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N


N.....U.S. launch vehicle.

- N-I, 3 Stage satellite launcher derived from U.S. Thor Delta. Capable of placing 2,600 lbs (1,200 kg) in LEO. Developed by the National Space Development Agency of Japan. Stage 0, 3 Castor II motors. Stage 1, Long Tank Thor, MB-3 engine. Stage 2, SSPS, LE-3 engine. Stage 3, TE-M-364-14. First launch 1975/09/09

- N-II, 3 Stage satellite launcher derived from the Thor Delta with 9 Castor II solid strap-ons. Capable of placing 4,400 lbs ( 2,000 kg) into LEO. Developed by the National Space Development Agency of Japan. Stage 0, 9 Castor II motors. Stage 1, MB-3 engine. Stage 2, SSPS with AJ10-118F engine. Stage 3, TE-M-364-14 motor. First launch 1981/02/11.

Also known as N-1, N-2.

First launch 1975/09/09

N.....Newton, unit of force = 1 kgm/s2 = 0.2248 pound-force.

N AF.....Orbital elements, see F & G Elements.

N.Y. County LST 1175.....USS N.Y. County LST 1175, recovery ship, part of the fleet which recovered or was on duty and capable of recovering the following: APOLLO 4, APOLLO 6.

N'Koltang.....Gabon, organization. French, name of tracking station in Gabon near Libreville and Brazzaville, Africa, used for Ariane Launches at Kourou, Guiana.

N-1.....Russia, launch vehicle. Intended to place a cosmonaut on the Moon. Also known as 11A52, G-1-e, SL-15. Capable of placing 220,000 lbs (100,000 kg) into LEO. Dummy spacecraft L-1. Stage 1, 30 engines. Stage 2, 8 engines. Stage 3, 4 engines. Stage 4 1 engine. Stage 5, 1 engine. All used liquid propellant liquid propellant LOX/RP-1. Also known as Webbs Giant, TT-5, and Lenin.

- 1969/02/21, Tyuratam, FTO.

- 1969/07/03, Tyuratam, FTO.

- 1970/06/24, Tyuratam, FTO.

- 1972/11/22, Tyuratam, FTO.

First launch 1969/02/21

N-1.....Japan, launch vehicle. See N-I

N-2.....Japan, launch vehicle. See N-II

N-4.....Russia, satellite, see PROTON.

N-I.....Japan, launch vehicle. See N, Japan, Launch Vehicle.

N-II.....Japan, launch vehicle. See N, Japan, Launch Vehicle.

N-POESS.....U.S. NASA, DOE and NOAA, satellite, meteorological, LEO SSO Polar. NATIONAL POLAR-ORBITING ENVIRONMENTAL SATELLITE SYSTEM. Replacement for DMSP and POES. First launch 2009/00/00

N-ROSS.....U.S. Navy, satellite, oceanographic. First launch ?

N-SAT.....Japan, satellite, communications. First launch 2000/10/06

N-STAR.....Japan, satellite, communications and telephone.

- N-STAR A, 1995/08/29, Kourou, Ariane 44P V 77, GEO.

- N-STAR B, 1996/02/05, Kourou, Ariane 44P V 83.

First launch 1995/08/29

N1.....Russia, launch vehicle. See N-1

N2O4.....Launch vehicle liquid propellant, liquid, see Nitrogen Textroxide.

NA.....Launch vehicle motor, North American Rockwell Corp. (Rocketdyne).

Nabu.....Mesopotamia, Mercury god.

NACA.....U.S. organization. National Advisory Committee for Aeronautics, precursor to NASA.

NaClO4.....Launch vehicle propellant, solid, oxidizer, Sodium Perchlorate.

NADEZDA.....Russia, satellite, see NADEZHDA.

nadezhda.....Russia, hope.

NADEZHDA.....Russia, civil navigation satellite, LEO SSO. Earlier designator were -several of the Kosmos satellites. Also known as 17F118, TSIKADA, TSIKADA-KOSPAS, NADEZDA, or COSMOS.

- NADEZHDA 01, 1989/07/04, Plesetsk, SL-8, LEO.

- NADEZHDA 02, 1990/02/27, Plesetsk, SL-8, LEO.

- NADEZHDA 03, 1991/03/12, Plesetsk, SL-8, LEO.

- NADEZHDA 04, 1994/07/14, Plesetsk, SL-8, LEO.

- NADEZHDA, 1998/12/10, Kosmos 3.

First launch 1989/07/04

nadir.....Orbit component. The point in the celestial sky opposite the zenith. For satellites, the arbitrarily defined down position pointing toward the center of the body the satellite is orbiting.

Nagel, Steven.....U.S., astronaut, STS-51G (18), 1985/06/17, STS-61A (22), 1985/10/30, STS-37, 1991/04/05, STS-55, 1993/04/26. First launch 1985/06/17

nahuel.....Tiger.

NAHUEL.....Argentina, satellite, telecommunications. Launched at Kourou by Ariane 44L V 93. First launch 1997/01/30

NahuelSat SA.....Argentina, company, commercial satellite operator, NAHEUL. Bouchard 680, 12th Floor, C1106ABJ, Buenos Aires, Argentina. www.nahuelsat.com.ar.

Nahui Ollin.....Aztec, sun god.

Naiad.....Neptune moon, one of 8. See Triton, Naiad, Thalassa, Nereid, Despina, Galatea, Larissa, Proteus.

Naito-Mukai, Chiaki.....Japan, astronaut, STS-65, 1994/07/08. First launch 1994/07/08

name of country.....nom de pays (Fr),, landesname (D).

Nanning tracking station.....China, organization, tracking station located in Guanxi province. See Xian Satellite Monitor and Control Center.

NANOSAT.....Spain, satellite, communication, LEO. 2004/12/18

NANOSAT CONSTELLATION TRAILBLAZER.....U.S. NASA, satellite, technology, LEO. 3 satellite constellation. Microsatellite technology development formation flying of small satellites. Also known as NCT. Part of New Millennium Program. First launch 2003/00/00

nanosatellite.....Satellite, weight 2.2 - 22 lbs (1-10 kg)

Nantahala AO 60.....USS Nantahala AO 60, recovery ship, part of the fleet which recovered or was on duty and capable of recovering the following: MERCURY Atlas 9.

NARVAD.....Russia, satellite, see 14F10.

NASA.....U.S., organization. See National Aeronautics & Space Administration, U.S.

NASA A-15.....U.S., satellite, see SURCAL 1.

NASA/ASI.....Italy, satellite, tethered. Launched at KSC by STS 46, Atlanits. First launch 1992/07/31

NASA Centers.....U.S., organization. The twelve major National Aeronautics & Space Administration Centers are:

- Ames Research Center (ARC).

