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O'Bannon DD 450.....USS O'Bannon DD 450, recovery ship, part of the fleet which recovered or was on duty and capable of recovering the following: MERCURY Atlas 8, APOLLO 3, GEMINI 11.

O'Connor, Bryan.....U.S., astronaut, STS-61B (23), 1985/11/26, STS-40, 1991/06/05. First launch 1985/11/26

O'Hare DD 889.....USS O'Hare DD 889, recovery ship, part of the fleet which recovered or was on duty and capable of recovering the following: GEMINI 2.

OAM.....U.S., launch vehicle. Stage 3 Athena 1. Stage 4 Athena II. Uses MR-107 engine. Orbital Adjust Module or Orbit Adjust Module.

OAO.....U.S., satellite, scientific. ORBITING ASTRONOMICAL OBSERVATORY, conducted observation of interstellar space from outside the earth's atmosphere.

- OAO 1, 1966/04/08, ETR, Atlas Agena D, LEO.

- OAO A2, 1968/12/07, ETR, Atlas Centaur, LEO.

- OAO B, 1970/11/30, ETR, Atlas Centaur, FTO.

- OAO 3, 1972/08/21, ETR, Atlas Centaur, LEO, COPERNICUS.

First launch 1966/04/08

OAR.....U.S., satellite. First launch 1968/07/11

OARE.....U.S., NASA, satellite, scientific. ORBITAL ACCELERATION RESEARCH EXPERIMENT payload on board the STS-50, launched from KSC. First launch 1992/06/25

OAST.....U.S., satellite. See LARGE SOLAR ARRAY.

OAST-FLYER.....U.S., satellite. See SPARTAN.

Oberon.....Uranus moon, one of 17. See Miranda, Ariel, Umbriel, Titania, Oberon, Puck, Belinda, Rosalind, Portia, Juliet, Dosdemona, Cressida, Bianca, Ophelia, Cordelia, Caliban, Sycorax.

OBJECT-D.....Russia,, satellite, became known as SPUTNIK 3.

OBK-1 Branch 2.....Russia, organization. Krasnoyarsk-26. See OKB-10.

oblik.....Russia, appearance.

OBLIK.....Russia, satellite, tests, see KOSMOS. First launch 2004/11/08

Observation Island.....U.S., USNS Observation Island (T-AGM-23). See tracking ship.


OBZOR.....Russia, satellite, KOSMOS 2285. First launch 1994/08/02

Ocean of Storms.....Moon, space vehicle launch site, for APOLLO I2 INTREPID. First launch 1969/11/19

OCEAN.....Russia, satellite. See OKEAN.

OCEAN EXPLORER.....U.S. NASA, satellite, scientific. Orbiter and three landers to determine if EUROPA has subsurface water. First launch ?

OCEANSAT.....China, satellite, see HY.

OCEANSAT.....India, satellite, remote sensing. Was IRS-D4. First launch 1997/05/26

Ochoa, Ellen.....U.S., astronaut, STS-56, 1993/04/08, STS-66, 1994/11/03, STS-096,1999/5/27, STS-110, 2002/04/08. First launch 1993/04/08

Ockels, Wubbo.....France, astronaut, STS-61A (22), 1985/10/30. First launch 1985/10/30

OCM.....Orbital correction maneuver. Change made to the orbit of a satellite.

OCSE.....U.S., satellite, inflatable sphere, military technology development, LLEO SSO. Used for the ORBITAL CALIBRATION SPHERE EXPERIMENT. First launch 2000/01/27

OD.....Russia, satellite, reconnaissance, ORINTIROVANNY D or Oriented D.


- ODERACS A, 1994 007B, 1994/02/09, STS 60, DISCOVERY, LEO, 1994/10/02.

- ODERACS B, 1994 007C, 1994/02/09, STS 60, DISCOVERY, LEO, 1994/10/04.

- ODERACS C, 1994 007D, 1994/02/09, STS 60, DISCOVERY, LEO, 1995/03/03.

- ODERACS D, 1994 007E, 1994/02/09, STS 60, DISCOVERY, LEO, 1995/02/06.

- ODERACS E, 1994 007F, 1994/02/09, STS 60, DISCOVERY, LEO, 1995/03/03.

- ODERACS F, 1994 007G, 1994/02/09, STS 60, DISCOVERY, LEO, 1995/02/24.

- ODERACS 2A, 1995 004C, 1995/02/07, STS-63, DISCOVERY, LEO, 1996/03/13.

- ODERACS 2B, 1995 004D, 1995/02/07, STS-63, DISCOVERY, LEO, 1996/09/29.

- ODERACS 2C, 1995 004E, 1995/02/07, STS-63, DISCOVERY, LEO, 1996/02/07.

- ODERACS 2D, 1995 004F, 1995/02/07, STS-63, DISCOVERY, LEO, 1995/03/25.

- ODERACS 2E, 1995 004G, 1995/02/07, STS-63, DISCOVERY, LEO, 1995/02/27.

- ODERACS 2F, 1995/02/07, STS-63, DISCOVERY, LEO, 1995/02/20.

First launch 1994/02/03

Odin.....Norse, god of rulers, wisdom, knowledge.

ODIN.....Sweden, satellite, scientific. Detect millimeter wavelength emissions from oxygen and water in interstellar gas. First launch 2001/02/20

ODYSSEOS.....ESA, satellite, see ULYSSES.

Odyssey.....U.S., ship, launch platform for Sea Launch Co. Also known as Odyssey Semi Submersible Vehicle (SSV).

