- MARS, 1962/11/04, Tyuratam, Molniya, Lander failure.

- MARINER 3, 1964/11/05, ETR, Atlas Agena, Flyby failure.

- MARINER 4, 1964/11/28, ETR, Atlas Agena, Success.

- ZOND 2, 1964/11/30, Tyuratam, Molniya, Flyby failure.

- MARINER 6, 1969/02/24, ETR, Atlas Centaur, Success.

- MARINER 7, 1969/03/27, ETR, Atlas Centaur, Success.

- MARS, 1969/03/27, Tyuratam, Proton, Orbiter and lander failure.

- MARS, 1969/04/14, Tyuratam, Proton, Orbiter and lander failure.

- MARINER 8, 1971/05/08, ETR, Atlas Centaur, Orbiter failure.

- COSMOS 419, 1971/05/10, Tyuratam, Proton, Orbiter and lander failure.

- MARS 2, 1971/05/19, Tyuratam, Proton, Orbiter and lander failure.

- MARS 3, 1971/05/28, Tyuratam, Proton, Orbiter and lander partly successful.

- MARINER 9, 1971/05/30, ETR, Atlas Centaur, Success.

- MARS 4, 1973/07/21, Tyuratam, Proton, Orbiter failure.

- MARS 5, 1973/07/25, Tyuratam, Proton, Orbiter partly successful.

- MARS 6, 1973/08/05, Tyuratam, Proton, Lander failure.

- MARS 7, 1973/08/09, Tyuratam, Proton, Lander failure.

- VIKING 1, 1975/08/20, ETR, Titan Centaur, Success.

- VIKING 2, 1975/09/09, ETR, Titan Centaur, Success.

- PHOBOS 1, 1988/07/07, Tyuratam, Proton, Orbiter failure, 1F.

- PHOBOS 2, 1988/07/12, Tyuratam, Proton, Orbiter failure.

- MARS OBSERVER, 1992/09/25, ETR, Titan-3 TOS, FTO.

- MARS GLOBAL SURVEYOR, 1996/11/07, ETR, Delta 2.

- MARS '96, 1996/11/17, Tyuratam, Proton, Orbital failure, also known as MARS 8.

- MARS PATHFINDER, 1996/12/04, ETR, Delta 2, Lander, Rover.

- NOZOMI, 1998/07/03, 1998-041A, Kogashima, M-V

- CLIMATE ORBITER 1998/12/11, 1998-073A, ETR. Delta 7425-9.5, also known as MARS SURVEYOR '98

- POLAR LANDER. 1999/01/03, 1999-001A, ETR, Delta 7245-9.5

- 2001 ODYSSEY, 2001/04/07, 2001-013A, ETR, Delta 7925, also known as MARS SURVEYOR 2001.

- MARS EXPRESS, 2003/06/02, 2003-022A, Baykonur, Soyuz-FG/Fregat, BEAGLE 2 lander.

- SPIRIT, 2003/06/10, 2003-027A, ETR,Delta 7925, also known as MARS SURVEYOR 2003.

- OPPORTUNITY, 2003/07/08, 2003-032A, ETR, Delta 7925H, also known as MARS SURVEYOR 2003.

Mars.....The 4th planet from the Sun, 141 million miles from the Sun, period of revolution 687 days, diameter 4,200 miles, two satellites or rings. Other names for Mars, a roman god: Sumerian Lugalmeslam, god; Mesopotamian Nergal, god; Greece Ares.

mars.gifFigure 33 Mars graphic symbol

Mars orbit.....Orbit around the planet Mars, also known as areocentric orbit.

MARS.....India, satellite, micro gravity, recoverable, LEO. MICROGRAVITY APPLICATIONS RECOVERABLE SATELLITE.

MARS.....Russia, satellites, scientific. Spacecraft to study the planet Mars.

- MARS, 1960/10/10, Tyuratam, Molniya, Flyby failure, 1M.

- MARS, 1960/10/14, Tyuratam, Molniya, Flyby failure.

- MARS, 1962/10/24, Tyuratam, Molniya, Flyby failure, 2MV-3.

- MARS 1, 1962/11/01, Tyuratam, Molniya, Flyby failure.

- MARS, 1962/11/04, Tyuratam, Molniya, Lander failure, 2MV-4.

- MARS, 1969/03/27, Tyuratam, Proton, Orbiter and lander failure.

- MARS, 1969/04/14, Tyuratam, Proton, Orbiter and lander failure.

- MARS 2, 1971/05/19, Tyuratam, Proton, Orbiter and lander failure.

- MARS 3, 1971/05/28, Tyuratam, Proton, Orbiter and lander partly successful.

- MARS 4, 1973/07/21, Tyuratam, Proton, Orbiter failure.

- MARS 5, 1973/07/25, Tyuratam, Proton, Orbiter partly successful.

- MARS 6, 1973/08/05, Tyuratam, Proton, Lander failure.

- MARS 7, 1973/08/09, Tyuratam, Proton, Lander failure.

First launch 1960/10/10

MARS 2001.....U.S., satellite, see MARS ODYSSEY.

MARS 2001 ORBITER.....U.S. satellite. See MARS SURVEYOR 2001.

MARS 2007 ORBITERS.....ESA, satellite, also known as NETLANDERS, SCOUT MISSIONS.

MARS 96.....Russia, satellite, scientific. Explore the planet Mars. After launch known as MARS 8. FTO. Launched at Tyuratam by Proton K. First launch 1996/11/16


MARS CLIMATE ORBITER.....U.S. NASA, satellite, scientific, Mars orbit. Part of MARS SURVEYOR '98, which included the MARS POLAR LANDER. Was also known as MARS CLIMATE OBSERVER. Orbiter failed in Mars Orbit Insertion (MOI) and Lander failed in Entry, Descent and Landing (EDL). First launch 1998/12/11

MARS EXPLORATION ROVERS.....U.S., satellite, scientific, Mars orbit. Also known as MER-A (SPIRIT) and MER-B (OPPORTUNITY). MER-A, first launched 2003/06/10. MER-B first launched 2003/07/07. MER-A, SPIRIT, landed in the Gusev Creater. MER-B, OPPORTUNITY, landed on Meridiani.First launch 2003/06/10

MARS EXPRESS ORBITER.....ESA, satellite, scientific. Analyze Martian soil, using an orbiter and a lander BEAGLE 2.

First launch 2003/06/02

MARS GLOBAL SURVEYOR.....U.S. NASA, satellite, scientific. JPL prime. A replacement mission to achieve most of the goals of the failed MARS OBSERVER mission. Arrived at Mars 1997/09/12, end miss2000/ion 2. Launched at ETR by a Delta 2 booster into at Trans Mars Heliocentric orbit.. First launch 1996/11/07

MARS OBSERVER.....U.S., satellite, scientific. MARS ORBITER (MO) including the 1.5 m/pixel resolution camera was launched at KSC by a Titan III/TOS booster. Contact was lost with MO on 1993/08/21 while it was preparing for entry into Mars orbit. The spacecraft has been written off. (See MARS GLOBAL SURVEYOR, a replacement mission to achieve most of MO's science goals). First launch 1992/09/25

MARS ODYSSEY.....U.S., satellite, scientific, Mars orbit. Entered Mars orbit 2001/10/24. First launch 2001/04/7

MARS ODYSSEY 2001.....U.S., satellite, see MARS ODYSSEY.


MARS PATHFINDER.....U.S. NASA, satellite, scientific. JPL prime, scientific mission to land on Mars, reaching speed of over 25,500 miles per hour. Landed on Mars 1997/7/4, end of mission 199709/27. Lander and microrover to perform technology, science and engineering experiments on the Martian Surface. Lander contained a robotic rover called SOJOURNER, after Sojourner Truth, an African-American reformist who lived during the U.S. Civil War. Also known as MFEX. Part of the Discovery program of low cost satellites. and part of the Mars Surveyor program. Launched at ETR by Delta-2 into a trans Mars Heliocentric orbit. First launch 1996/12/04

MARS POLAR LANDER.....U.S. NASA, satellite, scientific. Part of MARS SURVEYOR '98 MISSION, which included the MARS CLIMATE ORBITER. First launch 1999/01/03

MARS PREMIER.....Europe/U.S., satellite, scientific, Mars lander with sample return. First launch 2011/00/00

MARS PROBE......Russia, satellite, see ZOND satellite.

MARS RECONNAISSANCE ORBITER.....U.S., satellite, scientific, Mars orbit in 2006/03/00. Also known as MRO. First launch 2005/08/12

MARS SAMPLE RETURN.....U.S. NASA, satellite, scientific. Return Martian rock and soil samples to Earth. First launch 2006/00/00

MARS SCIENCE LABORATORY.....U.S., satellite, scientific, Also known as MSC. First launch 2009/00/00

MARS SCIENCE LABORATORY.....U.S., NASA, satellite, scientific, see MSL.