- Dryden Flight Research Center (DFRC).

- John H. Glenn Research Center.

- Goddard Space Flight Center (GSFC).

- Jet Propulsion Laboratory (JPL).

- Lyndon B. Johnson Space Center (JSC).

- Kennedy Space Center (KSC).

- Langley Research Center (LaRC).

- George C. Marshall Space Flight Center (MSFC).

- John C. Stennis Space Center (SSC).

- Wallops Flight Facility (WFF).

- White Sands Test Facility (WSTF).

NASA Glenn Research Center.....U.S., organization. See the John H. Glenn Research Center.

NASA Michoud Assemble Facility.....U.S., organization. NASA Michoud Assembly Facility, PO Box 29300, New Orleans, LA 70129.

NASA Network.....U.S., organization. NASA Communications stations. During the 1960's, NASA had 5 Types: Manned Flight, Deep Space, STADAN (Space Tracking & Data Acquisition Network for unmanned scientific satellites), ATS (Applications Technology Satellites), and Sounding rockets.. The number of each type varied over time.

NASA P.....U.S., satellite, see RANGER.

NASA S.....U.S., satellite, see EXPLORER.

NASA Western Operations Support Office.....U.S., organization. NASA, Western Operations Support Office, (WOSO) PO Box 425, Lompoc, CA 93436.

NASA WLOD.....U.S., organization. See KSC WLOD.

NASCOM.....U.S. organization. NASA Communications Network. Hub was Goddard Space Flight Center, Greenbelt, MD. U.S.

NASDA.....Japan, organization. National Space Development Agency. Similar to NASA. Shinji Nio, Public Relations Office, 2-4-1, Hamamatsu-cho, Minato-Ku, Tokyo, 105, Japan.www.NASDA.go.jp Responsible for development of a launch vehicles, promotion remote sensing technology and space experiments.

- Tsukuba Space Center, which is part of NASDA, is a science city and mission control.

- Tanegashima Range, was Osaki Site, includes the Tanegashima launch site, and Yoshinuba complex. Now part of JAXA. See also ISAS,

Established 1969/10/01.

Natal.....Brazil, organization. ESA, Tracking station.

National Aeronautics and Space Administration (NASA).....U.S., organization. Civilian Space Agency created by Congress. Founded in 1958, National Aeronautics and Space Administration (NASA) belongs to the executive branch of the Federal Government.

       NASA's mission to plan, direct, and conduct aeronautical and space activities is implemented by NASA Headquarters in Washington, D.C., and by ten major centers spread throughout the United States. Dozens of smaller facilities, from tracking antennas to Space Shuttle landing strips to telescopes are located around the world. The agency administers and maintains these facilities, builds and operates launch pads, trains astronauts, designs aircraft and spacecraft, and sends satellites into Earth orbit and beyond, and processes, analyzes, and distributes the resulting data and information. See NASA Centers.

       NASA shares responsibility for aviation and space activities with other federal agencies, including the Departments of Commerce, Transportation, and Defense. Much of the work on major projects such as the Space Shuttle and the Space Station is done in the private sector by aerospace companies under government contract.

       From its inception, NASA has been directed to pursue the expansion of human knowledge of phenomena in the atmosphere and space. NASA's programs of basic and applied research extend from microscopic sub-atomic particles to galactic astronomy. In addition to enhancing scientific knowledge, thousands of the technologies developed for aerospace have resulted in commercial applications.

       Science offices at NASA Headquarters carry out a wide range of research activities to fulfill NASA's science goals. Science offices within NASA are:

       Office of Mission to Planet Earth (MTPE) focuses on the "home planet" as a dynamic system of land, ocean, atmosphere, and life that can be investigated on a global scale from space using remote-sensing tools.

       Office of Life and Microgravity Sciences and Applications explores the basic physics of how solids, liquids, and gases behave in space; seeks an understanding of the basic mechanisms that underlie space adaptation-developing more effective countermeasures to mitigate the physiological effects of space flight; and studies the role of gravity on life.

       Office of Space Science includes the Space Physics and Astrophysics Division which studies the entire universe of stars and galaxies, including the sun. The Solar System Exploration division has launched spacecraft to all the known planets except Pluto in its quest to study the solar system.

National Aerospace Laboratory.....U.S., organization. See NLR

National Oceanographic and Atmospheric Administration.....U.S., organization. National Oceanographic and Atmospheric Administration (NOAA) was established in 1970 within the U.S. Department of Commerce to ensure the safety of the general public from atmospheric phenomena and to provide the public with an understanding of the Earth's environment and resources. NOAA includes: the National Ocean Service which charts the oceans and waters of the U.S. and manages 265,000 acres of estuarine reserves; the National Marine Fisheries Service which maintains the world's largest and most complex marine fisheries management system; the NOAA Corps which operates 18 NOAA research and survey ships and flies 15 NOAA aircraft; and the Office of Oceanic and Atmospheric Research which supports experiments, laboratories, and the National Sea Grant College Program, among other efforts. NOAA has two main components: the National Weather Service (NWS), and the National Environmental Satellite, Data, and Information Service (NESDIS).

       The National Weather Service provides weather watch and warning services to the public through 57 Weather Service Forecast Offices (WSFO) and over 10O smaller local Weather Service Offices (WSOs) nationwide. Three national forecasting centers provide general and specialized guidance to WSFOs using computer forecast models, satellite data, and conventional surface and upper air observations from around the world.

National Reconnaissance Office.....U.S., organization. See NRO

National Space Development Agency.....Japan, organization. See NASDA

National Space Program Office.....Republic of China, Taiwan, organization. In October 1991, the National Space Program Office was formally established as the implementing agency of the country's Fifteen-Year Space Program. Among its goals are to utilize the development of the infrastructure and the capability of integrating large-scale high-tech systems as a solid foundation for the Republic of China's space technology development. and to create needed resources for competition in the national market place for space technology and related industries in the future. Address, NSPO, 8F, 9 Prosperity 1st Road. Science-Based, Industrial Park, Hsin-Chu City, Taiwan, R.O.C. Tel: 886-3-578-4208 Fax: 886-3-578-4210.

NATIONAL POLAR-ORBITING ENVIRONMENTAL SATELLITE SYSTEM.....U.S., satellite, also known as NPOESS or N-POESS.

NATO.....U.S., satellite, communications. Provide communication between the NORTH ATLANTIC TREATY ORGANIZATION HQ in Brussels and NATO Member counties. Satellites were known as - NATOSAT prior to 1971.

- NATO 01, 1970/03/20, ETR, TAT Delta, GEO.

- NATO 02, 1971/02/03, ETR, TAT Delta, GEO.

- NATO 03A, 1976/04/22, ETR, Delta, GEO.

- NATO 03B, 1977/01/28, ETR, Delta, GEO.