ODYSSEY.....U.S. satellite, telecommunications, MEO. Total of 12 satellite constellation, led by TRW.

ODYSSEY.....U.S., satellite, manned spacecraft APOLLO 13, CSM-109. Launched by Saturn 5 at KSC. CDR James Lovell, LMP Fred Haise, CMP Jack Swigert. LA 1970/04/11, R 1970/04/17, PRS U.S.S. Iwo Jima (LPH-2). First launch 1970/04/11

Oefelein, William.....U.S., astronaut, STS-116, 2006/12/09. First launch 2006/12/09

Oersted, Hans Christian.....Denmark, 1777-1851, discovered relationship of electricity to magnetism.

OERSTED.....Denmark, satellite, scientific. Map Earth's magnetic filed and charged particle environment. First launch 1999/02/23

OES.....Orbit element Set. See Keplerian element set.

OEX.....U.S. satellite, technology. Shuttle autopilot software test target. Launched at KSC by STS-61b. First launch 1985/11/30

Ofek.....Israel, satellite bus, Israel Aircraft Industries, LEO.

OFEK.....Israel, satellite. See OFFEQ

ofeq.....Israel, Hebrew, Horizon.

OFEQ.....Israel, satellite. See OFFEQ.

offeq.....Israel, horizon. See also ofeq.

OFFEQ.....Israel, satellite, reconnaissance. means "horizon". Experimental scientific/spy satellites Also known as OFEQ.

- OFFEQ 01, 1988 087A, 1988/09/19, YAVNE, SHAVIT, LEO, HORIZON 1, Decayed -1/14/89.

- OFFEQ 02, 1990 027A, 1990/04/03, Yavne, Shavit, LEO, Decayed1990/7/09.

- OFFEQ 03, 1995 063A, 1995/04/05, Negev, Shavit, LEO.

- OFFEQ 04, 1998/01/22,, Negev, Shavit, FTO.

First launch 1988/09/19

Office National d'Etudes et de Recherches Aerospatial.....France, organization. Part of the Defense Ministry. ONERA, BP 72 - 29, avenue de la division Leclerc, F-92322 Chatillon CEDEX.

Office of Space and Terrestrial Applications.....U.S., organization. See OSTA.

OFO.....U.S., satellite, scientific. ORBITING FROG OTOLITH. See FROG OTOLITH.

OGCh.....Russia, satellite, part of KOSMOS series. First launch 1967/01/25

OGCH.....Russia, satellite. First launch 1965/12/16

OGO.....U.S., satellite, scientific. ORBITING GEOPHYSICAL OBSERVATORY, correlate investigations of geophysical and solar phenomena in the earth's atmosphere and magnetosphere.

- OGO 01, 1964 054A, 1964/09/05, ETR, Atlas Agena, HEO.

- OGO 02, 1965 081A, 1965/10/14, WTR, TAT Agena D, LEO, Decayed 1981/09/17.

- OGO 03, 1966 049A, 1966/06/07, ETR, TAT Agena B, HEO.

- OGO 04, 1967 073A, 1967/07/28, WTR, TAT Agena D, LEO, Decayed 1972/08/16,- OGO D, POGO.

- OGO 05, 1968 041A, 1968/03/04, ETR, TAT Agena D, HEO.

- OGO 06, 1969 051A, 1969/06/05, WTR, LTTAT-Agena, LEO, Decayed 1979/10/12.

First launch 1964/09/06

OHSUMI.....Japan, satellite, scientific. First satellite launched by Japan from the Kagoshima Space Center, used Lambda 4S5. Named after the Ohsumi Peninsula, site of Uchinoura Space Center.

First launch 1970/02/11

ohzora.....Japan, Sky.

OHZORA.....Japan Satellite. See EXOS.


OK.....Russia, abbreviation for orbitalny korabl, means orbital craft.

OK1K.....Russia, satellite, BURAN manned vehicle. See BURAN.

OK1K1.....Russia, satellite, BURAN manned vehicle. See BURAN.

OKB.....Russia, organization. Experimental Design Bureax, Opytnoe Konstruktorskoye biuro, under the NII, and where the development of the concepts pioneered in the NII. Sometimes abbreviated to KB, MKB machine design bureau, SKB special design bureau, TsKB central design bureau.

OKB EnergoMash.....Russia, Khimki, organization. See OKB-456.

OKB Fakel.....Russia, Kaliningrad/Konigsberg, organization. (1972 to present). Was OKB-?? (1955 to 1972). Mission attitude control thrusters, electric propulsion. Created 1955/00/00.

OKB of Iskra Plant.....Russia, Moscow, organization. Mission solid propellant rocket engines for launch escape systems, Soyuz, Soyuz-T.

OKB Yuzhnoye.....Russia, organization. Developed the TSELINA satellite. Also known as Yangel's OKB Yuzhnoye.

OKB-1.....Russia, Poblipki, Kaliningrad, Korolev, organization.

- Experimental Design Bureau (1946/08/26 to 1950/04).

Other designations;

- SKB Dept 3, NII-88 (1946/08 to 1950/04),

- OKB-1 of NII (1950/04 to 1956/08),

- OKB-1 (1956/08 to 1966/03),

- TsKBEM (1966/03 to 1974/05)

- NPO Energiya (1974/05 to 1991/04),

- NPO Energiya Imeni S.P. Koroleva (1991/04 to 1994/07),

- AOOT RKK Energiya imeni S.P. Koroleva (1994/07 to present) (Space Rocket Corporation Energiya). Also known as RSC Energia. Mission, long range liquid and solid propellant ballistic missiles, spacecraft, space launch vehicles, miliary photo-reconnaissance spacecraft, commutations satellites, lunar & interplanetary spacecraft, liquid propellant engines.