MARS SCOUT.....U.S. NASA, satellite, scientific, Mars orbit. First launch 2007/00/00

MARS SURVEYOR.....U.S., NASA/JPL, Program, and satellite designation. Includes a series of Mars Missions launched on 2-year centers to conduct a sustained Mars exploration activity. See mission descriptions for MARS GLOBAL SURVEYOR, MARS SURVEYOR '98, MARS SURVEYOR 2001, MARS SURVEYOR 2003, MARS SURVEYOR 2005.

MARS SURVEYOR 1998.....U.S., satellite, scientific, also the mission name. Included MARS CLIMATE ORBITER and MARS POLAR LANDER satellites. Orbiter and lander to trace the evolution of Mars' climate. First launch 1998/12/11

MARS SURVEYOR 2001.....U.S., NASA/JPL, satellite, scientific. Mars orbiter and lander. End of mission 2003/12/00. First launch 2001/04/07

MARS SURVEYOR 2003.....U.S. NASA/JPL, satellite, scientific. Mars orbiter and 2 landers. End of mission 2006/06/00. See MARS EXPLORATION ROVERS, MER.

MARS SURVEYOR 2005.....U.S., NASA/JPL, satellite, scientific. Mars sample. End of mission 2008/07/00. First launch 2005/00/00

MARS TELECOM ORBITER.....U.S., satellite, communications, see MARS TELSAT ORBITER.

MARS TELECOMMUNICATIONS ORBITER.....U.S., NASA, satellite, communications.

MARS TELSAT ORBITER.....U.S., satellite, communications, demonstrate data communications between Earth and Mars. Also known as MARS TELECOM ORBITER. First launch 2009/00/00

MARSCOM.....U.S., satellite, technology, US Naval Academy cubesats, became NMARS . First launch 2006/12/21

Marshal Kyrlov .....Russia, (Russian Navy) tracking ship. See also tracking ships.

Marshal Nedelin.....Russia, (Russian Navy) tracking ship. See also tracking ships.

Marshal SFC.....U.S., organization. See Marshal Space Flight Center.

Marshall Space Flight Center.....U.S. organization. NASA, space flight center, George C. Marshall Space Flight Center, Huntsville, AL 35812. (MSFC) Located on the grounds of the former Army Ballistic Missile Agency. A multi-project management, scientific, and engineering establishment, with much emphasis on projects involving scientific investigation and applications of space technology to the solution of problems on Earth. It is perhaps best known for its role in building the Saturn launch vehicles that sent astronauts to the Moon during the Apollo program. It is NASA's primary center for space propulsion systems and plays a key role in the development of payloads to be flown on the shuttle (such as SPACELAB). MSFC also manages two other NASA sites: the Michoud Assembly Facility in New Orleans where the Shuttle's external tanks are manufactured, and the Slidell Computer Complex in Slidell, Louisiana, which provides computer support to Michoud and to NASA's John C. Stennis Space Center. Officially opened. 1960/07/01.

Martin Marietta.....U.S. aerospace company, joined Lockheed to form Lockheed Martin in 1995.

MAS/SRET.....France, satellite, see SRET.

MASAT.....U.S., satellite, amateur radio, LEO SSO. Also known as HOCKEYPUCK. First launch 2000/01/26

Mason DD 352.....USS Mason DD 352, recovery ship, part of the fleet which recovered or was on duty and capable of recovering the following: GEMINI 4, GEMINI 5, APOLLO 9.

Mass of planets.....See Planets.

Mass ratio.....Final mass of the rocket/missile after all the propellant is consumed, divided by the initial mass (before use). Also known as MR.

Massey DD 778.....USS Massey DD 778, recovery ship, part of the fleet which recovered or was on duty and capable of recovering the following: MERCURY Atlas 7, GEMINI AGENA 6.

Massimino, Michael .....U.S., astronaut, STS-109, 2002/03/01 First launch 2002/03/01

Master Control Facility.....India, organization, see INSAT, and ISRO. Also known as MCF.

Mastracchio, Richard A......U.S., astronaut, STS-106, 2000/9/8. First launch 2000/09/08

Matra.....Europe, aerospace company, changed name to Marconi in 1980.

Matra Marconi Space.....Europe, aerospace company. MMR, Matra Marconi Space merged with DaimlerChrysler (Dasa) in 1999.

Mattingly, Thomas.....U.S., astronaut, APOLLO 16, 1972/04/16, STS-4, 1982/06/27, STS-51C (15), 1985/01/24. First launch 1972/04/16

Maul Photo Rocket.....Germany, rocket, low altitude photo reconnaissance. First launch 1912/00/00

Maxus.....Sweden/Germany, rocket, microgravity research. First launch 1991/00/00

Mayak 12.....Ukraine, launch vehicle. Developed by NPO Yuzhnoye. Based upon Zenit 2. 3700 lbs (1700 kg) into 300 mile ( 500 km) SSO. First launch 2005/00/00

Mayak 23.....Ukraine, launch vehicle. Developed by NPO Yuzhnoye. Based upon Zenit 2. 6600 lbs (3000 kg) into GTO.

MAYAK.....Russia, satellite. See MARATHON.

MB-1.....U.S., launch vehicle motor. Thrust 150,000 lbf (660 kN), pressure ? psi (? bar), liquid propellant LOX/Kerosene. Also known as XLR-79N A 5. Used on the Thor-Able.

MB-100.....U.K., satellite bus, Surrey Satellite Technology, micro satellite.

MB-3.....U.S./Japan, launch vehicle motor. 3 versions:

- MB-3 Block 1, XLR-79 N A 7. Thrust 150,000 lbf (660 kN). Liquid propellant LOX/Kerosene-.

- MB-3 Block 2, XLR-79N A 11. Thrust 165,000 lbf (726 kN). Liquid propellant LOX/Kerosene-.

- MB-3 Block 3, LR-79N A 13. Thrust 172,000 lbf (757 kN), pressure ? psi (? bar), liquid propellant LOX/Kerosene.

Used on the Japanese N-I launch vehicle, and Thor launch vehicle, stage 1.

MB-70 (UoSat).....U.K., satellite bus, Surrey Satellite Technology, micro satellite.

MBB.....Europe, aerospace company, became part Daimler-Benz Aerospace in 1990.

MBB ERNO.....Germany, aerospace company. See ERNO.

MBDA.....Europe, company. Merge Marta, BAC Dynamics, EADS Aerospatiale, Matra missile unit and Alenia Marconi Systems (AMS).

MBST.....Japan/South Korea, satellite, communications, digital multimedia broadband broadcasting, GEO. First launch 2004/03/13

McArthur, William.....U.S., astronaut, STS-58, 1993/10/18, STS-74, 1995/11/12, STS-092, 2000/10/11. Soyuz TMA-7 Expediation 11 2005/10/01. First launch 1993/10/18

McAuliffe, Christa.....U.S., astronaut, STS-51L (25), 1986/01/28. First launch 1986/01/28

McBride, Jon.....U.S., astronaut, STS-41G (13), 1984/10/05. First launch 1984/10/05

MCC-M.....Russia, organization, mission control center in Moscow.

McCaffery DD 860.....USS McCaffery DD 860, recovery ship, part of the fleet which recovered or was on duty and capable of recovering the following: MERCURY Atlas 9, GEMINI 9, GEMINI 11.

McCandless, Bruce.....U.S., astronaut, STS-41B (10), 1984/02/03, STS-31, 1990/04/24. First launch 1984/02/03

McCulley, Michael.....U.S., astronaut, STS-034, 1989/10/18. First launch 1989/10/18

McDivitt, James.....U.S., astronaut, GEMINI 4, 1965/06/03, APOLLO 9, 1969/03/03. First launch 1965/06/03

McDonnell Douglas.....U.S. aerospace company, became part of Boeing in 1996.

McDonnell Douglas Expanded extended launch vehicle.....U.S., launch vehicle. See Delta.

MCF.....India, organization, see ISRO. Also known as INSAT Master Control Facility.

MCI DBS.....U.S., satellite, direct broadcast TV, GEO.

McLean, Steven.....Canada, astronaut, STS-052, 1992/10/22. First launch 1992/10/22

McMonagle, Don.....U.S., astronaut, STS-39, 1991/04/28, STS-54, 1993/01/13, STS-66, 1994/11/03. First launch 1991/04/28

McNair, Ronald.....U.S., astronaut, STS-41B (10), 1984/02/03, STS-51L (25), 1986/01/28. First launch 1984/02/03

MCO.....U.S., satellite, see MARS CLIMATE ORBITER.

MCS.....U.S., Naval Ship, mine counter measure.

MDA.....Bermuda, organization. NASA STDN tracking station.

MDO.....U.S., organization. See Missile Defense Organization.

MDS.....Japan, satellite, technology, LEO. MISSION DEMONSTRATION TEST SATELLITE. Also knon as TSUBASA. First launch 2002/02/04

MEA HUAKA’I.....U.S., satellite, see VOYAGER, launched on 2006/07/26. Not to be confused with VOYAGER launched on 1977/08/20.

Meade, Carl.....U.S., astronaut, STS-38, 1990/11/15, STS-50, 1992/06/25, STS-64, 1994/09/09, First launch 1990/11/15

MEASAT.....Malaysia, satellite, direct broadcast TV, GEO.