- NATO 03C, 1978/11/19, ETR, Delta, GEO.

- NATO 03D, 1984/11/14, ESMC, Delta, GEO.

- NATO 04A, 1991/01/08, ESMC, Delta 2, GEO.

- NATO 04B, 1993/12/08, ESMC, Delta 2, GEO.

First launch 1970/03/20

NATO Designation.....The NATO designation for Russian (Soviet) surface-to-surface missiles use nouns beginning with S. See Russia Launch Vehicle Designation.

NATOSAT.....U.S., satellites. See NATO.

NATURE.....Russia, satellite. See PRIRODA and MIR.

nauka.....Russia, science.

NAUKA.....Russia, satellite, Earth, magnetosphere. Also known as 31KS

NAUKA-2, also known as 32KS.

Navaho.....U.S., launch vehicle, cruse missile, XSM-64, WS-104A. Stage 1, XLR43-NA-1 rocket engine, liquid propellant LOX/Alcohol. Stage 2, X-10, used 2 J-40-1 Ram Jet engines. Stage 1 engine was basis for the Redstone, Jupiter, Thor and Atlas missile engines. First launch 1956/11/06

Naval Ordnance Test Station.....U.S., organization. See NOTS.

NAVAL NAVIGATION SATELLITE-OSCAR.....U.S. Navy, satellite, see OSCAR.

NAVAL ORDNANCE TEST STATION.....U.S., satellite. See NOTS.

navette.....French for shuttle.

navigation satellite.....A satellite used to aid in navigation, e.g. First navigation satellite was TRANSIT.

Navigation.....Fixing a trajectory so that a craft can reach its destination. See also guidance.

NAVIGATION BEACON.....U.S., satellite, see TRANSIT 1-B First launch 1960/04/13

NAVIGATION SYSTEM USING TIME AND RANGING.....U.S., satellite. See NAVSTAR or GLOBAL POSITION SATELLITE.

NAVIGATION TECHNOLOGY SATELLITE.....U.S., satellite. See NTS.

NAVIGATIONAL DEVELOPMENT SATELLITE.....U.S., satellite. See GLOBAL POSITIONING SYSTEM.

NAVSAT.....U.S., satellite. See TRANSIT.

NAVSAT.....ESA, satellite, navigation. Equivalent to U.S. GPS.

NAVSPASUR ROD.....U.S., Navy, satellite. Also known as LONG ROD. First launch 1965/08/13

NAVSTAR.....U.S., satellite. see GLOBAL POSITIONING SATELLITE (GPS).

NAVY OCEAN SURVEILLANCE SATELLITE.....U.S., satellite. See NOSS.

NAXING.....China, satellite, nanosatellite, technology demonstration, LEO Polar. Naxing is a contraction of Nami Weixing or nanosatellite. First launch 2004/04/18

NB20.....U.S., satellite, part of OV1 series. First launch 1966/03/30

NC.....Launch vehicle motor, Northrop Carolina Corp.

NC.....Launch vehicle propellant, solid, double base, see Nitrocellulose.

NCT.....U.S., NASA, satellite, see NANOSAT CONSTELLATION TRAILBLAZER.

NCUBE.....Norway, satellite, technology, picosatellite that is a cubesat. First launch 2006/07/26

NDS.....U.S. satellite, navigation. NAVIGATIONAL DEVELOPMENT SATELLITE (NAVSTAR 1). See GLOBAL POSITION SATELLITE. First launch WTR 1978/02/22

NEAP.....U.S. Satellite, scientific, heliocentric. NEAR EARTH ASTEROID PROSPECTOR. First launch

NEAR.....U.S. NASA/APL satellite, scientific, multi planetary, also known as DISCOVERY 1. Discovery-class mission for a NEAR-EARTH ASTEROID RENDEZVOUS in 1998. NEAR will orbit Eros for at least one year to conduct the first comprehensive measurements of an asteroid's mass, structure, geology, mineral composition, and gravity and magnetic fields. Satellite will fly by 253 Mathilde on 1997/06/27, which is the main asteroid between Mars and Jupiter. NEAR will return to the vicinity of earth 1998/01/00 for a slingshot gravity assist to 433 Eros. It will begin observing Eros in 1999/02/06 Built by Johns Hopkins University's Applied Physics Laboratory (APL). Part of NASA's Discovery low cost planetary mission satellite program. Launched at the ETR by a Delta 2. First launch 1996/02/17

NEAR EARTH ASTEROID RENDEZVOUS.....U.S., satellite. See NEAR.

NEAR EARTH ASTEROID PROSPECTOR.....U.S., satellite. See NEAP.

NEAR FIELD INFRARED EXPERIMENT.....U.S., satellite, see NFIRE.

Nelson, Bill.....U.S., astronaut, STS-061C, 1986/01/12. First launch 1986/01/12

Nelson, George.....U.S., astronaut, STS-41C (11), 1984/04/06, STS-61C (24), 1986/01/12, STS-26, 1988/09/29. First launch 1984/04/06

NEMAN.....Russia, satellite, photo reconnaissance. Also known as YANTAR-4KS1 or 17F117.

NEMO.....U.S., NRL, satellite, remote sensing. NAVAL EARTHMAP OBSERVER. First launch 2002/00/00

Neosho AO 143.....USS Neosho AO 143, recovery ship, part of the fleet which recovered or was on duty and capable of recovering the following: GEMINI 5.

Neptune.....The 8th planet from the Sun, 2,799 million miles from the Sun, period of revolution 164.8 years, diameter 30,700 miles, 8 satellites (See Triton, Naiad, Thalassa, Nered Despina, Galatea, Larissa, Proteus. ), 5 rings.

neptune.gifFigure 36 Neptune graphic symbol.

Neptune orbit.....Orbit around the planet Neptune.

Nereid.....Neptune moon, one of 8. See Triton, Naiad, Thalassa, Nereid, Despina, Galatea, Larissa, Proteus.

Nergal.....Mesopotamian, Mars god.

Neri-Vela, Rodolfo.....Mexico, astronaut, STS-61B (23), 1985/11/26. First launch 1985/11/26

NERVA.....U.S., satellite. See RFD.

Netherlands.....Member of ESA.

NETSAT.....U.S., satellite, broadband communications, GEO. First launch 2002/00/00

Nevel.....Russia, tracking ship. See also tracking ships.

New DD 818.....USS New DD 818, recovery ship, part of the fleet which recovered or was on duty and capable of recovering the following: GEMINI 5, APOLLO 11, APOLLO 13.

New Orleans.....USS New Orleans, LPH 11, prime recovery ship for APOLLO 14, Skylab 4, APOLLO-Soyuz.