OKB-1 Branch No. 3.....Russia, organization.(1960/03 to 1966/05), see TsSKB.

OKB-1 of NII.....Russia, organization. (1950/04 to /1956/08). See OKB-1.

OKB-10.....Russia, organization. Krasnoyarsk-26, (1961/12 to 1966). Was OBK-1 Branch 2 (1959/06/04 to 1961/12). Became OKB-10 (1961/12 to 1966), KB Prikladnoy Mikhaniki (1966 to 1977), NPO Prikladnoy Mikhaniki (1977 to present). Mission communications satellites, navigation and geodetic satellites. MOLNIYA,EKRAN, GORIZONT, GLONASS, LUCH, RADUGA. Created 1961/12/00.

OKB-154.....Russia, Moscow, then Berdsk, then Voronezh, organization. (1946/05 to 1966). Became KB Khimicheskyo Avtomatiki (1966 to present). Mission liquid propellant rocket engines, nuclear rocket engines. Created 1941/10/17.

OKB-155.....Russia, Moscow, organization. (1942/03 to 1978). Was OKO (1939/12/08 to 1942/03). Became MMX Mikoyan (1978 to present). See MPO Molniya. Mission lifting bodies and hypersonic aircraft. Created 1942/03/00.

OKB-165.....Russia, Moscow, organization. Became KB Saturn (?), NPO Saturn (?). Mission liquid rocket engines, turbo machinery. Created 1946/03/00.

OKB-2.....Russia, organization. Poblipki, Kaliningrad, Korolev. (1959/01 to 1966). Was Plant No. 293 Dept (1943/05/25 to 1944/02), NII-1 Dpet (1944/02 to 1948/07), SKB Dept 9, NII-88 (1948/07 to 1952), OKB-2 of NII-88 (1952 to 1959/01). Became KB KhimMash (1966 to present). Mission liquid rocket engines, nuclear rocket engines. Created 1943/05/23.

OKB-2 of NII-88.....Russia, organization. Poblipki, Kaliningrad, Korolev. See OKB-2.

OKB-23.....Russia, Fili, organization. (1951/03/24 to 1960/10). Became OKB-52/TsKBM Branch No 1 (1960/0 to1981/06), KB Salyut of NPO Energiya (1981/06 to 1988/06), NPO E/M (1988/06 to 199?), KB Salyut (199? to 1993/06), KB Salyut of GKNPTs Khrunichev (1994/06 to present). Mission Space launch vehicles, piloted spacecraft, sensing platforms. Created 1951/03/24.

OKB-256.....Russia, organization, (1955/05 to 1959/10). Absorbed into OKB-23. Mission hypersonic spacecraft. Created 1959/05/00.

OKB-276.....Russia, Kuybyshev/Samara, organization (1946/04/17 to ?). Became NPO Trud, GNPP Trud, AO Dvigatel NK, Samara NTK Imeni N.D. Kuznestov. Mission liquid propellant rocket engines for space launch vehicles. Created 1946/04/17

OKB-300.....Russia, organization. Mission liquid propellant rocket engines. Created 1943/02/00

OKB-301.....Russia, Khimki, organization. (1937/07/01 to 1962/12). Became OKB-51 Branch 2 (1962/12 to 1965/03), GSMZ Lavochkin (1965/03 to 1974), NPO Lavochkin (1974 to present). Mission, early warning spacecraft, lunar and interplanetary spacecraft, scientific satellites, microgravity research, launch vehicle upper stage production. Created 1937/07/01.

OKB-41 of KB-1.....Russia, Moscow, organization. See TsNII Kometa.

OKB-456.....Russia, Khimki, organization, (1946 to 1965/03). Became OKB EnergoMash (1965/03 to 1974/05), KB EnergoMash of NPO Energiya (1976/05 to 1990/01), NPO EnergoMash imeni V.P. Glushko (1990/01 to present). Mission liquid and solid rocket engines, nuclear rocket engines. Created 1946/00/00.

OKB-51 Branch 2.....Russia, organization. (1962/12 to 1965/03) see OKB-301.

OKB-52.....Russia, Reutov, organization. Experimental Design Bureau (1955/08 to 1966/03). Became TsKBM (1966/03 to 1983), and NPO Masinostroyenia (1983 to present). Mission, long range liquid propellant ballistic missiles, spacecraft, space launch vehicles, scientific satellites, remote sensing spacecraft. Space efforts split of with the formation of the Khrunichev NPO in 1993. Machine Building Scientific Production Assn. Named after V.N. Chelomey.

OKB-52/TsKBM Branch No 1.....Russia, Fili, organization. See OKB-23.

OKB-577.....Russia, organization, see Lavochkin NPO.

OKB-586.....Russia, Dnepropetrovsk, organization. (1954/05 1966/10). Was SKB-586 (/1951/05 to 1954/04). Became KB Yuzhnoye (1966/10 to 1986/10), NPY Yuzhnoy/e (1986/10 to present). Mission small automated scientific spacecraft, meteorological and remote sensing spacecraft, launch vehicles, liquid and solid rocket engines, intelligence satellites. Created 1954/05/10.

okean.....Russia, ocean.

OKEAN.....Russia, satellite, oceanographic. Monitors ice conditions.

- OKEAN-O, 1986/07/26, also known as 17F43.

- OKEAN 01, 1988 056A,1988/7/05, Plesetsk, SL-14, LEO.