- MEASAT 1, 1996/01/12, Kourou, Ariane 44L V 82.

- MEASAT 2, 1996/11/13, Kourou, Ariane 44L V 92.

First launch 1996/01/12

mech.....Russia, sword.

MECH-K.....Russia, satellite, see KOSMOS 1870.

MECH-KU.....Russia, satellite, commercial remote sensing, see  ALMAZ,

mechta.....Russia, to Dream.

Mechta.....Russia, daydream.

MECHTA.....Russia, satellite, see LUNA 01.

Medium Earth Orbit.....See MEO.

Medium Lift Low Earth Orbit.....See MLEO.

Medium range ballistic missile.....Missile with a 1500 mile nuclear warhead range, MRBM.

meer.....German for sea.

MEGHA TROPIQUES.....India & France, satellite, weather. Part of an international consitllation of satellites to measure precipitation. See also GPM and EGPM. First launch 2009/00/00

MegSat.....Italy, satellite bus, MegSat, micro satellites.

MEGSAT.....Italy, satellite. First launch 1999/04/28

Melco.....Japan, aerospace company, see Mitsubishi Electric Corporation.

Melnick, Bruce.....U.S., astronaut, STS-41, 1990/10/06, STS-49, 1992/05/07. First launch 1990/10/06

Melroy, Pamela.....U.S., astronaut, STS-092, 2000/10/11, STS-112, 2002/10/07. First launch 2000/10/11

MEMS.....U.S., satellite, technology, tethered, LEO. 2 satellite constellation tethered together.

Mendez, Amaldo.....Russia, cosmonaut, SOYUZ 38, 1980/09/18. First launch 1980/09/18

MEO.....Medium Earth Orbit, altitude between 1,500 miles to about 9,000 miles (2,500 to 15,000 km), periods of 4 to 9 hours, can see about 30% of Earths surface, radio propagation delays of.070 to.080 seconds. Also known as ICO or intermediate circular orbit, located between inner and outer Van Allen radiation belts.

MEPSI.....U.S., DARPA, satellite, technology, MICRO-ELECTROMECHANICAL-BASED PICOSAT SATELLITE INSPECTION Experiment. It consists of two 1 kg boxes attached to each other by a 15-m tether. The boxes include an imaging camera and a MEM transceiver. They were ejected from the PLA (Picosat Launch Assembly), a 6 kg box attached to an Adaptive Payload Carrier (APC) on the payload bay side wall. First launch 2002/12/02

mer.....French for sea.

MER.....U.S., satellite, also known as MARS 03 - MARS EXPLORATION ROVER mission.

Merbold, Ulf.....Germany, astronaut, STS-9, 1983/11/28, STS-42, 1992/01/22, SOYUZ TM 20, 1994/10/03. First launch 1983/11/28

Mercury.....The first planet from the Sun, 36 million miles from the Sun, period of revolution 88 days, diameter 3,000 miles, no satellites or rings. Other names for Mercury: Mesopotamia Nabu, god; Sumerian Nisaba, Nidaba, goddess; Roman Mercury, god; Greece Hermes, Hermes Trismegistor, god; Egypt Thoth (also the moon god, changed during the 4th century BC as a result of assimilation of Greece culture).

mercury.gifFigure 34 Mercury graphic symbol

Mercury AGM 21.....USS Mercury AGM 21, recovery ship, part of the fleet which recovered or was on duty and capable of recovering the following: APOLLO 8, APOLLO 11. See tracking ship.

Mercury orbit.....Orbit around the planet Mercury.

Mercury Redstone.....U.S. modified Jupiter C, used to launch the MERCURY manned capsule into sub-orbital Flights.

- Mercury Redstone 1A, 1960/12/19, MR-1A.

- Mercury Redstone 2, 1961/01/31, Ham (chimpanzee), MR-2.

- Mercury Redstone BD, 1961/03/24, MR-BD.

- Mercury Redstone 3, 1961/05/05, Shepard, FREEDOM 7.

- Mercury Redstone 4, 1961/07/21, Grissom, LIBERTY BELL 7.

First launch 1960/12/19

MERCURY.....U.S., satellite, scientific, manned. First Manned Space Vehicle, U.S. Object was to place an American in outer space in a one crew member spacecraft.. Shortest flight 15 minutes, 28 second, Alan Shepard, MERCURY-Redstone 3, also first U.S. Manned flight into space 1961/05/05. A total of 23 launches were associated with the MERCURY program, 17 unmanned, two manned suborbital, and four manned orbital. First launch 1959/09/09

MERCURY.....U.S., satellite, signet, GEO. 15 satellite constellation. See USA. 1994/08/27

MERCURY Atlas.....U.S., rocket, LEO manned. MERCURY Atlas, where MERCURY is the manned spacecraft (satellite) and Atlas is the rocket which placed it in space in LEO. Abbreviated MA.

- MERCURY Atlas 1, 1960/07/29, ETR, suborbital, MA-1.

- MERCURY Atlas 2, 1961/02/21, suborbital, MA-2.

- MERCURY Atlas 3, 1961/04/25, ETR, unmanned, FTO.

- MERCURY Atlas 4, 1961/09/13, ETR, unmanned.

- MERCURY Atlas 5, 1961/11/29, ETR, Enos the chimp.

- MERCURY Atlas 6, 1962/02/20, ETR, Glenn, FRIENDSHIP 7.

- MERCURY Atlas 7, 1962/05/24, ETR, Carpenter, AURORA 7.

- MERCURY Atlas 8, 1962/10/03, ETR, Schirra, SIGMA 7.

- MERCURY Atlas 9, 1963/05/15, ETR, Cooper, FAITH 7, returned 1963/05/16.

First launch 1961/04/25


MERCURY MS.....U.S., satellite, see MERCURY. First launch 1961/11/01

MERCURY ORBITER.....Japan, satellite, scientific, Mercury orbit.First launch 2005/00/00

MERCURY POLAR ORBITER.....Europe, satellite, see MPO.

MERCURY Redstone......U.S., satellite, see MERCURY.

MERCURY Scout.....U.S., satellite, scientific, FTO. Scout launch vehicle used at the ETR in and attempt to orbit a communication package to evaluate radar tracking capability of the Mercury tracking network. First launch 1961/11/01

Meredith DD 890.....USS Meredith DD 890, recovery ship, part of the fleet which recovered or was on duty and capable of recovering the following: GEMINI 6, GEMINI 7.

MERIDIAN.....Russia, satellite, communications. First launch 2006/12/24

Merlin.....U.S., launch vehicle motor, used on Falcon 1 stage 1. Thrust 85,000 lbf (72 kN), pressure 766 psi (47 bar), propellant LOK/kerosene.

MERLION.....Singapore and UK, satellite.

MEROPE.....U.S., satellite, technology, Montana, picosatellite that is a cubesat. First launch 2006/07/26

Merritt Island launch Area.....U.S., space vehicle launch facility. See MILA.

Merritt Island Station.....U.S., organization, NASA, STDN, Spaceflight Tracking and Data Network. Merritt Island Station, P.O. Box 1947, Titusville, FL. 32780 US. Later Merritt Island-GMIL, Attention: Station Director, NASA/STDN Merritt Island, P.O. Box 1930, Titusville, FL 32781-1930 US. Abbreviated MIL.

MESBAH.....Iran, satellite, technology, Earth observation, LEO. Means Lantern.First launch 2005/00/00

mesonaut.....Person who has flown into the mesosphere in suborbital flights, typically below 80 km.

MESSENGER.....U.S., NASA, satellite, scientific, Mercury orbit. MERCURY SURFACE, SPACE ENVIRONMENT, GEOCHEMISTRY AND RANGING.MESSENGER will enter Mercury’s Orbit in September 2009, to peel back Mercury's veil of mystery. The mission is a scientific investigation of the planet Mercury. Understanding Mercury and the forces that have shaped it, is fundamental to understanding the evolution of terrestrial planets. MESSENGER will orbit Mercury for one Earth year following two flybys of that planet. The orbital phase will use the flyby data as an initial guide to perform a focused scientific investigation of this enigmatic world. According to NASA “The MESSENGER mission will investigate key science questions using an optimized set of seven miniaturized instruments plus the spacecraft communication system:

- What is the origin of Mercury's high density?

- What are the composition and structure of its crust?

- What is Mercury's tectonic history, and is its surface shaped by volcanism?

- What is the nature and origin of Mercury's magnetic field?

- What are the characteristics of the thin atmosphere and miniature magnetosphere?

- What is the nature of the mysterious polar caps?"

       The MESSENGER mission is managed for NASA by the Johns Hopkins University Applied Physics Laboratory in Laurel, MD. The path of the satellite will start with a single gravity assist flyby of Earth, two of Venus, and three of Mercury, before going into orbit about Mercury in 2011. The spacecraft will reach escape velocity of 25,000 mph, 35,000 km/hr. The schedule is the following:

       - 2008/08, Earth flyby

       - 2006/10, Venus flyby

       - 2007/06, Venus flyby

       - 2008/01, Mercury flyby

       - 2008/10, Mercury flyby

       - 2009/09, Mercury flyby

       - 2011/03, Mercury orbit.