New Skies Satellites, N.V......Netherlands, company, commercial satellite operator, NSS. Spin off from Intelsat in 1998. Rosseveltplantsoen 4, 2517 KR The Hague, The Netherlands. www.newskies.com.

NEW FRONTIERS.....U.S., satellite, scientific. First launch 2007/00/00

NEW HORIZONS.....U.S., satellite, scientific, explore the planet Pluto, solar system escape orbit. The satellite will reach speeds of 36,000 mph (61,000 km/h) provided by the Atlas launch vehicle. Developed by APL. The satellite weighs 1024 lbs (465 kg). Also caries part of Spaceshipone, 430,000 names fo space enthusiasts, material commemorating Clyde Tombeugh (Discovered Pluto). The satellite will arrive at Pluto in 2015 for a flyby. First launch 2006/01/19

NEW MILLENIUM.....U.S. satellite, scientific. See EO.

NEW SKIES SATELLITE.....U.S., satellite, communications, GEO. 6 satellite constellation. NEW SKIES SATELLITE. Also known as NSS. First launch 2002/04/16

Newman, James.....U.S., astronaut, STS-51, 1993/09/12, STS-69, 1995/09/07, STS-088, 1998/12/06, STS-109, 2002/03/01. First launch 1993/09/12

Newton.....Unit of force, Newton [kgm/t2], unit of force = 1 kgm/s2 = 0.2248 pound-force.

NEWTON.....Europe, ESA, satellite, see XMM.

Newton's law of universal gravitation.....Orbit. All bodies attract each other with what is called gravitational attraction. This applies to the largest stars as well as the smallest particles of matter The force of attraction between two small bodies (or between two spherical bodies of any size) is proportional to the product of their masses and inversely proportional to the square of the distance between their centers. In other words, the closer two bodies are to each other; the greater their mutual attraction. As a result, to stay in orbit, a satellite needs more speed in a low than a high orbit.


Newton's law of universal gravitation

Fg = (GM1M2)/R2

Fg = force due to gravity,

= [kgm/s2] or [N-m2/kg2]

G = universal gravitational constant, [m3/kgs2] or [N-m2/kg2]

M1, M2 = masses of the two bodies, [kg]

R = distance between the two bodies, [m]

       Kepler's three laws of planetary motion, which had been derived empirically by Johannes Kepler; were obtained with mathematical rigor as a consequence of Newton's law of universal gravitation in conjunction with his three laws of motion. See Kepler's three laws or motion.

Newton's laws of motion.....Newton's three laws of motion are which describes orbits:

       1. Every body continues in a state of uniform motion in a straight line unless acted upon by some external force. Introduces momentum with is the resistance of an object to a change in speed or direction, be it linear of angular.

Newton's 1st law of motion

p = MV

p = linear momentum

= [kgm/s]

M = mass [kg]

V = velocity [m/s]

Newton's 1st law of motion, in vector notation

p = MV

p = linear momentum vector

= [kgm/s]

M = mass [kg]

V = velocity vector [m/s]

Newton's 1st law of motion, For angular momentum;

H = IΛ

H = angular momentum vector

= [kgm2/s]

I = moment of intertia [kgm2]

Λ = angular velocity vector

= [rad/s]

Newton's 1st law of motion, for a moment arm

H = RMV

H = angular momentum vector

= [kgm2/s]

R = moment arm [m]

V = velocity vector [m/s]

M = mass. [kg]

       2. The time rate of change of momentum (mass x velocity) is proportional to the impressed force. In the usual case where the mass does not change, this law can be expressed in the familiar form:

       force = mass x acceleration = thrust.

Newton's 2nd law of motion

F = Ma

F = force [N]

M = mass [kg]

a = acceleration [m/s2}

Newton's 2nd law of motion in vector notation

F = (∂MV)/∂T

F = force vector [N]

M = mass [kg]

V = velocity vector [m/s]

T = time [s]

       3. To every force or action, there is always an equal and opposite reaction.

       Kepler's three laws of planetary motion, which had been derived empirically by Johannes Kepler; were obtained with mathematical rigor as a consequence of Newton's law of universal gravitation in conjunction with his three laws of motion. See Kepler's three laws of motion.

NEXT GENERATION SPACE TELESCOPE.....U.S., NASA, satellite, see JWST.

NEXTSAT.....U.S. DARPA, satellite, technology, LEO. Part of 2 satellite system to test satellite refueling in space. Other satellite is ASTRO. First launch 2005/00/00

NFIRE.....U.S., satellite, technology, missile defense, built by Spectrum Astro. NEAR FIELD INFRARED EXPERIMENT. Caries infrared sensors and releasable kill vehicles. First launch 2007/00/00

NG.....Launch vehicle propellant, solid, double base, see Nitroglycerin.

NGST.....U.S., NASA, satellite, scientific. See JWST. Renamed the JAMES WEBB TELESCOPE.

NH2OH+NO3.....Launch vehicle propellant liquid, mono propellant, Hydroxyl ammonium nitrate, or HAN.

NH4ClO4.....Launch vehicle propellant, solid, oxidizer, Ammonium perchlorate. Also known as AP.

NH4N4O4 .....Launch vehicle propellant, solid, oxidizer Ammonium dinitramine.

NH4NO3.....Launch vehicle propellant, solid, oxidizer, Ammonium chlorate. Also known as AN.

Nicholas DD 449.....USS Nicholas DD 449, recovery ship, part of the fleet which recovered or was on duty and capable of recovering the following: APOLLO 8, APOLLO 9.

Nicoller, Claude.....Switzerland, ESA, astronaut, STS-46, 1992/07/31, STS-61, 1993/12/02, STS-75, 1996/02/22, STS-103, 1999/12/19. First launch 1992/07/31

Nidaba.....Sumerian, Mercury goddess.

NIGERIASAT.....Nigeria, satellite, monitoring disaster, SSO. Constellation of 3 satellites, including UK-DMC, and BILSAT-1. First launch 2003/09/27

NIGHT PROBE.....U.S., satellite, scientific, PIONEER VENUS 2 probes launched into the plane Venus atmospheres. Other probes include, SOUNDER PROBE, NORTH PROBE, DAY PROBE, NIGHT PROBE.

NII.....Russia, organization. Scientific Research Institutes, Nauchno-issledovatelskiy Institut.(Aviation Week 2001/1/14 Created 1958/00/00.

NII-1 Dept.....Russia, Poblipki, Kaliningrad, Korolev, organization. See OKB-2.

NII-627.....Russia, Moscow, organization. Scientific Research Institute (1944 to 1953). Became VNII ElectroMikhaniki (1953 - 1992/11), NPP VNII ElectroMikhaniki 1992/11 to present). Mission, Remote sensing satellites, meteorological satellites, satellite components.