- OKEAN, None,1989/6/09, Plesetsk, SL-14, FTO.

- OKEAN 02, 1990 018A,1990/2/28, Plesetsk, SL-14, LEO.

- OKEAN 03, 1991 039A,1991/5/20, Plesetsk, SL-14, LEO.

- OKEAN 04, 1994 066A, 1994/10/11, Plesetsk, SL-14, LEO.

First launch 1988/07/05

Okinawa.....USS Okinawa, LPH 3, prime recovery ship for APOLLO 6, 15.

oko.....Russia, eye.

OKO.....Russia, Moscow, organization. See OKB-155.

OKO.....Russia, satellite, reconnaissance. IMEWS type Molniya orbit.. See also US-KS. First launch 1972/09/19

oktan.....Russia, octant , 1/8 part of a circle.

OKTAN.....Russia, satellite, photo reconnaissance, LEO. 2nd generation YANTAR. 12 satellite launches. Ministry of Defense name OKTAN. Design Bureau name YANTAR 4K1. First launch

OLIVE.....Japan, satellite, technology development. OMS LIGHT INSPECTOR VEHICLE.

Olsen, Gregory.....U.S. Space tourist, Soyuz TMA-7 2005/10/01 First launch 2005/10/01

OLYMPUS.....Europe, satellite, communications. Technology demonstration satellites, direct broadcast. Launched at Kourou by an Ariane 3 into GEO.

First launch 1989/07/12

OM.....Launch vehicle motor, Olin Mathieson Co.

omicron.....Ο, ο, omicron, 15, Greek Alphabet.

OMNISTAR.....U.S., satellite, remote sensing. Proposed follow-on to LANDSAT.

OMS.....Japan, Orbital Maintenance System. See OLIVE satellite.

OMS.....U.S., launch vehicle motor,

- Aerojet. Used on K-1 OV stage 2. Orbital Maneuvering System. Thrust 870 lbf (3.87 kN) pressure 150 psi (10.3 bar), propellant LOX/ethenal.

- Boeing, used on STS Orbiter. Thrust 6000 lbf (26.7 kN), pressure 125 psi (8.6 bar), liquid propellant N2O4/MMH.

OMS LIGHT INSPECTOR VEHICLE.....Japan, satellite, see OLIVE.

Omsk Aviation Plant.....Russia, organization, see Polet NPO.

ONERA.....France, organization, see Office National d'Etudes et de Recherches Aerospatial.

Onizuka, Ellison.....U.S., astronaut, STS-51L (25), 1986/01/28. First launch 1986/01/28

Onufrienko, Yuri.....Russia, cosmonaut, SOYUZ TM 23, 1996/02/21, STS-108 & Expedition 4, 2001/12/5. First launch 1996/02/21

OPAL.....U.S., satellite, scientific, ORBITAL PICOSAT AUTOMATED LAUNCHER. LEO SSO. Following satellites launched from OPAL: THELMA, LOUISE, JAK, STENSAT, and MEMS. First launch 2000/01/26

Ophelia.....Uranus moon, one of 17. See Miranda, Ariel, Umbriel, Titania, Oberon, Puck, Belinda, Rosalind, Portia, Juliet, Dosdemona, Cressida, Bianca, Ophelia, Cordelia, Caliban, Sycorax.

Opportune.....USS Opportune, recovery ship, part of the fleet which recovered or was on duty and capable of recovering the following: SKYLAB 3.


OPS.....Russia, satellite, orbital manned station. See ALMAZ.

OPS 7898 P/L.....U.S., satellite, see WHITE CLOUD.

Optical guidance.....See Guidance.

OPTICAl.....Japan, satellite, reconnaissance, LEO, 1 meter resolution. Part of a constellation of 4 satellites, RADAR 1 & 2, OPTICAL 1 & 2. See IGS.



OPTUS.....Australia, satellite, communications. Built by the U.S. Hughes and launched by China.

- OPTUS B1,1992 054A, 1992/08/13, Xichang, CZ-2E, GEO, AUSSAT.

- OPTUS B2, 1992 090A, 1992/12/21, Xichang, CZ-2E, LEO,1995/6/29, exploded, reentered 1995/06/29.

- OPTUS B3, 1994 055A, 1994/08/27, Xichang, CZ-2E, GEO.

First launch 1992/08/13

OPTUS Communication Pty. Ltd......Australia, aerospace company. Level 5/10 Moore St Canberra City 2601, Australia. Owner and operator of OPTUS B1 - B3 satellites.

OPTUS/D1.....Australia, see DEFENCE C1.

Orbcomm Global L.P......U.S., aerospace company, commercial satellite operator, ORBCOMM PLANE. 21700 Atlantic Boulevard, Dulles, VA, 20166 USA. See OSC.

ORBCOMM.....U.S., satellite, communications. ORBITAL COMMUNICATIONS, LEO Sun-sync. Built by Orbit Science Corp, U.S., is a network of low-earth-orbiting mobile communications satellites.

- ORBCOMM X, 1991 050C, 1991/07/17, Kourou, Ariane4, LEO.

- ORBCOMM 01, 1995 062A, 1995/04/03, VAFB/L-1011, Pegasus, LEO.

- ORBCOMM 02, 1995 062B, 1995/04/03, VAFB/L-1011, Pegasus, LEO.

- ORBCOMM A9 & A10, 1998/02/10, Taurus, LEO, FM-13, FM-14.