First launch 2004/08/03

Messerschmidt, Ernst.....Germany, astronaut, STS-61A (22), 1985/10/30. First launch 1985/10/30

Messerschmitt.....Europe, aerospace company, became part HFB in 1975.

Meteo du CSG.....Guyane, organization. Meteorology of CSG (Guiane Space Center) (Ariane tracking station, Kourou, Guyane)

météo.....French for meteorology.

Meteor 3.....Russia, satellite bus, VNIIEM.

METEOR.....Russia, satellite, meteorological, polar orbiting.

- METEOR-M also known as 11F614.

- METEOR-2 also known as 11F632.

- METEOR-3, 1984/09/27, also known as 17F45.


Manufactured by the Research Institute for Electromachanics, VNIIEN.

First launch 1969/03/26

METEOR.....U.S. satellite, scientific, FTO. MULTIPLE EXPERIMENT TRANSPORTER TO EARTH ORBIT AND RETURN Spacecraft (formally COMET). Launched at Wallops Island, Va, by a Conestoga. First launch 1995/10/23

Meteor-1.....Poland, rocket, stratosphere meteorology. First launch 1963/00/00

Meteor-2k.....Poland, rocket, upper atmosphere meteorology. First launch 1970/00/00

Meteor-3.....Poland, rocket, upper atmosphere meteorology. First launch 1968/00/00

METEOR-PRIRODA.....Russia, satellite, Earth resource, SSO.

METEOROID SATELLITES.....U.S., satellites, scientific. Part of the EXPLORER series, S-55, 13, 16. See EXPLORER.


meteorological satellite.....A satellite which observes the atmosphere, e.g. NOAA



meteorologie.....German for meteorology.

météorologie.....French for meteorology.

meteorology.....météo (Fr),, météorologie (Fr),, meteorologie (D).

METEOSAT.....ESA, satellite, meteorological. METEOROLOGICAL SATELLITE. Also known as MOP which is a Geosynchronous Orbit Weather Satellite, ESA.

- METEOSAT 01, 1977/11/22, KSC, Delta, GEO.

- METEOSAT 02, 1981/06/19, Kourou, Ariane 1, GEO.

- METEOSAT 03, 1988/06/15, Kourou, Ariane 4, GEO.

- METEOSAT 04, 1989/03/06, Kourou, Ariane 44LP, HEO, MOP 1.

- METEOSAT 05, 1991/03/02, Kourou, Ariane 44LP, HEO, MOP 2.

- METEOSAT 06, 1993/11/20, Kourou, Ariane 44LP, GEO, MOP 3.

First launch 1977/11/22


METEOSAT SECOND GENERATION.....Europe, satellite. See MSG.


Metis.....Jupiter moon, one of 16. See also Metis, Adrastea, Amalthea, Thebe, Io, Europa, Ganymede, Callisto, Leda, Sinope, Himalia, Lysithea, Elara, Ananke, Carme, Pasiphae.

METOP.....Europe, ESA, satellite, weather, LEO polar orbit, 3 satellite constellation. First launch 2006/10/19

METSAT.....India, satellite, weather. Renamed KALPAHA-1, after astronaut Dr. Kalpana Chawla (1961-2003) who died in the STS 107 Columbia accidnet.First launch 2002/09/12

MEWS.....U.S., satellite, reconnaissance. INTEGRATED MISSILE EARLY WARNING SATELLITE programs, the successor to the MIDAS program, to detect launches of ICBMs and SLBMs. Launched at the ETR by a Titan IIIC into nearly a GEO orbit. Known as 1970 93A. First launch 1970/11/06

MFS.....U.S., satellite, communication, see IRIDIUM MFS.

MFWA.....U.S., space vehicle launch facility, Drop Zone, Mayport, Florida, Warning Area

MG-18.....U.S., launch vehicle, Scout, 4th stage, solid propellant.

MGM-118.....U.S., launch vehicle, Peacekeeper ICBM.

MGS.....U.S., satellite, scientific. See MARS GLOBAL SURVEYOR.

MGU-250.....Russia, satellite, see UNIVERSITETSKIY.

MHI.....Japan, aerospace company, see Mitsubishi Heavy Industries, Inc.

MHI LE-5B.....Japan, launch vehicle motor, see LE-5B.

MHI LE-7A.....Japan, launch vehicle motor, see LE-7A.

MHI SSB.....Japan, launch vehicle motor. see SSB.

Michoud Assembly Facility.....U.S., organization. NASA Facility, New Orleans, LA 70159. System engineering, engineering design, manufacture, fabrication, assembly and related for the Space Shuttle external tank.


MICRO-LABSAT.....Japan, satellite, scientific, LEO Syn-sync. First launch 2002/12/14

Microcosm 2.5K.....U.S., launch vehicle motor, thrust 2,300 lbf (10 kN), pressure 154 psi (10.5 bar), liquid propellant LOX/Kerosene. Used on Scorpius launch vehicle.

Microcosm 20K.....U.S., launch vehicle motor, thrust 20,000 lbf (90 kN), pressure 385 psi (26 bar), liquid propellant LOX/Kerosene. Used on Scorpius launch vehicle.


MICROGRAVITY LAB.....U.S., satellite, scientific. Launched on the Space Shuttle, to perform experiments in a microgravity environment (gravity one millionth of that on Earth). Also know as the INTERNATIONAL MICROGRAVITY LABORATORY (IML) and the USML or UNITED STATES MICROGRAVITY LABORATORY.

First launch 1992/01/22

MICROLAB.....U.S., satellite, experimental platform. First launch 1995/03/28

microsatellite.....Satellite, weght 22 - 220 lbs (10-100 kg)

microsatellite.....Any satellite weighing less than 50 kilograms (about 100 lbs).  Also known as µSAT

MICROSATS.....U.S./Brazil/Argentina/CIS, satellite. At lease 3 different series of satellites use the name MICORSAT. See OSCAR.

- MICROSAT 01, 1990 005D, 1990/01/22, Kourou, Ariane 4, LEO, PACSAT.

- MICROSAT 02, 1990 005E, 1990/01/22, Kourou, Ariane 4, LEO.

- MICROSAT 03, 1990 005F, 1990/01/22, Kourou, Ariane 4, LEO, WEBERSAT.

- MICROSAT 04, 1990 005G, 1990/01/22, Kourou, Ariane 4, LEO, LUSAT.

- MICROSAT 01, 1991 051A, 1991/07/17, PACIFIC/B 52, Pegasus, LEO, reentered 1992/01/23.

- MICROSAT 02, 1991 051B, 1991/07/17, PACIFIC/B 52, Pegasus, LEO, reentered 1992/01/23.

- MICROSAT 03, 1991 051C, 1991/07/17, PACIFIC/B 52, Pegasus, LEO, reentered 1992/01/23.

- MICROSAT 04, 1991 051D, 1991/07/17, PACIFIC/B 52, Pegasus, LEO, reentered 1992/01/23.

- MICROSAT 05, 1991 051E, 1991/07/17, PACIFIC/B 52, Pegasus, LEO, reentered 1992/01/23.

- MICROSAT 06, 1991 051F, 1991/07/17, PACIFIC/B 52, Pegasus, LEO, reentered 1992/01/23.

- MICROSAT 07, 1991 051G, 1991/07/17, PACIFIC/B 52, Pegasus, LEO, reentered 1992/01/23.

- MICROSAT, 1996 050A, 1996/08/29, Plesetsk, SL-6, LEO.

First launch 1990/01/22

MICROSCOPE.....France, satellite, scientific. Test Einstein’s equivalence principle which postulates that gravitational mass and inert mass are equal. Used Myriade Micros satellite bus, developed by EADS/Astrium. First launch 2007/00/00

MicroSIL.....U.S., satellite bus, SpaceDev/SIL., micro satellite.

MicroStar.....U.S., satellite bus, Orbital Sciences Corp. Micro satellites.


MICROWAVE ANISOTROPY PROBE.....U.S., NASA, satellite, scientific. See MAP.

mid-morning/mid-evening plane.....Orbit. Time when a spacecraft will cross the equator in its sun-synchronous polar orbit. See also midday/midnight plane.

MIDAS.....U.S. Air Force Satellite, missile defense. MISSILE DEFENSE ALARM SYSTEM early warning satellites, preceded IMEWS, in the role of detecting missile launches. Part of the WS-117L program. DoD System Management Code WS-239A and WS-461L.

- MIDAS 01 None, 1960/02/26, ETR, Atlas Agena A, FTO.

- MIDAS 02 1960 Z1, 1960/05/24, ETR, Atlas Agena A, LEO, reentered 2/7/74.

- MIDAS 03 1961 S1, 1961/07/12, WTR, Atlas Agena B, LEO.

- MIDAS 04 1961 AD1, 1961/10/21, WTR, Atlas Agena B, LEO.

- MIDAS 05 1961 K1, 1962/04/09, WTR, Atlas Agena B, LEO.