NIIP-5.....Kazakhstan, space vehicle launch facility, see Baikonur, Cosmodrom.

NIIP-53.....Russia, space vehicle launch facility, see Plesetsk Cosmodrom.

NIIR.....Russia, organization, see State Scientific and Research Institute of Radio.

Nike.....U.S., rocket, solid propellant first stage rocket. Was an adopted from the Nike anti-aircraft missile developed around 1945.

Nike-Apache.....U.S., rocket, upper atmosphere geophysics. First launch 1961/00/00

Nike-Asp.....U.S., rocket, upper air geophysics. First launch 1958/00/00

Nike-Cajun.....U.S., rocket, upper atmosphere geophysics. First launch 1956/00/00

Nike-Deacon.....U.S., rocket, upper atmosphere geophysics. First launch 1955/00/00

Nike-Smoke.....U.S., rocket, smoke trails for upper atmosphere wind. First launch 1959/00/00

Nike-Tomahawk.....U.S., rocket, upper atmosphere geophysics. First launch 1963/00/00

Nike-Zeus.....U.S. Anti missile, missile. Vandenberg. First launch 1962/07/19

Nikolaiev, Andrian.....Russia, cosmonaut. See Nikolyev.

Nikolayev, Andrian.....Russia, cosmonaut, VOSTOK 03 (FALCON), 1962/08/11, SOYUZ 9, 1983/6/27. First launch 1962/08/11

NILESAT.....Egypt, satellite, telecommunications.

First launch 1998/04/28

nimbus.....Latin for clouds.

NIMBUS.....U.S., satellite, meteorological. Originally was a weather forecasting program. Expanded to include scientific programs. 7 satellites were place in orbit between 1964 and 1978.

       Earth/atmospheric scientists, weather forecasters, the U.S. Weather Bureau and NASA, realizing the value of space-base observations of Earth, pushed for an improved TIROS. It would be named NIMBUS (Latin for rain cloud). But being an “improve TIROS” was not to be the fate of NIMBUS. The using community wanted more and better and higher resolution sensors, as yet undeveloped. So, in the early 1960's NIMBUS became NASA’s new technology test bed for Earth/atmospheric sensors. These new technologies would ultimately find their way onto newer satellites, e.g., ESSA, NOAA. 

       In general, the NIMBUS satellites carried sensors to measure the radiative properties of the Earth’s landmasses, oceans, and atmosphere. NIMBUS also carried instruments to improve surface mapping technologies, to develop new ground data processing techniques, to develop the capability to sense atmospheric variables in the vertical (soundings), and to develop improved satellite control.

       The first NIMBUS weighing in at 825 lbs. (376 kg), was launched on 28 August, 1964, from Vandenberg AFB, California, into a sun synchronous, polar orbit of 429 x 937 miles (686 x 1500 km) with a 98 minute period. The satellite carried:

- the Advanced Vidicon Camera System (AVCS) for higher resolution daylight coverage,

- the High Resolution Infrared Radiometer (HRIR) for nighttime and cloud-cover observation, and

- the Automatic Picture Transmission (APT) for delayed or direct readout to ground stations, which allowed pictures of local cloud conditions to be downloaded to inexpensive ground stations, i.e., special radios or fax machines.

The NIMBUS 1 satellites were much larger than TIROS, being 118 inches (3 meters) long, and 57 inches (1.4 meters) in diameter. When the solar cells were deployed, the satellite was 132 inches (4.4 meters) wide. NIMBUS 1 failed after one month in orbit. The only thing worse for the NIMBUS program was the failure of NIMBUS B, which was launched on 18 May, 1968, and crashed into the Pacific Ocean! (Hard to miss!) But part of NIMBUS B lived to fly again!

       The NIMBUS 2, was more successful, operating for more than two and one half years. The satellite carried and proved the value of:

- the AVCS, and

- both the new high and Medium Resolution Infrared Radiometer (MRIR) for improved nighttime cloud cover observation.

The radiometers were critical in providing data on the heat dynamics of the Earth’s atmosphere. This was essential for more accurate weather prediction. It also proved the value of a three axis stabilized satellite. The satellite did not revolve, rotate, or tumble in orbit, as earlier satellites did, thereby keeping the sensors pointed at the Earth at all times.

       The NIMBUS 3 was almost identical to NIMBUS B, and carried the same instrumentation as NIMBUS 2 plus the following:

- Infrared Inferometer Spectrometer (IRIS) to measure air pollution dispersion,

- a Satellite Infrared Spectrometer (SIRS) to measure water vapor and ozone dispersion in the atmosphere,

- Interrogation Recording and Location System (IRLS) to locate and identify transmissions from buoys, balloons and other small weather stations including the movement of an appropriately instrumented elk in Yellowstone National Park,

- an Image Dissector Camera (IDC) that replaced the AVCS, and

- a Monitor for Ultraviolet Solar Energy (MUSE).

NIMBUS 3 was the first U.S. satellite to measure day and night time temperature of the atmosphere at various altitudes. It also carried a SNAP-19 experimental radioactive isotope, Plutonium 238 powered electrical generator, which had been on the NIMBUS B, and recovered from the NIMBUS B crash site in the Pacific Ocean. The SNAP-19 provided supplemental power when NIMBUS solar cells were not illuminated by the sun. Previous satellites used batteries.

       NIMBUS 4 was similar to NIMBUS 3, but had the following added:

- A Backscatter Ultraviolet Spectrometer (BUS), which measured the UV scattered back into space from Earth, and

- a Temperature, Humidity and Infrared Radiometer (THIR), which measured the temperature, humidity and infrared properties, plus other instrumentation.

       NIMBUS 5 did not have the SNAP-19 power supply, but relied on batteries to provide the power when out of the sun’s light, and carried similar instrumentation to NIMBUS 4. NIMBUS 6 was similar to NIMBUS 5.

       NIMBUS 7, weighing in at 2171 lbs. (986 kgs), was launched on 24 October, 1987, into a circular 944 mile (1510 km) polar sun synchronous orbits, 104 minute period, and was similar to NIMBUS 5 plus it carried:

- the Total Ozone Mapping Spectrometer (TOMS), which mapped the Ozone hole and Sulfur dioxide (SO2) emission including those emanating from volcanos, and

- APT.

       The NIMBUS satellites grew from 830 lbs. to more than 2100 lbs. (377 to 954 kgs) to accommodate more instruments and equipment, and were all built by General Electric. The NIMBUS satellites were able to photograph 70% of the Earth each day and provided new technology and instrumentation for future ESSA, ITOS, TIROS N, and NOAA satellite.

First launch 1964/08/28

nimiq.....Inuit, unity.

NIMIQ.....Canada, satellite, direct broadcast. Also known as TESESAT DBS or NIMIK. First launch 1999/05/20

NINA.....Italy, satellite. See MITA

Ninurta.....Mesopotamian, Saturn god.