First launch 1991/07/17

ORBCOMM CDS PATHFINDER.....U.S., satellite, see ORBCOMM. First launch 2003/02/09

ORBIMAGE.....U.S., aerospace company, commercial satellite operator, Earth imaging, ORBVIEW. Address: 21700 Atlantic Blvd., Dulles, VA 20166, USA.

ORBIS-CAL.....U.S. Navy satellite, scientific. Measure affect of ionosphere on communications. Launched at the WTR by a Atlas Burner 2, FTO. First launch 1968/08/16

orbit.....Motion of one or more objects about another, e.g. the Earth is in orbit around the Sun. Manmade (artificial) satellites orbit around the earth, sun or other celestial bodies in a number of different ways. See Newton's law of universal gravitation and Keplerian elements. The height of an orbit measured from the surface of the earth is known as altitude (See altitude). The direction of rotation and shape of the orbit describe the path the satellite follows. A spacecraft/satellite my use several types of orbits during its mission. The following list the types and parts of orbits.

- ω

- Libration point

- Ω

- Libration Point Orbit

- a,

- Linear eccentricity

- aph-,

- Lissajous orbit

- Apheline

- Lissajous orbit insertion

- aphelion


- apo-,


- Apoapsis

- Low Earth orbit

- apocenter

- Low Lunar orbit

- Apocentric orbit


- Apocentricity


- Apocynthion

- Lunar trajectory orbit

- Apogeal

- Lunar,orbit

- Apogean

- Lyapunov orbit

- apogee

- manned lunar orbit

- Apogeic

- Mars orbit

- Apogeotropism

- Medium Earth Orbit

- Apojove orbit


- apolune orbit

- Mercury orbit

- Aposelene orbit

- mid-morning/mid-evening plane

- areocentric orbit

- midday/midnight plane

- Areocentric orbit

- molniya orbit

- argument of perigee

- moon orbit

- ascending node

- Moulton orbit

- Asimuth

- nadir

- Azimuth

- Neptune orbit

- Azmith

- Newton's law of universal gravitation

- barycentric

- Newton's laws of motion

- c


- circular orbit

- orbit inclination

- Clark Orbit

- Orbit decay

- culmination

- Orbit element Set


- orbital debris

- decayed

- orbital velocity

- declination

- outer space


- Parabolic orbit

- descending node,

- parking orbit

- Earth orbit

- Peri-

- Earth-Mars cycle trajectories orbits

- periapsis

- Earth-Moon-Earth orbit

- Pericenter


- pericynthion

- eccentricity

- perigeal

- ecliptic plane

- Perigean

- Element set

- perigee

- Ellipse

- Perihelian

- elliptical orbit

- perihelion orbit


- perijove orbit

- ephemeris

- perilune orbit

- equatorial orbit

- Periodic orbit

- equatorial plane

- periseleno orbit

- F & G Elements

- phasing,orbit


- Pluto orbit

- geostationary orbit

- polar orbit

- geostationary transfer orbit

- posigrade orbit

- geosynchronous orbit

- posigrade orbit

- Geosynchronous Transfer Orbit

- precessing orbit

- gravity assist orbits

- prograde orbit


- RA of Node



- halo orbit

- retrograde


- right ascension of ascending node

- heliocentric

- satellite orbital elements


- Saturn orbit

- high drag

- selenocentric orbit

- high inclination orbit.

- semimajor axis

- High drag orbit

- semimajor axis.

- highly elliptical orbit.

- slingshot orbit


- solar orbit

- Hohman transfer orbit

- Solar System escape trajectory

- hyperbolic orbits

- space orbital element set

- i



- stationary orbit

- inclination

- Sun-Sync orbit

- inclined orbit

- sun-synchronous orbit

- Intermediate circular orbit

- synchronous orbit

- interplanetary orbit

- temporary orbit

- interstellar

- Trans- orbit

- Jupiter orbit

- transfer orbit

- Kepler laws of motion

- true anomaly

- Keplerian elements

- Uranus orbit

- L1


- L2

- Venus orbit

- L3

- Venus-Earth-Earth Gravity Assists Orbit

- L4

- Venus-Venus-Earth-Gravity-Assists orbit

- L5


- Lagrange orbit

- very elliptical orbit

- Lagrangian point

- very high orbit


- Virtural GEO Orbit




- walking orbit

orbit.....orbit (Fr)., kreisbahn (D).

orbit inclination.....The angle between the plane defined by the spacecraft’s orbit and the plane of the equator.

orbit plane.....The plane described ba a spacecraft as it orbits a body.

Orbit decay.....Loss of orbital altitude and orbital energy due to on-orbit forces, principally aerodynamic drag.

Orbit total energy.....Orbital component, conservation of energy. The sum of the kinetic and potential energy of an object about another celestial object of much greater mass, is the total energy of the object. Also known as total energy, constant energy. See also eliptical orbit, parabolic orbit, hyperbolic orbit.

Orbit Total Energy

E = PE + KE

= -Ms μ/R + Ms V2/2

PE = Potential Energy

= -Ms μ/R [kgm2/s2]

KE = Kinetic Energy

= Ms V2/2 [kgm2/s2]

μ = gravitational parameter [m3/s2]

Ms = mass of spacecraft [kg]

R = position (distance from center of the celestial object to spacecraft) [m]

V = velocity of spacecraft [m/s]

orbital debris.....Any non-function man-made object orbiting the Earth. To date over 23,000 objects have been launched into space. Over 110,000 objects 1 cm or larger in 470-900 miles (800-1500 km) orbits around the earth. Over 9,000 objects 10 cm or larger in same orbits. Current population as of 1996/07/01: Operational Spacecraft 350, Abandoned spacecraft 1950, spent rocket bodies 1500, operational debris 1027, breakup fragments 3113, anomalous events 130. Sources of removal or sinks: de-boost, retrieval, naturals forces (atmospheric drag, solar cycles, solar radiation (above 300 miles or 500 km).

orbital elements.....See Keplerian elements.

orbital velocity.....The velocity necessary to maintain an orbit around a star, planet, moon, or asteroid. For Earth, the orbital velocity at 100 miles altitude is about 18,000 miles per hour. The greater the mass of the planet, etc, the greater the orbital velocity. The higher the orbit, the less the orbital velocity.