- MIDAS 06 None, 1962/12/17, WTR, Atlas Agena B, FTO.

- MIDAS 07 1963 14A, 1963/05/09, WTR, Atlas Agena B, LEO.

- MIDAS 08 None, 1963/06/12, WTR, Atlas Agena B, FTO.

- MIDAS 09 1963 30A, 1963/07/18, WTR, Atlas Agena B, LEO.

- MIDAS 10 1966 51A, 1966/06/09, WTR, Atlas Agena D, LEO, reentered 1966/12/03.

- MIDAS 11 1966 77A, 1966/08/19, WTR, Atlas Agena D, LEO.

- MIDAS 12 1966 89A, 1966/10/05, WTR, Atlas Agena D, LEO.

First launch 1960/02/26


midday/midnight plane.....Orbit. Time when a spacecraft will cross the equator in its sun-synchronous polar orbit. See also mid-morning/mid-evening plane.

MIDDLE SCHOOL OF PING LI COUNTY.....China, Ping Li, organization, study Chinese medicine to treat cosmonaut illness.

MIDEX.....U.S., satellite, scientific, LEO SSO. Also known as IMAGE. Part of Explorer Program. Medium-class Explorers or Mid Explorer Satellites (MIDEX) - are investigations not to exceed $140 million (in Fiscal Year 1998 dollars) total cost to NASA.

- MIDEX 1 also known as MAP.

- MIDEX 2 also known as IMAGE. First launch 2001/06/30

midori.....Japan, color green.

MIDORI.....Japan, satellite, scientific. See ADEOS.

MIGHTY MITE.....U.S., satellite, see VANGUARD 1 First launch 1958/03/17

MIGHTYSAT.....U.S. Micro satellite, advanced electronics, LEO SSO. First launch 2000/07/19

MIKA.....French and Germany, satellite, technology. Engineering capsule to measure launch vehicle performance. Launched at Kourou by a Diamant B in to a HEO, decayed 1974/09/09. Also known as DIAL MINI KAPSEL. First launch Kourou 1970/03/10

MIKRON.....Russia, satellite, see MK.

MIL.....U.S., organization. See NASA STDN tracking station, Merritt Island, FL. U.S.

MILA.....U.S., space vehicle launch facility. NASA, Merritt Island Launch Area, early name for the Kennedy Space Center.

Mildura Balloon Launch Station.....Australia/USA, Mildura, organization. Launch station for balloons carrying a large variety of scientific payloads.

Miles Fox DDR 829.....USS Miles Fox DDR 829, recovery ship, part of the fleet which recovered or was on duty and capable of recovering the following: MERCURY Atlas 9.

military satellite.....A satellite for military purposes, e.g., spy, anti-missile, classified, secret, surveillance, e.g. SAMOS.

MILITARY STAR.....U.S. Satellite. See MILSTAR.

MILITARY TECHNOLOGY EXPERIMENT SATELLITE.....U.S., satellite, technology development, see MITEX.

MILLENIUM.....U.S. satellite, broadband communications, GEO.

Millimeter band.....Electromagnetic frequencies greater than 50 GHZ. See band.

MILSTAR.....U.S. DoD, satellite, communications. New generation of U.S. military communications satellites that provides secure, anti-jam voice and data links to U.S. MILITARY STAR (satellite). DoD designation ES-8 A. DoD System Management Codes, 498L.

- MILSTAR 1, 1995/02/07, ESMC, Titan 4,

- MILSTAR 2, 1995/11/06, ESMC, Titan 4,

First launch 1994/02/07

Mimas.....Saturn moon, one of 19. See Prometheus, Pandora, Atlas, Epimetheus, Janus, Mimas, Helene, Enceladus, Tethys, Calypso, Telesto, Dione, Pan, 1995-S4, Rhea, Titan, Hyperion, Laptus, Phoebe.

Mimir.....Norse, god of wisdom, knowledge.

MIMOSA.....Czechoslovakia, satellite, technology, HEO, Astronomical Institute. Micro accelerometric measurement of satellite acceleration. First launch 2003/06/30

Minerva.....Roman, goddess of wisdom, knowledge, creativity.

MINERVA.....Japan, satellite, scientific, mini satellite, part of HAYABUSA.


MiniBus.....U.K, satellite bus, Surrey Satellite Technology, LEO.

MINISAT.....Spain, satellite, scientific, LEO.

- MINISAT 01, 1997/04/21, Canary Is, Pegasus-XL, LEO.

First launch 1997/04/21

minisatellite.....Satelllite, weight 220 - 1100 lbs (100-500 kg)


MiniSIL.....U.S., satellite bus, SpaceDev/SIL., LEO.

MiniStar.....U.S., satellite bus, Orbital Sciences Corp. LEO.

MiniStar.....U.S., satellite bus, Orbital Sciences Corp. LEO.


Minotaur.....U.S., launch vehicle, 1400 lbs (630 kg) LEO. Combination of Minutemen 2 and first and second stage and Pegasus third and fourth stages. Stage 1, M-55A1 engine (Minuteman II stage 1 ICMB). Stage 2, MM SR-19 motor (Minitman II stage 2 ICBM). Stage 3, Orion 50XL motor (Pegasus stage 2). Stage 4, Orion 38 motor (Pegasus stage 3). First launch 2000/01/21

Minuteman.....Launch vehicle, ICBM.

- Minuteman 2, LGM-30F, 660 lbm (300 kg) LEO. Stage 1, thrust 201,500 lbf (894 kN), pressure 850 psi (54 bar), solid, AP + Al + binder. Manufactured by Thoikol.

- Minuteman 3, LGM-30G, 1100 lbm (500 kg) LEO.

Minxi tracking station.....China, organization, tracking station located in Fujian province. See Xian Satellite Monitor and Control Center.

mir.....Russian for Peace or world.

Mir 92.....Russia, mission title for Soyuz TM-14. First launch 1992/03/17

Mir 97.....Russia, mission title for Soyuz TM-25. First launch 1997/02/10

MIR.....Russia, satellite, advanced manned scientific. Launched by SL-13 at Tyuratam into LEO. Also known as 27KS. Attached to the MIR are 5 additional modules.

- KVANT 1, 1987/03/31, LEO, QUANTUM.

- KVANT 2, 1998/11/26, LEO, QUANTUM, 11F77D.

- KRISTALL, 1990/05/31, LEO, CRYSTAL, 11F77T.

- SPEKTR, 1995/05/20, LEO, SPECTRUM, SPECTRA, 11F770.

- DOCKING MODULE, 1995/11/12, LEO, 316GK SM.

- PRIRODA, 1996/04/23, LEO, NATURE, 11F771.

The station is resupplied with SOYUZ and PROGRESS. First station to station transfer MIR/SOYUZ T-15 to SALYUT 7, 1986/05/06. First launch 1986/02/19

Miranda.....Uranus moon, one of 17. See Miranda, Ariel, Umbriel, Titania, Oberon, Puck, Belinda, Rosalind, Portia, Juliet, Dosdemona, Cressida, Bianca, Ophelia, Cordelia, Caliban, Sycorax.

MIRANDA.....UK, satellite. See UK.

Mirikata tracking site.....Australia, 185km down-range from Woomera, organization, Self-contained instrumentation post used to track Woomera launches. Now closed.

Mirny.....Russia, space vehicle launch facility. See Plesetsk Cosmodrom

mise à feu.....French for ignition.

missile.....Any object thrown, dropped, fired, launched or otherwise projected with the purpose of striking a target.

Missile Defense Alarm System.....U.S., satellite. See MIDAS.

Missile Defense Organization.....U.S., organization. See BMDO.

Missile designation.....U.S. See DOD Missile and satellite Designation.

Mission to Planet Earth program.....U.S. See MTPE.


MITA.....Italy, satellite, technology development, microsatellite, LEO SSO. MINISATELLITE OF ITALY FOR TECHNOLOGY ADVANCES, developed by Aarlot Gavazzi Space, Milan. Also known as NINA. First launch 2000/07/15

Mitchell, Edgar.....U.S., astronaut, APOLLO 14, 1971/01/31. First launch 1971/01/31

MITEX.....U.S., satellite, technology development. MILITARY TECHNOLOGY EXPERIMENT SATELLITE. Demonstrating advanced space technologies. First launch 2006/06/21

Mitsubishi Electric Corporation.....Japan, aerospace company, also known as Melco.

Mitsubishi Heavy Industries, Inc......Japan, aerospace company. Address: 16-5 Konan 2-chme, Minato-ku, Tokyo 108-8215, Japan. Also known as MHI.

Mixed oxides of nitrogen.....launch vehicle propellant, see MON.

MJS 78.....U.S., satellite, MARINER JUPITER SATURN 78 - old name for U.S. GALILEO mission.

MK.....Russia, satellite, Imaging, LEO. Also known as MIKRON. First launch 2004/12/24

MKA.....Russia, satellite, see KOSMOS 865 SUBSATELLITE.

MKB.....Russia, organization, machine design bureau.

MLEO.....Medium Lift Low Earth Orbit.

MM.....Roman number for 2000.

