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P.....Russia, abbreviation for Proton launch vehicle.

P band.....Electromagnetic frequencies between 225 to 1000 MHz. See band.

P-11.....U.S., satellite bus, considered a subsatellite. Built by Lockheed. Flown on some CORONA, ARGON, LANYARD, GAMBIT, HEXAGON, and some scientific Missions, Used until the 1980's. Was part of Program 989. Primary mission may have been the location and elevation of Soviet air defense radars.

P-14.....U.S., satellite, see EXPLORER 10.

P-2.....U.S., satellite, see PIONEER 5.

P-3.....U.S., satellite, see PIONEER, FTO. First launch 1959/11/26

P-30.....U.S., satellite, see PIONEER, FTO. First launch 1960/09/25

P-31.....U.S., satellite, see PIONEER, FTO. First launch 1960/12/18

P-35.....U.S., satellite, meteorological. Early designation for Program 417, DMSP.

P-70.....U.S., satellite. First launch 1971/06/08

P-72.....U.S., satellite. First launch 1972/10/02

P-76.....U.S. Air Force, satellite, communication propagation experiment. Launched at the WTR by a Scout into LEO. First launch 1976/05/22

P-78.....U.S., satellite, see SOLWIND and SCATHA.

P-87.....U.S., satellite, see POLAR BEAR.

P-87-2.....U.S., satellite, see STACKSAT.

P-90.....U.S., satellite, see STEP 01, FTO. First launch 1994/06/27

P-91.....U.S., satellite, see ARGOS. First launch 1999/02/23

P-97.....UK, satellite, scientific, picosat, LEO. Also known as STP P97 or PICOSAT. STP P97-1 is a US satellite which is also known as PICOSAT 9. First launch 2001/09/30

P&F SUBSATELLITE.....U.S., satellite, scientific. launched from APOLLO. First subsatellite launched.

- P&F SUBSATELLITE, 1971 063D, 1971/08/04, APOLLO 15, Saturn 5, selenocent, 1ST subsatellite launched, from APOLLO 15.

- P&F SUBSATELLITE, 1972 031D, 1972/04/24, APOLLO 16, Saturn 5, launched from APOLLO 16, impacted moon 1972/05/29.

First launch 1971/08/04

P230.....ESA, launch vehicle booster, MPS Europropulsion motor, for Ariane 5 EAP, uses 2 each.

P240.....ESA, launch vehicle booster, MPS Europropulsion motor, for Ariane 5 EAP, uses 2 each.

P4.....France, launch vehicle motor, used in Rita I, stage of Diamant launch vehicle.

P80 FW.....Italy, launch vehicle motor, thrust 508,000 lbf (2261 kN), pressure 1285 psi (88.6 bar), solid propellant HTPB 1912. Manufactured by Fiat Avio. Used on the Vega launch vehicle stage 1.

P9.5.....ESA, launch vehicle motor booster, solid, 1 segment, 145,000 lbf (650 kN), CTPB. Used on Ariane 4.

Pa.....Units of measure, Pascal, pressure or force per unit area. See pascal.

PA.....U.S., space vehicle launch facility, Point Arguello, California (later part of Vandenberg AFB). Location 34o 37'N, 120o 35'W

PA.....Launch vehicle motor, Picatinny Arsenal.

PAC.....U.S., satellite, technology. Test of semi-active gravity gradient stabilizer (SAGS) technique. Launched at the ETR by a LTTA Delta N into a LEO and decayed 04/28/77. First launch 1969/08/09

Pacific Missile Range Facility.....U.S., Navy, organization. Located on Kauai, Hawaii. Also known as PMRF (Pacific Missile Range Facility).

Pacific Ocean Region.....See POR.