Orbital Velocity

V = (2(μ/R + ε))½

ε =-μ/2A

R = position (distance from center of the celestial object to spacecraft) [m]

V = velocity of spacecraft [m/s]

μ = gravitational parameter [m3/s2]

A = semi major axis [m]

ε = spacecraft's specific mechanical energy [m2/s2]

Orbital Adjust Module.....U.S., launch vehicle, see OAM.

Orbital LEOSTAR.....U.S., satellite bus, built by Orbital.

Orbital Maneuvering System.....U.S., launch vehicle, see OMS.

Orbital Refueling System.....U.S. See ORS.

Orbital Science Corporation.....U.S., aerospace company. See OSC

Orbital Suborbital Program.....U.S., USAF, launch vehicle, see OSP.


ORBITAL CALIBRATION SPHERE EXPERIMENT.....U.S., satellite, inflatable sphere, see OCSE.



ORBITAL EXPRESS.....U.S., satellite, technology development, Boeing. Demonstrate robotic in-orbit servicing technologies. First launch 2006/00/00




ORBITAL TEST VEHICLE.....U.S., satellite, see OTV.


ORBITING CARBON OBSERVATORY.....U.S. NASA, satellite, weather. Part of AQUA-Train. SS LEO. First launch 2008/00/00

ORBITING CARBON OBSERVATORY.....U.S., NASA, satellite, global measurements of atmospheric carbon dioxide. Part of Earth System Science Pathfinder small-satellite program.





ORBITING TELESCOPE.....U.S., satellite, scientific. See HUBBLE.

ORBITING VEHICLE.....U.S., satellite. See OV.

ORBITING WIDE-ANGLE LIGHT COLLECTORS.....U.S., NASA, satellite, scientific. See OWL.

Orbus 21.....U.S., launch vehicle motor, manufactured by Pratt & Whitney. Thrust 42,000 lbf (186kN), pressure 655 psi (45 bar), propellant HTPB. Used on TOS and IUS stages.

Orbus 21D.....U.S., launch vehicle motor, Pratt & Whitney, thrust 42,000 lbf (187kN), pressure 800 psi (55 bar), propellant HTPB, “D” is for structural material Kevlar.

Orbus 21G.....U.S., launch vehicle motor, Pratt & Whitney, thrust 42,000 lbf (187kN), pressure 800 psi (55 bar), propellant HTPB, “G” is for structural material Graphite-epoxy.

Orbus 6E.....U.S., launch vehicle motor, manufactured by Pratt & Whitney. Thrust 17,000 lbf (76.5 kN), pressure 611 psi (42 bar), solid propellant HTPB. Used on IUS.

ORBVIEW.....U.S., satellite, remote sensing. Also known as SEASTAR. First launch 1995/04/03


OREL.....France, satellite, scientific. Study upper atmosphere, also known as AUREOLE. Launched at Plesetsk by a SL-8 into a HEO. First launch 1971/12/27

OREX.....Japan, satellite, scientific. ORBITAL REENTRY EXPERIMENT, collects reentry date to aid in the design and production of the Japanese space plane. Launched Tanegashima by a H-2 into LEO, reentered 1994/02/04. First launch 1994/02/03


- ORFEUS-SPAS 1, 1993/09/13, KSC, STS-51, returned 1993/09/22.

- ORFEUS-SPAS 2, 1996/11/19, KSC, STS-80.

First launch 1993/09/13

ORIHIME.....Japan, satellite. See HIKOBOSHI.

Orion.....Constellation the hunter.

Orion.....U.S., rocket, upper atmosphere meteorology. First launch 1974/00/00

Orion 38.....U.S., launch vehicle motor, thrust 7,200 lbf (32 kN), pressure 656 psi (45 bar), propellant HTPB. Manufactured by Alliant Techsystems. Used on Minotaur stage 4, and Pegasus stage 3 and Taurus.

Orion 50.....U.S., launch vehicle motor, thrust 26,000 lbf (115 kN), pressure 845 psi (58 bar), solid propellant HTPB. Used on Taurus. Manufactured by ATK Thiokol.

Orion 50SG.....U.S., launch vehicle motor, thrust 106,000 lbf (471 kN), pressure 847 psi (58 bar), solid propellant HTPB. Used on Taurus. Manufactured by ATK Thiokol.

Orion 50SXL.....U.S., launch vehicle motor, Thrust 133,000 lbf (594 kN), pressure 1090 psi (73 bar), propellant HTPB. Built by Alliant Techsystems. Used on Pegasus XL stage 1.

Orion 50XL.....U.S., launch vehicle motor, thrust 34,500 lbf (154 kN), pressure 1019 psi (70 bar), propellant HTPB. Manufactured by Alliant Techsystems. Used on Minotaur stage 3, and Pegasus stage 2.

Orion II.....Argentina, rocket, upper atmosphere geophysics. First launch 1965/00/00

Orion Network Systems, Inc......U.S., aerospace company, satellite communications. Address: 2440 Research Blvd., Rockville, MD 20880, USA.