Nisaba.....Sumerian, Mercury goddess

Nissan M-5.....Japan, launch vehicle, was the MV. See M-5.

Nitric Acid.....Launch vehicle propellant, liquid, oxidizer. See HNO3.

Nitrocellulose.....Launch vehicle propellant, solid, double base, also known as Cellulose Nitrate. Chemical symbol C12H14(ONO2)6O4. Also known as NC.

Nitrogen Tetroxide.....Launch vehicle propellant, liquid, oxidizer. See N2O4. Also known as NTO.

Nitroglycerin.....Launch vehicle propellant, solid, double base, also known as glycerol trinitrate. Chemical symbol C3H5(ONO2)3. Also known as NG.

NK.....Russia, launch vehicle motor, series named for Nikolai Kuznetsov who developed the engins.

NK-15.....Russia, launch vehicle motor, NK Kuznetsov. Upgrated to NK-33 used on K-1.

NK-25.....Russia, launch vehicle motor, NK Kuznetsov. Upgrated to NK-43 used on K-1.

NK-33.....Russia, launch vehicle motor. Thrust 400,000 lbf (1760 kN), pressure psi ( bar). Upgraded from NK-15.

NK-43.....Russia, launch vehicle motor. Upgraded from NK-25.

NLR.....Netherlands, organization. National Aerospace Laboratory (National Lucht- en

Ruimtevaartlaboratorium),

NM.....Launch vehicle motor, Naval Missile center.

NMARS.....U.S., satellite, technology, US Naval Academy cubesats. Was MARSCOM . First launch 2006/12/21

NNS.....U.S., Navy, satellite, see TRANSIT. NAVAL NAGIVAGATION SATELLITE.

NNS-O.....U.S. Navy, satellite, NAVAL NAGIVAGATION SATELLITE OSCAR, see OSCAR.

NO10.....U.S., satellite, see NOAA J.

NO11.....U.S., satellite, see NOAA K.

Noa.....USS Noa DD-841, recovery ship, part of the fleet which recovered or was on duty and capable of recovering the following: GEMINI AGENA 6, GEMINI 8. Prime recovery ship for MERCURY-GLENN.

NOAA.....U.S., satellite, weather. Derived from the TIROS satellites. National Oceanographic and Atmospheric Administration, part of the U.S. Department of Commerce. Originally named ITOS. The satellite is given a letter designation until successfully in orbit, then it is given a number designation.

       Starting in the early 1970's, the weather satellites were being named NOAA. Depending on the documentation, the satellites could have the ITOS or NOAA designation, or both. In 1979, the designation for weather satellites under construction became NOAA, starting with NOAA A which became NOAA 6. The ITOS designation was not used after NOAA 5, ITOS H.

       The next big change came with NOAA 6, built by RCA, which was based upon the TIROS N experimental satellite. Its mission and those of all the future NOAA satellites, was to provide continuous coverage of Earth and provide high-resolution global meteorological data. The satellite was 74 inches (1.88 m) in diameter, 146 inches (3.7 m) long, and carried the following instrumentation:

- Advanced very high resolution radiometer (AVHRR) for measuring day and night sea surface temperature, ice, snow and cloud conditions,

- atmospheric sounding system (ASS), also known as (TOVS - TIROS Operational Vertical Sounder) which provided vertical profiles of temperature and water vapor from the Earth's surface to the top of the atmosphere. and

- space environmental monitor (SEM) to measure energetic particles from the sun for solar storm predictions.

- Data collection platform to receive, process, ans store information from free floating balloons and buoys worldwide for transmission to one central processing facility.

NOAA 6, weight was increased to 1600 lbs (750 kg)*, and required the use of a larger launch vehicle, the Atlas F. The orbit was lowered to 540 miles (800 km) and orbital period was 101 minutes. NOAA B and NOAA 7 were very similar to NOAA 6. NOAA b was unstable in orbit and never became operational.

       NOAA 8 size was increased to 166 inches (4.2 m) long ( diameter remained unchanged), and weight increased to 2000 lbs (900 kgs)*. Requiring the use of an Atlas E launch vehicle. NOAA 8 also carried the Search and Rescue Aided Tracking system (SARSAT), which has the capability of detect distress signals from aviators, mariners and land travelers within 4.5 to 9 miles (8 to 16 km). This system helped rescues by the U.S. Air Force and Coast Guard.

       NOAA 9 was similar to NOAA 8, but carried:

- Earth Radiation Budget Experiment (ERBE) which studied the Earth’s albedo in an attempt to recognize and interpret seasonal and annual climate variations.

- Solar Backscatter Ultraviolet (SBUV) which measured the vertical structure of ozone in the atmosphere.

       NOAA 10 was similar to NOAA 9 but did not carry the SBUV. NOAA 11 was similar to NOAA 9. NOAA 12 was similar to NOAA 8 but did not carry the SARSAT. NOAA 12 was the last satellite built by RCA, which would eventually be part of Lockheed Martin. NOAA 13 was similar to NOAA 9 but the weight was increased to 2200 lbs. Unfortunately , the satellite operated for only 12 days, when it lost power, and was never considered operational. NOAA 14 which continues to operate, was similar to NOAA 13.  

       NOAA 15 was an improvement over the TIROS N series (NOAA 6-14). The instrumentation incorporated improvements over that in NOAA 14, and had additional instrumentation for the generation of temperature, moisture and surface hydrological products including regions which where visible to infrared instruments. The satellites starting with NOAA 15, were considered Advanced Television Infrared Operational satellites Next Generation (ATN). NOAA 16 and NOAA 17 are similar to NOAA 15. The lifetimes of these satellites are expected to be greater than 2 years. One interesting fact is that newest NOAA satellites were launched with one of the U.S. oldest launch vehicles, a Titan 23G, which is a refurbished Titan II ICBM dating back to the late 1960's. The launch vehicle is probably older than some of the people building and launching the NOAA satellites.

       As of August, 2002, NOAA 11, 12, 14, 15, 16, & 17 were functioning and used by NOAA to provide weather forecast.

* Weight uncertain, could be launch weight which may include a third stage rocket motor, which is part of the satellite, for injection into a SSO (at launch), or it could be the weight of the satellite once in the proper orbit after the fuel has been expended (known as on-orbit weight). The references are not clear! Some documents list NOAA 6 weight as 3000 lbs (1360 kgs) (at launch) and 1600 lbs (727 kgs) (in SSO).

- NOAA 01, 1970/12/11, WTR, TAT Delta, LEO, ITOS A.

- NOAA 02, 1971/10/21, WTR, Delta N, FTO, ITOS B.

- NOAA 02, 1972/10/15, WTR, Delta, LEO, ITOS D.