PACSAT.....U.S. satellite, telecommunications. Also known as MICROSAT 1, or OSCAR 16. First launch 1990/01/22

Padalka, Gennadi.....Russia, cosmonaut, SOYUZ TM 28, 1998/08/13, Soyuz TMA 04, 2004/04/19. First launch 1998/08/13

PADDLEWHEEL PROBE.....U.S., satellite, see PIONEER 5. First launch 1960/03/11

PADDLEWHEEL SATELLITE.....U.S., satellite, see EXPLOER 6. First launch 1959/08/07

PAFB.....U.S., organization. See Patrick Air Force Base, Florida,

PAGEOS.....U.S., satellite, geodetic. PASSIVE GEOS, passive Echo-type sunlight reflector, 100 foot balloon. Photographed to determine precise location of continents, islands and other land masses to determine geographic points in relation to one another. Launched at the WTR by a TAT Agena D into a LEO. First launch 1966/06/24

Pailes, William.....U.S., astronaut, STS-51J (21), 1985/10/03. First launch 1985/10/03

Paiute ATF 159.....USS Paiute ATF 159, recovery ship, part of the fleet which recovered or was on duty and capable of recovering the following: APOLLO 14.

PAKISTAN COMMUNICATION SATELLITE.....Pakistan, satellite, hamsat (ham satellites). See BADR.

PAKSAT.....Pakistan, satellite, mobile communications, GEO. Was ANATOLIA and PALAPA.First launch 1996/05/16

PAL.....ESA, launch vehicle, strap-on booster, liquid. Uses Viking V1 motor, used on Ariane 4. Propulseur d'appoint liquid, Ariane 4 liquid rocket booster.

palapa.....Indonesia, unity.

PALAPA.....Indonesia, satellite, communication.

- PALAPA 01, 1976 066A, 1976/07/08, ETR, Delta, GEO.

- PALAPA 02, 1977 018A, 1977/03/10, ETR, Delta, GEO.

- PALAPA B1, 1983 059C, 1983/06/18, KSC, STS-007/PAM D, GEO, STS-007.

- PALAPA B2, 1984 011D, 1984/02/04, STS-41B, PAM D, GEO, CHALLENGER, recovered by ST-51A 1984/11/16.

- PALAPA B2P, 1987 029A, 1987/03/20, ESMC, Delta, GEO. Renamed AGILA 1.

- PALAPA B2R, 1990 034A, 1990/04/13, ESMC, Delta 2, GEO, refurbished B2.

- PALAPA B4, 1992 027A, 1992/05/14, ESMC, Delta 2, GEO.

- PALAPA B4, 1992 027A, 1992/05/14, KSC, Delta, GEO.

- PALAPA C1, 1996/02/01, ETR, Atlas 2AS, GEO.

- PALAPA C2, 1996/05/16, Kourou, Ariane 44L V 86, GEO.

First launch 1976/07/08

PALB.....Israel, space vehicle launch facility, Palmachim AFB. Location 31.9N 34.7E, see Yavne.

PALC.....U.S., space vehicle launch facility, Naval Missile Facility, Point Arguello, California, Launch Complex, part of the Western Range, Vandenberg AFB, CA.

Palmachin.....Israel, launch site for Shavit launch vehicle. First launch 1998/09/19

PAM-D.....U.S., launch vehicle. NASA, Payload assist module. Solid rocket booster system to transfer satellites from STS orbits into higher energy orbits. Launched at KSC on STS-5. DoD designation SSB-9 A, used on Delta II, First launch 1982/11/01

PAM-D2.....U.S., launch vehicle Stage with Star-63D engine. Also known as PAM-DII.

PAM-DII.....U.S., launch vehicle Stage with Star-63D engine. Also known as PAM-D2.

PAMS/STU.....U.S. satellite, technology. PASSIVE AERODYNAMICALLY STABILIZED MAGNETICALLY DAMPED SATELLITE, satellite TEST UNIT. Launched from the KSC by STS 77, satellite reentered 1996/10/20. First launch 1996/05/19

Pan.....Saturn moon, one of 19. See Prometheus, Pandora, Atlas, Epimetheus, Janus, Mimas, Helene, Enceladus, Tethys, Calypso, Telesto, Dione, Pan, 1995-S4, Rhea, Titan, Hyperion, Laptus, Phoebe.

PAN AMERICAN SATELLITE.....U.S., satellite. Also known as PANAMSAT or PAS. See PAS.

PanAmSat.....U.S., aerospace company, commercial satellite operator, GALAXY, PAS, SBS. Address: 20 Westport Rd., Wilton, CT 06897,USA. Purchased Europstar in 2005. PanAmSat merged with Intelsat in 2005.