ORION.....Russia, satellite, see ZENIT.

ORION.....U.S., satellite, manned spacecraft APOLLO 16, LM-11. See CASPER CMS-113. First launch 1972/04/16

ORION.....U.S., CIA, satellite, signal intelligence, spy. Was originally named MAGNUM.

- ORION 1, 1985-10B, 1985/01/24, STS-51C, GEO, MAGNUM 1, USA 8.

- ORION 2, 1980-90B, 1989/11/23, STS-33, GEO.

First launch 1985/01/24

ORION.....U.S., satellite, communications. Specializing in business transmission for the U.S. and Europe for Orion Satellite Corp. Launched at the ESMC by an Atlas 2 into GEO. First launch 1994/11/29

ORION.....U.S., NASA, satellite, manned spacecraft. CREW EXPLORATION VEHICLE. Replacement for the Space Shuttle(STS). First launch 20011/00/00

Orizuru.....Japan, Origami crane.

ORIZURU.....Japan, satellite. See DEBUT.

Orlek DD 386.....USS Orlek DD 386, recovery ship, part of the fleet which recovered or was on duty and capable of recovering the following: GEMINI 4.

orlets.....Russia, rhodonite, chemical, manganese metalsilicate.

ORLETS.....Russia, satellite, photo reconnaissance. Also known as 17F12, YANTAR FR6, KUBAN or DON.

- COSMOS 2031, 1989/07/18, Baikonur, Soyuz, LEO, ORLETS-1.

- COSMOS 2101, 1990/10/01, Baikonur, Soyuz, LEO, ORLETS-1.

- COSMOS 2163, 1991/10/09, Baikonur, Soyuz, LEO, ORLETS-1.

- COSMOS 2225, 1992/12/22, Baikonur, Soyuz, LEO, ORLETS-1.

- COSMOS 2262, 1993/09/07, Baikonur, Soyuz, LEO, ORLETS-1.

- COSMOS 2343, 1997/05/13, Baikonur, Soyuz, LEO, ORLETS-1.

Orroral Valley Tracking Station.....Australia/U.S., organization, NASA, STDN, Spaceflight Tracking and Data Network. Orroral Valley Tracking Station, P.O. Box 40, Kingston, ACT 2604 Australia.70 kilometers southwest of Canberra. Closed on 31st October, 1998. See Canberra Deep Space Communication Complex.

ORS.....U.S., NASA, Orbital Refueling System. Launched at KSC by STS-41G. First launch 1984/10/05

ORSTED.....Denmark, satellite, scientific, LEO SSO. First launch 1999/02/23

OS Designators.....U.S. DoD System designation. See WS Designators.

OSC.....U.S. aerospace company. Orbital Science Corporation. Also known as Orbcomm. Manufacture of the Pegasus launch vehicle and Taurus launch vehicle, BSAT, NSTAR, PANAMSAT, GALEX, ORBVIEW, SORCE. Address: 21839 Atlantic Blvd., Dulles, VA 20166.

OSC GeoStar.....U.S., satellite bus, Orbital Science Corporation, see GeoStar.

OSC LeoStar.....U.S., satellite bus, Orbital Science Corporation, see LeoStar.

OSC MiniStar.....U.S., satellite bus, Orbital Science Corporation, see MiniStar.

OSC Northstar.....U.S., satellite bus. Orbital Science Corporation, see Northstar.

OSC PegaStar.....U.S., satellite bus, Orbital Science Corporation, see PegaStar

OSC PicoStar.....U.S., satellite bus, Orbital Science Corporation, see PicoStar.

OSC StarBus.....U.S., satellite bus, Orbital Science Corporation, see StarBus.

oscar.....Named after the letter "O", which in the phonetic alphabet is called oscar.

OSCAR.....U.S., satellite, communications. ORBITING SATELLITE CARRYING AMATEUR RADIO, small, built by amateurs from several nations under the auspices of the Radio Amateur Satellite Corporation (AMSAT).

First launch 1961/12/12

OSCAR.....U.S. Navy, satellite, navigation, OPERATIONAL NAVIGATION SATELLITE series. Classified after TRANSIT 5B 1963/in 09 and part of the Navy NAVSATS series. Also known as NNS-O, NAVAL NAVIGATION SATELLITE-OSCAR.

- OSCAR 01, 1964/10/08, Scout, VAFB, FTO.

- OSCAR 02, 1964/12/12, Thor-Able-Star, VAFB.

- OSCAR 03, 1965/03/11, Thor-Able-Star, VAFB.

- OSCAR 04, 1965/06/24, Thor-Able-Star, VAFB.

- OSCAR 05, 1965/08/13, Thor-Able-Star, VAFB.

- OSCAR 06, 1965/12/21, Scout, VAFB.

- OSCAR 07, 1966/01/28, Scout, VAFB.

- OSCAR 08, 1966/03/25, Scout, VAFB.

- OSCAR 09, 1966/05/19, Scout, VAFB.

- OSCAR 10, 1966/08/17, Scout, VAFB.

- OSCAR 11.

- OSCAR 12, 1967/04/13, Scout, VAFB.

- OSCAR 13, 1967/05/18, Scout, VAFB.

- OSCAR 14, 1967/09/25, Scout, VAFB.

- OSCAR 15.

- OSCAR 16.

- OSCAR 17.

- OSCAR 18, 1968/03/01, Scout, VAFB.

- OSCAR 19, 1970/08/27, Scout, VAFB.