- NOAA 03, 1971/07/16, WTR,, FTO, ITOS E.

- NOAA 03, 1973/11/06, WTR, Delta, LEO, ITOS F.

- NOAA 04, 1974/11/15, WTR, Thorad Delta, LEO, ITOS G.

- NOAA 05, 1976/07/29, WTR, Delta, LEO, 2nd stage exploded, ITOS H.

- NOAA 06, 1979/06/27, WTR, Atlas F, LEO.

- NOAA 07, 1980/05/29, WTR, FTO.

- NOAA 07, 1981/06/23, WTR, Atlas F, LEO.

- NOAA 08, 1983/03/28, WSMC, Atlas E, LEO, ADVANCE TIROS.

- NOAA 09, 1984/12/12, WSMC, Atlas E, LEO, ADVANCE TIROS.

- NOAA 10, 1986/09/17, WSMC, Atlas E, LEO, ADVANCE TIROS.

- NOAA 11, 1988/09/24, WSMC, Atlas E, LEO, ADVANCE TIROS.

- NOAA 12, 1991/05/14, WSMC, Atlas E, LEO, ADVANCE TIROS.

- NOAA 13, 1993/08/09, WSMC, Atlas E, LEO, ADVANCE TIROS.

- NOAA 14, 1994/12/30, WSMC, Atlas E, LEO, ADVANCE TIROS.

- NOAA 15, 1998/05/13,, Titan 2.

First launch 1970/12/11

NOAA.....U.S., organization. See National Oceanographic and Atmospheric Administration, Washington, D.C., Successor to the U.S. Weather Service.

NODE.....U.S., satellite. See UNITY.

Noguchi, Soichi.....Japan, astronaut, STS-114, 2005/07/26. First launch 2005/07/26

NOMSS.....U.S., satellite, NATIONAL OPERATIONAL METEOROLOGICAL SATELLITE SYSTEM. Was to include DOD and NOAA Meteorological satellites. DoD withdrew.

NORAD.....U.S., organization. DoD, North American Air Defense Command, warned the U.S. Strategic Air Command of possible attack. Made up of U.S. Army Defense Command, USAF Air Defense Command, RCAF Air Defense Command (Royal Canadian Air Force). Tracks and catalogs all objects greater than 10 cm in LEO and volleyball size in GEO.

Nord-aviation.....Europe, aerospace company, took over Arsenalafa in early 1960s and became part Aerospatiale in 1965.

Norfolk DL 1.....USS Norfolk DL 1, recovery ship, part of the fleet which recovered or was on duty and capable of recovering the following: MERCURY Atlas 6.

Noriega, Carlos.....U.S., astronaut, STS-084, 1997/05/15, STS-097, 2000/12/1. First launch 1997/05/15

Norris DD 859.....USS Norris DD 859, recovery ship, part of the fleet which recovered or was on duty and capable of recovering the following: MERCURY Atlas, GEMINI 10.

North American Defense Command.....U.S., USAF, organization. North American Defense Command, communication facilities used in space communications.

North American Air Defense Command, ENT AFB, CO. US

13th Missile Warning Squadron, APO Seattle, WA. US

BNEWS Station, New York, NY. US

ADTC-CSA, Elgin AFB, FL. US

M.P.B.W. RAF Station, Pickering, Yorkshire, England

North American Rockwell.....U.S., aerospace company. In 1973, North American Rockwell became Rockwell International. In 1996, became part of Boeing.

North Atlantic Treaty Organization.....U.S. & Europe, organization. See NATO

NORTH ATLANTIC TREATY ORGANIZATION.....U.S. satellite. See NATO.

NORTH PROBE.....U.S., satellite, scientific, PIONEER VENUS 2 probes launched into the plane Venus atmospheres. Other probes include, SOUNDER PROBE, DAY PROBE, NIGHT PROBE.

Northern Cosmodrom.....Russia, space vehicle launch facility. See Plesetsk Cosmodrom.

Northern Europe.....Denmark, Finland, Iceland, Norway, Sweden.

NORTHERN UTAH SATELLITE.....U.S., satellite. See NUSAT.

Northrop.....U.S. aerospace company. Became part of Northrop Grumman by joining with Grumman in 1995.

Northrop Grumman.....U.S. aerospace company. Formed by the joining of Northrop and Grumman in 1994. Address: 1840 Century Part East, Los Angeles, CA 90067, USA. www.northropgrumman.com. Also merged or purchased in 1994 Vought Aircraft, 1996 Westinghouse Elctronic Systems Group, 1997 Logicon, sold Allied, 1998 INRI, 1999 California Microwave, Data Procurement Corp., Ryan Aeronautical, 2000 Comptek, Sterling, Federal Data, Navia, sold Aeorstructures, 2001 Litton Industries, Newport News, EIS of Aerojet. Purchased TRW in 2002.

Northstar.....U.S., satellite bus built by OSC. Used for lightweight GEO satellites.

Northwestern Polytechnical University.....China, Xi'an, organization. Specialty is spacecraft trajectory and navigation.

NORTON.....U.S., satellite. See TIPS.

Norway.....Member of ESA.

Norwegian Space Center.....Norway, organization. Address PO Box 112, Oslo N-0212, Norway. (Norsk Romsenter) See also, Andøya Rocket Range, ARR.

NOSS.....U.S., satellite, surveillance. NAVY, OCEAN SURVEILLANCE SATELLITE. See also PARCAE.

- NOSS 01, 1976 038A, 1976/04/30, WTR, Atlas F, LEO.

- NOSS 02, 1977 112A, 1977/12/08, WTR, Atlas F,

- NOSS 03, 1980 019A, 1980/03/03, WTR, Atlas F,

- NOSS II-1, 1990 050A, B, C, D, 1990/06/07, ESMC, Titan 4, LEO, USA 59, 60, 61, 63.

- NOSS II-2, 1991 076A, C, D, E, 1991/11/07, WSMC, Titan 4, LEO, USA 72, 74, 76, 77.

- NOSS II-3, None, 1993/08/02, WSMC, Titan 4, FTO.

First launch 1976/04/30

NOTS.....U.S., satellite, scientific. NAVAL ORDNANCE TEST STATION, China Lake, CA. Air launch rocket, possible first satellite launch but never officially confirmed. First stage Skyray Military Jet, second & third stages HOTROC anti-submarine missiles, fourth stage from Vanguard missile, fifth and six stages built by China Lake. Project also known as NOTSNIK. First launch 1958/07/25

NOTS.....U.S., space vehicle launch facility, Naval Ordnance Test Station, China Lake, California. Location 35.4o N 117.4o W

NOTSNIK.....U.S., satellite. See NOTS.