MM 71.....U.S., satellite, MARINER MARS 71 - also known as MARINER 8 AND 9 mission.

MM SR-19.....U.S., launch vehicle motor, thrust 60,000 lbf (268 kN), pressure 445 psi (30 bar), propellant ANB-3066. Used on Minuteman ICBM stage 2 and Minotaur stage 2.

MM2.....U.S., satellite, see CASSINI.

MMFX.....U.S., satellite, see MARS PATHFINDER or SOJOURNER.

MMH.....Launch vehicle propellant, liquid, see Monomethyl hydrazine.

MMO.....Europe ESA, satellite, scientific, Mercury HEO. MERCURY MAGNETOSPHERIC ORBITER.

MMR.....Europe, company, see Matra Marconi Space.

MMR-06.....USSR, rocket, upper atmosphere meteorology.

MMS.....U.S., NASA, satellite, scientific, investigate Earth's magnetosphere. MAGNETOSPHERE MULTISCALE MISSION. 5 satellite constellation. First launch 2005/00/00

MMU.....U.S., NASA, manned Maneuvering Unit. Used by Astronaut Bruce McCandless. Launched at KSC by STS-41B. First launch 1984/02/03

MMX Mikoyan.....Russia, Moscow, organization. See OKB-155.

MO.....U.S., satellite. See MARS OBSERVER.

Moale DD 693.....USS Moale DD 693, recovery ship, part of the fleet which recovered or was on duty and capable of recovering the following: MERCURY Atlas 7.

Mobil Communications Holdings.....U.S., aerospace company. Address: 1133 21st Street, NW, Suite 800, Washington, D.C. 20036, USA.

Mobil Satellite Ventures.....U.S., company, commercial satellite operator, MSAT. 10802 Parkridge Blvd., Reston, VA, USA. Became Motient Corporation.

MOBIL SCIENCE LABORATORY.....U.S., satellite, scientific, rover, Mars orbit. First launch 2007/00/00


MOCKUP.....Russia, satellite, FTO. First launch 1972/11/23

Model number.....Russia, also known as article number. See Russia spacecraft and launch vehicle designation.

MODULE M.....Russia, satellite, scientific, solar probe, heliocentric.

Moffet Field.....U.S., organization. Moffet Field, CA, part of the Ames Research Center

Mohmand, Abdul.....Afghanistan, cosmonaut, SOYUZ TM 06, 1988/08/29. First launch 1988/08/29

Mohri, Mamoru.....Japan, astronaut, STS-47, 1992/09/12, STS-099, 2000/2/11. First launch 1992/09/12

MOL.....U.S., satellite. MANNED ORBITING LABORATORY, space station to mate with the GEMINI spacecraft. The program was cancelled in August 1969, before the MOL could be built. Unmanned launch at ETR by Titan III-C/GEMINI, 1966/11/03. First launch 1966/11/03

Molniya.....Russia, launch vehicle, high orbit, interplanetary. Booster, 3 ½ stage, knows as SL-6, based upon the R-7 ICBM, launches probes and satellite to planets. Also known as 8K78, 8K78L, and 8K78M, A-2-e.

- Molniya M, 4400 lbs (2000 kg), LEO. Stage 1, strap-on, (Block B, V, G, D) 4 RD-107 engines. Stage 2, (Block A) RD-108 engine. Stage 3, Block 1, RD-0110 or RD-461 engine. Stage 4, Block L. Similar to the Soyuz U.

First launch 1966/02/19

Molniya M.....Russia, launch vehicle, see Molniya.

Molniya NPO.....Russia, organization, Moscow. See NPO Molniya.

Molniya orbit.....Highly elliptical high inclination orbits with 12-hour period so that the periapsis is positioned over the same high latitude point(s) on the Earth each orbit. The orbit is used for communications satellites for far northern and southern latitudes not accessible with GEO orbits. Named after the Russian communication satellites that first used the orbit.

MOLNIYA.....Russia, satellite, communications. МОЛНИЯ. Part of the domestic communications satellite system. Manufactured by Korolev OKB-1.

- MOLNIYA-1 1964/06/04, also known as 11F67.

- MOLNIYA-2 also known as 11F628.

- MOLNIYA-3 also known as 11F637.

- MOLNIYA-1T also known as 11F658.

First launch 1964/02/19

Momo.....Japan, Peach blossom.

MOMO.....Japan, satellite. See MOS.

MON.....launch vehicle propellant, liquid, mixed oxides of nitrogen.

MON-25.....launch vehicle propellant, liquid, 25% nitric oxide, 75% nitrogen tetroxide.

MON-3.....Launch vehicle propellant, liquid, 3% nitric acid and 97% nitrogen tetroxide.

mond.....German for moon.

MONITOR-E.....Russia, satellite, technology, LEO. Manufactured by Krunichev, remained attached to the Briz-KM stage. First launch 2003/06/30

Mono propellant.....A single chemical propellant that is stored and used as a liquid in the launch vehicle and provides the rocket motor/engine energy by disassociation. See also liquid fuel. Koelle

Monomethyl hydrazine.....Launch vehicle propellant, liquid, CH3NHNH2. Also known as MMH.

Mont.....Egypt, god of war.

Montabo.....Guyane, organization. Ariane tracking station, Kourou, Guyane (Cayenne).

moon.....lune (Fr)., mond (D).

moon.....Natural satellite which orbits the Earth. Aposelene or apolune is the high point (apoapsis) of an orbit around the moon. Lunar orbit is also known as selenocentric orbit. Other names for the moon: Japan Tsuki-yomi, moon counter; Egypt Thoth, moon god; Roman luna or Diana, moon god; Chinese Ch'ang-o or Heng-o, moon goddess; Mesopotamia Sin, moon god; Greece Artemis, Selene, Hecate, moon goddess; India (Brahmic) Soma, Candra.

moon orbit.....See selenocentric orbit

Moon, first close up photographs.....Russian, LUNA 3, photographed the moon on. 1959/10/04

Moon, first landing.....Russia, LUNA 2, struck the moon on. 1959/09/15

MOON BUG.....U.S. satellite. See LEM.

MOONRAKER.....U.S., NASA, satellite, scientific, Moon orbit, landing an sample return. First launch 2005/00/00

Moonwatch.....U.S., organization. Smithsonian Observatory, Cambridge, MA. Volunteers using telescopes to observe satellites. Placed in operation 1957/10/04

MOP.....Europe, satellite, meteorological. METEOSAT OPERATIONAL PROGRAM, Europe's meteorological satellite, operated by ESA, and renamed METEOSAT when placed in orbit.




First launch 1989/03/06

Morane-Sauliner.....Europe, aerospace company, took over Air Fouga in 1965, became part Aerospatiale in 1965.

MORE-1.....Russia, satellite, ocean reconnaissance. Also known as SEA-1. See RORSAT.

Morelos.....Jose Maria Morelos, 1765-1815, revolutionary.

MORELOS.....Mexico, satellite, domestic communications. Launched at KSC by STS 61B. Named after Jose de Morelos y Pavon, Spanish for servant of the people and the liberator of Mexico. First launch 1985/06/17

Morin, Lee M.E. .....U.S., astronaut, STS-110, 2002/04/08. First launch 2002/04/08

MORNINGSTAR.....U.S., satellite, communications, GEO. 4 satellite constellation. Contractor Morning Star.

Morukov, Boris W......Russia, cosmonaut, STS-101, 2000/5/19, STS-106, 2000/09/8. First launch 2000/05/19

Morzhovets.....Russia, tracking ship. See also tracking ships.

MOS.....Japan, satellite, observation. MARINE OBSERVATION SATELLITE. Renamed MOMO.

- MOS 1A, 1987/02/18, TANEGASHIMA, N-2, LEO, MOMO 1.

- MOS 1B, 1990/02/07, TANEGASHIMA, H-1, LEO, MOMO 2.

First launch 1987/02/18

Moscow.....Russia, capital.

MOST.....Canada, satellite, scientific, astronomy. SSO. MICROVARIABLITY & OSCILLATIONS OF STARS. First launch 2003/06/30

moteur.....French for engine.

Motient Corporation.....U.S., company, commercial satellite operator, MSAT. 10802 Parkridge Blvd., Reston, VA, USA. Became Mobil Satellite Ventures.

Motor.....A device that converts other forms of energy into mechanical energy. May also be referred to as an engine. Often used to describe a solid fuel rocket, e.g. rocket motor.

Motor manufacturers abbreviation.....U.S., See Launch Vehicle Motor/Engine manufacturers abbreviation.

Motorola.....U.S., aerospace company. Address: 1303 East Algonquin Road, Schaumburg, IL 60196, USA.

Moulton orbit.....Orbits around the libration points with a large vertical component out of the elliptical plane. See Halo orbits, lagrange, libration points.

moultonorbit.jpgFigure 35 Lagrange or Libration Point coordinate system with a Moulton orbit. z axis is perpendicular to the Ecliptic Plane. y axis points to the direction of Earth's rotation around the Sun. x axis is a line conecting the Sun to Earth,

MOUS.....U.S., DOD, satellite, communications, MOBILE USERS OBJECTIVE SYSTEM. Intended to replace UFO. First launch 2008/00/00

Moussabaiev, Talgal.....Russia, cosmonaut. See Musabaev.