First launch 1964/10/08

Osiris.....Egypt, god of the sea, fertility, Hell.

OSO.....U.S., satellite, scientific. ORBITING SOLAR OBSERVATORY, conducted observations of the sun and solar physics experiments.

- OSO 01, 1962 006A, 1962/03/07, ETR, Delta, LEO, decayed 1981/10/08.

- OSO 02, 1965 007A, 1965/02/03, ETR, Delta, LEO, reentered 1989/08/09.

- OSO C, None, 1965/08/25, ETR, Delta, FTO.

- OSO 03, 1967 020A, 1967/03/08, ETR, Delta, LEO, decayed 1982/04/04.

- OSO 04, 1967 100A, 1967/10/18, ETR, Delta, LEO, decayed 1982/06/15.

- OSO 05, 1969 006A, 1969/01/22, ETR, Delta, LEO, decayed 1984/04/28.

- OSO 06, 1969 068A, 1969/08/09, ETR, Delta, LEO, decayed 1981/03/07.

- OSO 07, 1971 083A, 1971/09/29, ETR, LTTAD, LEO, decayed 1974/07/09.

- OSO 08, 1975 057A, 1975/06/21, ETR, Delta, LEO, decayed 1986/07/09.

First launch 1962/03/07

OSP.....U.S., USAF, launch vehicle. Orbital Suborbital Program. Uses a Minuteman II ICBM stages 1 and 2, and Orbital Sciences Corp. Pegasus XL booster as stages 3 and 4, to launch 750 lbs (340 kg) satellites into LEO. First launch 2000/01/26

OSTA.....U.S., NASA, satellite, technology. OFFICE OF SPACE AND TERRESTRIAL APPLICATIONS satellite. Large imaging radar system to create two dimensional images of the Earth's surface.

- OSTA-1, 1981/11/12, ETR, STS-2.

- OSTA-2, 1983/06/18, ETR, STS-7.

- OSTA-, 1984/10/05, ETR, ?

First launch 1981/11/12

Österreichischen Akademie der Wissenschaften.....Austria, organization, Academy of Science, of which the Space Research Institute is a part.

Osumi.....Geographical location, Japan, district.

OSUMI.....Japan, satellite. See OHSUMI.

Oswald, Stephen.....U.S., astronaut, STS-42, 1992/01/22, STS-56, 1993/04/08, STS-67, 1995/03/02. First launch 1992/01/22

Oto Breda.....Europe, aerospace company, joined with Alenia and Agusta to form Finmeccanica in 1995.

OTRAG 1.....West Germany, development of canceled booster. First launch 1977/00/00

OTS.....ESA, satellite, communications. ORBITAL TEST SATELLITE.

- OTS A, None, 1977/09/13, ETR, Delta, FTO.

- OTS 2, 1978 044A, 1978/05/11, ETR, Delta, GEO.

First launch 1977/09/13


U.S., satellite, technology, ORBITAL TEST VEHICLE, LEO. Robotic unmanned, winged X-37B, Air Force. Will land at Vandenberg, AFB, California. First launch 2008/00/00

Ouagadougou.....Hautevolta, organization. 130 N, 10 W. see CNES Tracking stations.

Oussatchev, Yuri.....Russia, cosmonaut, SOYUZ TM 18, 1975/05/24, SOYUZ TM 23, 1976/10/14. First launch 1975/05/24

outer space.....Operational definition, about 60 miles (100 km) altitude above the surface of Earth. The altitude at which a satellite can make 1 orbit before air drag slows it down enough to enter the atmosphere.

OV.....U.S. Air Force, satellite, scientific. ORBITING VEHICLE.

First launch 1965/01/21

OV.....U.S. NASA, satellite, scientific. ORBITING VEHICLE. Part of the SPACE TRANSPORTATION SYSTEM.


- OV-101, Enterprise.





OV-099.....U.S. NASA, satellite, Manned Spacecraft, Space Shuttle, CHALLENGER. Explosion 1986/01/28 killed all on board. See STS.

OV-101.....U.S. NASA, test vehicle, for NASA's Manned Spacecraft Space Shuttle, Enterprise., (test vehicle only, never went into space). See STS.

OV-102.....U.S. NASA, satellite, Manned Spacecraft, Space Shuttle, COLUMBIA. See STS.

OV-103.....U.S. NASA, satellite, Manned Spacecraft, Space Shuttle, DISCOVERY. See STS.

OV-104.....U.S. NASA, satellite, Manned Spacecraft, Space Shuttle, ATLANTIS. See STS. First launch 1985/09/20

OV-105.....U.S. NASA, satellite, Manned Spacecraft, Space Shuttle ENDEAVOUR. See STS.

Overmyer, Robert.....U.S., astronaut, STS-5, 1982/11/11, STS-51B (17), 1985/04/29. First launch 1982/11/11

OWL.....U.S., NASA, satellite, scientific. Study's cosmic-ray effects on Earth's atmosphere. ORBITING WIDE-ANGLE LIGHT COLLECTORS. First launch 2005/00/00

Oxidizer.....The chemical that combines with an fuel to provide the thermal energy in a rocket engine/motor. See propellant, solid propellant, liquid propellant, hybrid propellant.

OXP.....U.S., satellite, communications. Orbital Communications Corp. demonstration communication satellite. Launched by Pegasus/B-52 at Kennedy Space Center into LEO. First launch 1993/02/09

Ozark MCS 2.....USS Ozark MCS 2, recovery ship, part of the fleet which recovered or was on duty and capable of recovering the following: APOLLO 10, APOLLO 11.

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Updated 2007/2/01