Pandora.....Saturn moon, one of 19. See Prometheus, Pandora, Atlas, Epimetheus, Janus, Mimas, Helene, Enceladus, Tethys, Calypso, Telesto, Dione, Pan, 1995-S4, Rhea, Titan, Hyperion, Laptus, Phoebe.

PANMF.....U.S., organization. See Point Arguello.

PANSAT.....U.S., Navy, communicating, digital. PETITE AMATEUR NAVY SATELLITE. To be launched from the ISS.

First launch 1998/10/29

PAP.....ESA, launch vehicle motor booster, solid, 1 segment, 145,000 lbf (650 kN), CTPB. Used on Ariane 4. Propulseur d'appoint poudre, Ariane 4 solid rocket boosters.

Parabolic orbit.....Orbit that is the minimum escape trajectory.

Parabolic Orbit


A = semimajor axis

A = ∞

c = 1/2 distance between foci

c = ∞

e = eccentricity

e = 1

ε = specific mechanical energy

ε = 0

paraffin.....Launch vehicle propellant, solid, fuel, hydrocarbon. Used in smaller rockets and hybrid rockets. Not used in Spacecraft Launch vehicles.

PARASOL.....France, satellite, characterization of radiative and micro physical properties. Part of A-TRAIN constillation. First launch 2006/04/28

Parazynski, Scott.....U.S., astronaut, STS-66, 1994/11/03, STS-086, 1997/09/25, STS-095, 1998/10/29, STS-100, 2001/4/19. First launch 1994/11/03


- PARCAE 1, 1976 038A, 1976/04/30, WTR, Atlas F, LEO, SUBSATELLITE SS 3.

- PARCAE 2, 1977 112A, 1977/12/07, WTR, Atlas F, LEO, SUBSATELLITE SS 3.

- PARCAE 3, 1980 019A, 1980/03/03, WTR, Atlas F, LEO, SUBSATELLITE EP 3.

- PARCAE 4, None, 1980/12/09, WTR, Atlas E, FTO.

- PARCAE 5, 1983 008A, 1983/02/09, WTR, Atlas H, LEO, SUBSATELLITE SS C.

- PARCAE 6, 1983 056A, 1983/06/09, WTR, Atlas H, LEO, SUBSATELLITE GB 3.

- PARCAE 7, 1984 012A, 1984/02/05, WTR, Atlas H, LEO, SUBSATELLITE JD 3.

- PARCAE 8, 1986 014A, 1986/02/09, WTR, Atlas H, LEO, USA 14, SUBSATELLITE US 15-18.

- PARCAE 9, 1987 043A, 1987/05/15, WTR, Atlas H, LEO, USA 22, SUBSATELLITE US 22-25.

First launch 1976/04/30

Paris.....France, Headquarters for the European Space Agency (ESA).

Parise, Ronald.....U.S., astronaut, STS-35, 1990/12/02, STS-67, 1995/03/02. First launch 1990/12/02

Parker, Robert.....U.S., astronaut, STS-9, 1983/11/28, STS-35, 1990/12/02. First launch 1983/11/28

parking orbit.....Temporary orbit.

Parks Observatory.....Australia, organization. Radio observatory. The 64 meter Radio dish can be combined with Tidbinbilla as part of NASAs DSN.

Parus.....Russia, Constellation Vela, the Sail.

PARUS.....Russia, satellite, military navigation, LEO.

- PARUS ?, 1996/09/05, Plesetsk, Cosmos 3M, COSMOS 2310, 2321, 2327, 2334, 2341, 2346, 2361.. First launch 1974/12/26

Pas.....U.S., payload adapter system.

PAS.....U.S. satellite, telecommunication. PANAMSAT, PAN AMERICAN SATELLITE. Name changed to IS or INTELSAT in 2007.

- PAS 01, 1988 051C, 1988/06/15, Kourou, Ariane 4, GEO, US, PANAMSAT 1.

- PAS 02, 1994 040A, 1994/07/08, Kourou, Ariane 44L, GEO, PANAMSAT 2.

- PAS 03, None, 1994/12/01, Kourou, Ariane 42P, FTO, PANAMSAT.

- PAS 03R, 1996 002A, 1996/01/12, Kourou, Ariane 44L, GEO, PANAMSAT 3.