MOZHAETS.....Russia, satellite, communication, GEO. First launch 2002/11/28

MOZHAYETS.....Russia, satellite, technology, SSO. Successor to ZEYA and RADIO-ROSTO satellites. Built by NPO Prikladnoi Mekhaniki of Zheleznogorsk. Payload developed by students from Mozhaisky Militry Academy, Sankt-Peterburg. Modified NPO-PM STRELA-1M. First launch 2002/11/28

MOZHEATS.....Russia, satellite, see MOZHAYETS.

MPEC.....U.S., satellite, see USA 070.

MPF.....U.S., satellite, see MARS PATHFINDER.

MPL.....U.S., satellite, see MARS POLAR LANDER.

MPLM-1.....Multi country, satellite, space station, MULTIPURPOSE LOGISTICS MODULE, also known as LEONARDO..

MPLM-2.....Multi country, satellite, space station, MULTIPURPOSE LOGISTICS MODULE, also known as RAFFAELLO.

MPLM-3.....Multi country, satellite, space station, MULTIPURPOSE LOGISTICS MODULE, also known as DONATELLO.

MPO.....Russia, organization, St. Petersburg.

MPO.....Europe ESA, satellite, scientific, Mercury polar orbit, 230 miles (400 km) altitude above Mercury. MERCURY POLAR ORBITER.

MPS Europropulsion.....ESA, launch vehicle motor, used on P230 booster, 1,500,000 lbf (6650 kN) max, 890 psi (71 Bar), solid fuel HTPB, 3 segments, on P240 booster, 1,590,000 lbf (7080 kN) max, 890 psi (71 Bar), solid fuel HTPB, 3 segments,

MR.....Mass ratio of a rocket or missile. See mass ratio.

MR.....U.S., satellite, see MERCURY.

MR.....U.S., launch vehicle motor, manufactured by Rocket Research.

MR-107.....U.S., launch vehicle motor, General Dynamics, used on Athena stage OAM. Thrust 200 lbf (890 N), pressure 125 to 32 psi (8.8 to 2.2 bar), propellant Monopropellant hydrazine.  Used on HAPS.

MR-12.....Russia, rocket, upper atmosphere geophysics. First launch 1963/00/00

MR-20.....Russia, rocket, upper atmosphere meteorology.

MRBM.....See Medium range ballistic missile.

MRO.....U.S., satellite, also known as MARS 05 - MARS RECONNAISSANCE ORBITER Mission.


MS.....UK, satellite, communications, LEO.

MSAT.....Canada, satellite, telecommunications.

MSAT 1, 1996/04/20, Kourou, Ariane 42P V-85.

MSAT 2, 1995/04/07, ETR, Atlas 2A, was AMSC-1 and renamed in 1998. Also known as ACTEL-1.

First launch 1995/04/07

MSC.....U.S., satellite, scientific, See MARS SCIENCE LABORATORY.

MSFC.....U.S., organization. See Marshall Spaceflight Center.

MSFN.....U.S., organization. Manned Space Flight Network, tracking stations for U.S. manned space flight, 12 ground stations, one ship and four EC-135 jet aircraft. Consolidated with STADAN and renamed STDN after the SKYLAB Program.

- NASA Goldstone MSFN Station, P.O. Box 789, Barstow, CA 92311.

- Chief, Mail & Report Mgt. Section, John F. Kennedy Space Center, Kennedy Space Ct. FL 32899.

- NASA MSFN Station 12, P.O. Box 538, Waimea, Kauai, HI 96796.

- Texas MSFN Station, PO Box 8289, Corpus Christi, TX 78412.

- NASA MSFN Station, Bendex Filed Eng. Corp., Place Caillol BP 3242, Tananarive, Madagascar.

- Carnarvon Tracking Station, BOX 348, Carnarvon, West Australia 6701.

- APOLLO Tracking Station, Honeysuckle Creek ACT, Box 369, Manuka, ACT, Australia 2603. Relocated to Tinbinbilla. PO Box 4350 Kingston ACT 2604 Australia.

- NASA-INTA (MSFN), Apartado 50860, Madrid 3, Spain.

- MSFN Station, Apartado 48, Las Palmas de Grand Canarie, Grand Canary Is., Spain.

- NASA Goddard Space Flight Center, Gr. Bahama Is. Trk Station, PO Box 4187, Patrick AFB, FL 32925 or NASA Gr. Bahama Tra. Sta. PO Box 250, Freeport, GR. Bahama Is.

- NASA (Bermuda Sta.), Box 7015, APO, NY, NY 09856.

- NASA Devil's Asphit Sta., PO Box 4187, Ascension AAF, Patrick AFB, FL 32925.

- MSFN Station, Apartado Postal 47, Guaymas, Senora, Mexico.

- USNS Vanguard, T-AGM-19, Ship's Master, FPO, New York 09501.

MSG.....Europe, satellite, meteorological. METEOSAT SECOND GENERATION weather satellite, operated by Eutelsat. First launch 2002/08/28

MSL.....U.S., satellite, also known as MARS 09 - MARS SMART LANDER Mission.

MSL.....U.S., NASA, satellite, scientific. MARS SCIENCE LABORATORY rover. Scientific planetary exploration, Mars orbit. First launch 2009/00/00

MSLS.....U.S. Air Force, launch vehicle, SSO.

- B, 140 kg, SSO.

- D, 285 kg, SSO.

First launch 1999/00/00

MSO.....U.S., Naval Ship, mine sweeper ocean, non magnetic.

MSR.....U.S. NASA, satellite, scientific, see MARS SAMPLE RETURN.

MSR-19.....U.S., launch vehicle motor, see MM SR-19.

MST.....Japan, satellite. See TANSEI.

MSTI.....U.S. Satellite, technology. MINIATURE SENSOR TECHNOLOGY INTEGRATION satellite for the Ballistic Missile Defense Organization (BMDO).

- MSTI 1, 1992/11/21, WTR, Scout.

- MSTI 2, 1994/05/09, WTR, Scout (last Scout launch).

- MSTI 3, 1996/05/17, WTR, Pegasus.

First launch 1992/11/21

MSX.....U.S. DoD, satellite, scientific. MIDCOURSE SPACE EXPERIMENT, scientific research to identify and track ballistic missiles during the midcourse flight, for the BMDO. Launched at the WTR by a Delta 2 into a sun synchronous orbit. First launch 1996/04/24

MT.....Launch vehicle motor, Microturbo.

MT-110.....Japan, Rocket.

MT-135.....Japan, Rocket.

MT-SAT.....Japan, satellite, see MSAT.

MTI.....U.S., satellite, see MTIS.

MTIS.....U.S., satellite, technology development, LEO SSO, thermal imaging. MULTISPECTRAL THERMAL IMAGER SATELLITE. Also known as MTI or P97-3. First launch 2000/03/12

MTO.....U.S., NASA, satellite, communications, Mars orbit, 2500-3500 MILE ORBIT (4200-6000 km) . MARS TELECOMMUNICATIONS ORBITER. First launch 2009/09/00

MTP.....Europe, satellite, meteorological. METEOSAT TRANSITION PROGRAMME, weather satellite, operated by Eumetsat. Started with METEOSAT 7. First launch 1997/09/02

MTPE.....U.S. NASA, Mission to Planet Earth program. By using various Earth orbiting satellites, will study the Earth global atmosphere such as ozone layers, temperature, ocean currents, etc.

MTSAT.....Japan, satellite, meteorological. Advanced geostationary satellite for air traffic control and weather forecasting, for the MINISTRY OF TRANSPORTATION SATELLITE or MULTI-FPURPOSE TRANSPORT SATELLITE. First launch 1999/11/15

MTU.....Launch vehicle motor, Motoren- und Turbinen-Union (DaimlerChrysler), Germany.

MTV.....U.S., launch vehicle, Maneuver and Transfer Vehicle for the NRO. Built by SpaceDev.

mu.....Μ, μ, mu, 12, Greek Alphabet.

Mu.....Japan, launch vehicle. 4 stage launcher developed by the Space and Astronautical Sciences (ISAS) University of Tokyo, Japan, follow on to the Lambda 4S launcher. Also known as M.

- Mu-3C, 220 lbs (100 kg), LEO. Stage 0 strap-ons 8 SB-310 engines. Stage 1 M-10 engine. Stage 2, M-22-TVC engine. Stage 3, M-3A engine. Ffirst launch 1974/09/16.

- Mu-3H, 440 lbs (200 kg), LEO. Stage 0 strap-on 8 SB-310. Stage 1, M-13 engine. Stage 2, M-22-TVE rocket motor. Stage 3, M-3A. First launch 1977/02/19.

- Mu-3S, 660 lbs (300 kg) LEO. Stage 0, strap-on 8 SB-310 rocket motors. Stage 1, M-13-TVC engine. Stage 2, M-22-TVC rocket engine. Stage 3, M-3A rocket motor. First launch 1980/02/17.