NOVA.....U.S. Navy, satellite, navigation. Navigation and was compatible with the TRANSIT satellite navigation system. NOVA preceded the more sophisticated NAVSTAR satellites.

- NOVA 01, 1981 044A, 1981/05/15, WSMC, Scout, LEO.

- NOVA 02, 1984 110A, 1984/10/12, WSMC, Scout, LEO.

- NOVA 03, 1988 052A, 1988/06/16, WSMC, Scout, LEO.

First launch 1981/05/15

NovaStar.....U.S., satellite bus, Orbital Sciences Corp. GEO/MEO.

Nowak, Lisa.....U.S., astronaut, STS-121, 2006/07/04. First launch 2006/07/04

nozomi.....Japan, hope.

NOZOMI.....Japan, satellite. See PLANET B.

NP.....Launch vehicle motor, Naval Propellant Plant No. 5.

NPO.....Russia, organization. Scientific production associations or research production association, Nauchno-proizvodstvennoe obedinenie. May have one or more OKB's.

NPO Applied Mechanics Plant.....Russia, organization. Manufactures GLONNASS Satellites.

NPO EM.....Russia, organization, (1988/06 to 199?). Fili. See OKB-23.

NPO Energiya.....Russia, organization. (1974/05 to 1991/04). See OKB-1.

NPO Energiya Imeni S.P. Koroleva.....Russia, organization. (1991/ 04 to 1994/07). See OKB-1.

NPO Energomash RD-180.....Russia, launch vehicle motor, see RD-180.

NPO Energomash RD-191.....Russia, launch vehicle motor, see RD-191.

NPO EnergoMash.....Russia, organization. Address Academician V. Glusko Center, Burdenko Street, 1 Khimky, Moscow 141400, Russia.

NPO EnergoMash imeni V.P. Glushko.....Russia, organization. Khimki. See OKB-456.

NPO IT.....Russia, organization, Korolev (Kaliningrad). Science and production facility for measurement equipment. Expert in control and measurement.

NPO KOMPOSIT.....Russia, organization, located in Korolev (Kaliningrad). Science and production facility for composite materials. Manufacturer of advanced materials.

NPO Lavochkin.....Russia, organization. (1974 to present). See OKB-301.

NPO Masinostroyenia.....Russia, organization. (1983 to present). See OKB-52.

NPO Molniya.....Russia, Moscow, organization. (1976/02/26 to present). Was KB-4 of OKB-155 then was combined with KB Burevestnik, Tushino MX, Myasischev Experimental Plant in 1976. Mission; piloted lifting bodies, manned and hypersonic spacecraft. Created 1976/02/26.

NPO Planeta.....Russia, organization, see Scientific and Production Association "Planeta".

NPO Prikladnoy Mikhaniki.....Russia, organization. Krasnoyarsk-26. See OKB-10 and NPO Prikladnoy Mikhaniki. .

NPO Saturn.....Russia, Moscow, organization. See OKB-165.

NPO Trud.....Russia, Moscow, organization. See OKB-276.

NPO Yuzhnoye.....Ukraine, company. Builds satellites.

NPO-PM, Reshetnev OKB.....Russia, organization, Zelenogorsk. Associated with NPO Prikladnoi Mikhaniki.

NPOESS.....U.S., satellite, see N-POESS.

NPOL.....Russia, organization, see Lavochkin Scientific and Production Association.

NPOPM.....Russia, satellite bus.

NPP.....U.S., satellite, weather, polar orbit. NATIONAL POLAR PLATFORM, built by Ball Aerospace. NPP is a bridge between the POES, DMSP, and NPOESS. First launch 2008/00/00

NPP VNII ElectroMekhaniki.....Russia, organization, (1992/11 to present). See NII-627.

NPY Yuzhnoye SKB-586.....Russia, Dnepropetrovsk, organization. See OKB-586.

NRL.....U.S., satellite, see GREB 1. First launch 1960/06/22

NRL.....U.S., organization. Naval Research Laboratory, responsible for the ELINT satellites for electronic intelligence. First launch 1962/12/13

NRL PL170.....U.S., satellite, see CALSPHERE.

NRLSOLAR RADIATION III SATELLITE.....U.S., satellite, see GREB 3. First launch 1961/06/21

NRO.....U.S., organization. National Reconnaissance Office, managed satellite reconnaissance programs from 1960. Created within the DOD (separate from the WS-117L program) to coordinate:

Program A (managed by the USAF) (USAF fronted for the NSA for signals intelligence.

Program B (managed by the CIA) (CORONA series of satellites).

Program C (managed by the Navy).

NROL.....U.S., satellite, communication, HEO, also known as USA 179. First launch 2004/08/31

NS-7.....U.S., satellite, DoD designation, see NS-7A, Navstar GPS ; NS-7B, GPS II; NS-7C, GPS IIA; NS-7D, GPS IIR; NS-7E, GPS IIF.

NSA.....U.S., organization. federal government, National Security Agency.

NSO-0 NANOSPUTNIK.....Russia, satellite, also knonw as TEKh-42 or TNS-0 No. 1. Launched from the ISS. . First launch 2005/02/28

NSPO.....Republic of China, Taiwan, organization, see National Space Program Office.

NSS.....U.S., satellite, see NEW SKIES SATELLITE.

NSTL.....U.S., organization. NASA Space Technology Laboratory.

NTO.....Launch vehicle propellant, liquid, Nitrogen Tetroxide. . See N2O4.

NTS.....U.S. Navy, satellite, navigation. NAVIGATION TECHNOLOGY SATELLITE (NAVSTAR (GPS) precursor). Modified TIMATION Satellite.

- NTS 1, 1974/07/14

- NTS 2, 1977 053A, 1977/06/23, WTR, Atlas F.

First launch WTR 1974/07/14

nu.....Ν, ν, nu, 13, Greek Alphabet.

nuclear power.....U.S., satellite, TRANSIT 5-B, first all nuclear powered satellite. First launch 1963/09/28

Nuclear power.....nuclear reaction provides power. See also nuclear rocket engine and electromagnetic propulsion.

Nuclear propulsion.....Nuclear reaction proves power for propulsion. See nuclear rocket engine.

Nuclear rocket engine.....Uses nuclear reaction to deliver energy to a working fluid providing thrust. Three types

- Fission reactor

- Fusion reactor

- Radioisotope decay

Numerical Format.....U.S., Arabic numbers for satellites and Roman Numbers for launch vehicles

NUSAT.....U.S., satellite, scientific. NORTHERN UTAH SATELLITE. Launched at ETR by STS-51-B. First launch 1985/04/29

NW.....Launch vehicle motor, Naval Weapons center.

NY-Alesund.....Norway, Svalbard Island, organization. 790 N, 120 E. See ESTRACK.

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Updated 2007/2/01