- PAS 04, 1995 040A, 1995/08/03, Kourou, Ariane 42L, GEO, PANAMSAT 4.

First launch 1988/06/15

PAS LITE.....U.S., satellite, communications. GEO. PAN AMERICAN SATELLITE.

Pascal.....Units of measure, pressure or force per unit area. 1 pascal = 10-5 bar.

PASCOMSAT.....U.S., satellite, see OV1-8. First launch 1966/07/14

PASIFIK SATELIT NUSANTARA.....Indonesia, organization. See PSN.

Pasiphae.....Jupiter moon, one of 16. See also Metis, Adrastea, Amalthea, Thebe, Io, Europa, Ganymede, Callisto, Leda, Sinope, Himalia, Lysithea, Elara, Ananke, Carme, Pasiphae.

PASSIVE GEOS.....U.S. satellite. See PAGEOS.

PASSIVE RELAY.....U.S., satellite, see ECHO 1 First launch 1960/08/12

PATHFINDER.....U.S. USAF, satellite, military communications. Also known as SBSS PATHFINDER.First launch 2008/00/00

Patrick Air Force Base.....U.S., space vehicle launch facility. Patrick Air Force Base, Florida, launch site. Separate entity of the Eastern Range (ER).

- 1940 Banana River Naval Air Station

- 1948 Joint Long Range Proving Ground (JLRPG)

- 1950 Patrick Air Force Base.

In early days some missiles were assembled at PAFB and transported to Cape Canaveral (another part of the ER) for Launch.

Patrick, Nicholas.....U.S., astronaut, STS-116, 2006/12/09. First launch 2006/12/09

Patsaye, Viktor.....Russia, cosmonaut, SOYUZ 11, 1971/06/06. First launch 1971/06/06

Pavel Belyayev.....Russia, tracking ship. See also tracking ships.

PAWA.....U.S., space vehicle launch facility, Drop Zone, Point Arguello Warning Area. Location 36.0o N 123.0o W, part of Vandenberg AFB.

Pawelczyk, Jim.....U.S., astronaut, STS-090, 1998/04/17. First launch 1998/04/17

Payette, Julie.....Canada, astronaut, STS-096,1999/5/27. First launch 1999/05/27

payload.....The load that is carried by a rocket or space vehicle and consists of things (as passengers or instruments) that relate directly to the purpose of the flight.

Payload Operation and Application Centre.....China, organization, see POAC.

Payload RTV-7.....U.S., satellite, also known as EXPLORER 1 or Deal 1

Payton, Gary.....U.S., astronaut, STS-51C (15), 1985/01/24. First launch 1985/01/24

PBAA.....Launch vehicle propellant, solid, fuel. See Polybutadiene acrylic acid.

PBAN.....Launch vehicle propellant, solid, fuel. See Polybutadiene acrylonitrile.

PC.....U.S., space vehicle launch facility. See Port Canaveral, Florida.

PCP.....Launch vehicle propellant, solid, fuel & binder, see polycaprolactone polyol.

PCSAT.....U.S., satellite, armature radio. FTO. First launch 2001/09/25

PDP.....U.S. satellite, satellite. PLASMA DIAGNOSTIC PACKAGE.

- PDP, 1985 063B, 1985/08/01, KSC, STS-51F, LEO, CHALLENGER, Landed 08/6/85

First launch 1985/08/01

PE.....Potential Energy. See orbital total energy.

Peacekeeper.....U.S., launch vehicle, LGM-118, MGM-118, ICBM, 2800 lbm (1300 kg) LEO.

PEG.....Launch vehicle propellant, solid, fuel & binder, see polyethylene glycol.

PegaStar.....U.S., satellite bus, Orbital Sciences Corp. LEO.

Pegasus.....U.S., launch vehicle, Civilian Launch Vehicle with wings, 3 stages, launched from an aircraft, LEO. DoD designation ASB-11 A.

- Pegasus, 780 lbs (355 kg), LEO.

- Pegasus XL, 935 lbs (425 kg), LEO. Stage 0, L-1011 aircraft. Stage 1, Orion 50SXL motor. Stage 2, Orion 50XL motor. Stage 3, Orion 38 motor. Stage 4, Haps.