- Mu-3S-II, 1720 lbs (780 kg) LEO. Stage 0, 2 starp-on booster, SB-735. Stage 1, M-13. Stage 2, M-23. Stage 3, M-3B. Stage 4, KM-P or KM-D or KM-M. first launch 1985/01/07

- Mu-4S, 400 lbs (180 kg), LEO. Stage 0, strap-on 2 SB-310 solid fuel motors. Stage 1 M-10 engines. Stage 2 M-20 engines. Stage 3, M-30 engines. Stage 4 M-40 engines. Ffirst launch 1970/02/11

- Mu-5, 4300 lbs (1950 kg) LEO. Stage 1, M-14 motor. Stage 2, M-25 motor. Stage 3, M-34 Motor. Stage 4, KM-V1 motor. First launch 1997/02/12.

First launch 1970/02/11


Mu-3C.....Japan, launch vehicle, see Mu.

Mu-3H.....Japan, launch vehicle, see Mu.

Mu-3S.....Japan, launch vehicle, see Mu.

Mu-4S.....Japan, launch vehicle, see Mu.

Mu-5.....Japan, launch vehicle, see Mu.

MUBLCOM.....U.S., Army, satellite, communications, LEO. MULTIPLE BEAM BEYOND LINE-OF-SITE COMMUNICATIONS. First launch 1999/05/18

Muchea tracking station.....Australia/USA, Muchea, organization, location of NASA tracking station No. 8 operated by Australian staff. Closed in 1963.

Mugunghwa.....Korea, flower Sharon's Rose.

MUGUNGHWA.....Korea, satellite, GEO.First launch 1995/07/10

Mukai, Chiaki.....Japan, astronaut, STS-095, 1998/10/29. First launch 1998/10/29

MULABSAT.....Japan, satellite, technology, microsatellite, LEO. First launch 2002/12/14

Mullane, Richard.....U.S., astronaut, STS-41D (12), 1984/08/30, STS-27, 1988/12/02, STS-36, 1990/02/28. First launch 1984/08/30

Mullinix DD 944.....USS Mullinix DD 944, recovery ship, part of the fleet which recovered or was on duty and capable of recovering the following: GEMINI 3.

MULTI-BODY VISITORS.....U.S., NASA, satellites, scientific. Placed in orbit around Sun to make 2-3 comet encounters or 4-5 asteroid encounters.


MULTIMEDIA ASIA.....Indonesia, satellite, See M2A.




MULTIPURPOSE LOGISTICS MODULE.....Multi country, satellite, space station, ISSA. Also known as MPLM, MULTIPURPOSE LOGISTICS MODULE.


MUNIN.....Sweden, satellite, nanosatellite, satellite, scientific, LEO SSO. First launch 2000/11/21

MUOS.....U.S., satellite, telecommunications, military, GEO. MOBLE USER OBJECTIVE SYSTEM. Replacement of UFO’s. First launch 2010/00/00

MURAL.....U.S., satellite. Designation for Keyhole-4 (KH-4) camera.

Musabaev, Talgat.....Russia, cosmonaut, SOYUZ TM 19, 1994/07/01, SOYUZ TM 27, 1998/01/31, SOYUZ TM 32, 2001/4/28. First launch 1994/07/01

MUSAT.....Argentina, satellite, microsatellite, Earth resource. Launched at Plesetsk by Molniya. Also known as VICTOR. Multiple launch with MAGION 5 and INTERBALL 2. First launch 1996/08/29

MUSES.....Japan, ISAS, satellite, scientific, HEO. MUSES-A, HALCA or HITEN, a small lunar probe, was launched into Earth orbit on January 24, 1990. MU SPACE ENGINEERING SPACECRAFT. The spacecraft was then known as MUSES-A, but was renamed to HITEN once in orbit. The 430 lb probe looped out from Earth and made its first lunar flyby on March 19, where it dropped off its 26 lb midget satellite, HAGOROMO. Japan at this point became the third nation to orbit a satellite around the Moon, joining the Unites States and USSR. The smaller spacecraft, HAGOROMO, remained in orbit around the Moon. An apparently broken transistor radio caused the Japanese space scientists to lose track of it. HAGOROMO's rocket motor fired on schedule on March 19, but the spacecraft's tracking transmitter failed immediately. The rocket firing of HAGOROMO was optically confirmed using the Schmidt camera (105-cm, F3.1) at the Kiso Observatory in Japan. HITEN made multiple lunar flybys at approximately monthly intervals and performed aero-braking experiments using the Earth's atmosphere. HITEN made a close approach to the moon at 22:33 JST (UTC+9h) on February 15, 1992 at the height of 423 km from the moon's surface (35.3N, 9.7E) and fired its propulsion system for about ten minutes to put the craft into lunar orbit. The following is the orbital calculation results after the approach: Apoapsis Altitude: about 49,400 km Periapsis Altitude: about 9,600 km Inclination : 34.7 deg (to ecliptic plane) Period : 4.7 days.

- MUSES-B worlds first radio telescope, creating a very long baseline interferometry.

- MUSES-A, 1990/01/24, Kagoshima, Mu-3S-II, HITEN.

- MUSES-B, 1997/02/12, Kagoshima, M-5, HEO, HALCA, HARUKA or HARUCA.

- MUSES-C, 2003/05/10, Near Earth asteroid 4660 Nereus, arrive 2005/10/00 and return samples to Earth 2006/01/00.

- MUSES-CN, microrover (provided by U.S. NASA/JPL) was to be carried MUSES-C, but cancelled.

First launch 1990/01/24

Musgrave, Story.....U.S., astronaut, STS-6, 1983/04/04, STS-51F (19), 1985/07/29, STS-33, 1989/11/22, STS-44, 1991/11/24, STS-61, 1993/12/02, STS-80, 1996/11/19. First launch 1983/04/04

musson.....Russia, monsoon.

MUSSON.....Russia, satellite, geodetic. Mappers that provide measurements of variations in Earth's gravitational field. First launch 1981/01/23

MUSU.....North Korea, space vehicle launch facility, see Musudan-ri, Hwadae-gun, Hamgyong Pukdo, Choson, (N Korea). 40.5o N 129.5o E. First launch 1998/08/31

Musudan-ri.....North Korea, space vehicle launch facility, see MUSU.

Mutch.....U.S. Smithsonian Institution takes ownership of the VIKING LANDER 1 (VL1) and renamed it the Thomas A. Mutch Memorial Station, in memory of the VIKING LANDER Imaging Team Leader. 1984/05/08

Mutch.....Thomas Mutch, 1931-1980, Viking Mars scientist.

MV.....Russia, satellite, see VENERA.

MVM 73.....U.S., satellite, MARINER VENUS MERCURY 73 - also known as MARINER 10 mission.

MX.....U.S. Project identification used by U.S. Army, and later by the U.S. Air Force in the 1940's and 1950's. Material Experimental.

MX-896.....U.S. DoD project designation for Nitromethane-fueled rocket engine. See also MX.

MX-899.....U.S. DoD project designation for Nitric acid/hydrocarbon rocket engine. See also MX.

MX-903.....U.S. DoD project designation for Liquid oxygen/alcohol rocket engine. See also MX.

MX-1593.....U.S., DoD Designation, program, starated in 1951, awarded to Consolidated Vultee. Based upon MX-774. Resulted in missile XB-65, which became the Atlas Launch Vehicle B-65, SM-65. Used the Navaho boost missile rocket engines, modified to burn RP-1, vs the Navaho’s Alcohol. Reduction in the size of nuclear warheads resulted in a smaller Atlas vehicle which required a smaller sustainer engine. Consolidated Vultee became part of General Dynamics in 1954.

MX-1733.....U.S. DoD project designation for the Rocket engine XLR13-AJ-9. See also MX.

MX-2226.....U.S. DoD project designation for the Reconnaissance satellite system WS-117L. See also MX.

MX-770.....U.S.,DoD Designation, study, intercontinental guided missiles, 1946-7. Awarded to North American Aviation, NAA, resulted in the Navaho Missile.

MX-774.....U.S.,DoD Designation, study, intercontinental guided missiles, 1946-7. Awarded to Consolidated Vultee. Resulted in the HIROC (High Altitude Rocket). Follow on contract MX-1593, resulted in the Atlas Launch Vehicle.

MX-774.....U.S., launch vehicle, Atlas development. First launch 1948/00/00

MX-775.....U.S., DoD Designation, study, intercontinental guided missiles, 1946-7. Awarded to Northrop. Resulted in the Snark Curse Missile.

Myasischev Experimental Plant.....Russia, organization. See MPO Molniya

MYLAR SPHERE.....U.S., satellite, communications, passive. First launch 1971/08/07

Myojo.....Japan, Venus.

MYOJO.....Japan, satellite. See VEP.

Myriade.....Europe CNES, satellite bus, see Myriado.

Myriade.....Europe, CNES, satellite bus.

Myriado.....Europe CNES and EADS/Astrium, satellite bus.

MZ.....Russia, organization. Machine building plants.

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Updated 2007/2/01