- Pegasus XL/Star 37, 286 lb. (130 kg), GTO.

- 1990/04/05, PEGSAT/DARPSAT, Pegasus.

- 1991/07/17, DARPSAT 2/MICROSAT 1-7, Pegasus/HAPS.

- 1993/02/09, ORBICOMM CDS, SCD-1, Pegasus.

- 1993/04/25, ALEXIS, Pegasus.

- 1994/05/19, STEP 2, Pegasus/HAPS.

- 1994/06/27, STEP 1, Pegasus XL.

- 1994/08/03, APEX, Pegasus.

- 1995/04/03, ORBCOMM 1, 2, MICROLAB-1, Pegasus.

- 1995/06/22, STEP 3, Pegasus XL.

- 1996/03/08, REX, Pegasus XL.

- 1996/05/17, MSTI-III, Pegasus.

- 1996/07/02, TOMS-EP, Pegasus XL.

- 1996/08/21, FAST, Pegasus XL.

- 1996/11/04, SAC-B/HETE, Pegasus XL.

- 1997/04/21, MINISAT, Pegasus XL.

First launch 1990/04/05

Pegasus.....Winged horse of Greek mythology.

PEGASUS.....U.S., satellite, scientific. Investigate Micrometeoroid. Named after the winged horse of Greek mythology.

- PEGASUS 01, 1965 009A, 1965/02/16, ETR, Saturn 1, LEO, decayed 09/17/78.

- PEGASUS 02, 1965 039A, 1965/05/25, ETR, Saturn 1, LEO, decayed 11/3/79.

- PEGASUS 03, 1965 060A, 1965/07/30, ETR, Saturn 1, LEO, decayed 08/4/69.

First launch 1965/02/16


PEGSAT.....U.S. satellite. Also known as PACIFIC. PEGASUS SATELLITE launch dropped from B-52, launched by Pegasus into a LEO.

First launch 1990/04/05

PEOLE.....France, satellite, meteorological. Gathered data from meteorological balloon system to be utilized for ECOLE. Launched at Kourou by Diamant B into a LEO. First launch 1970/12/12

Peoples Liberation Army.....China, military space agency, PLA. Manages teh SHENZHOU manned program and military space activities.

Percheron.....U.S., SSI, sounding rocket, private. See also Conestoga. First launch 1981/08/05

Peri-.....Orbit. Prefix, near.



apsis (point in an eccentric orbit)


cynthion (moon)


ge or gee (gaia, earth, spelled)


helion, helio (sun)


jove (jupiter)


luna (moon)


selene (moon)

periapsis.....Orbit component. Closest approach to planet or other body. Other names: Earth - perigee; Jupiter - perijove; Lunar - periselene or periluna; Sun - perihelion.

Pericenter.....The point in an orbit closest to the body, other than the Sun or Earth.

pericynthion.....Orbit. Closes distance to the moon.

perigeal.....Orbital component. See perigee.

Perigean.....Orbital component. See perigee.

perigee.....Orbital component. Closes approach to Earth. Kinetic energy of s spacecraft is at a mzximum and potentioal energy of the spacecraft is at a minimum. See ellictipcal orbit.

Perigee Kick Motor.....China, launch vehicle motor, PKM and EPKM.

Perihelian.....Orbital component. The nearest point of the orbit to the Sun.

perihelion.....Orbital component. The nearest point of the orbit to the Sun.

perijove.....Orbital component. Closes approach to Jupiter.

perilune.....Orbital component. Closest approach to the moon.

Period of revolution of a planet planet.....See planet.

Period of Revolution.....The time for a planet, moon, satellite, spacecraft, etc., to make one complete orbit. See Planet or orbit.

Periodic orbit.....An orbit that has a constant period, time of rotation.

periseleno.....Orbital component. The point in an orbit around the moon, closest to the surface of the moon.

Perry.....USS Perry, recovery ship, part of the fleet which recovered or was on duty and capable of recovering the following: MERCURY Redstone 3.

Perseus.....Russia, mission title for Soyuz TM-28. First launch 1999/01/13

Peterson, Donald.....U.S., astronaut, STS-6, 1983/04/04. First launch 1983/04/04


PFRR.....U.S., organization. Poker Flats Research Range. See Poker Flats Range.

PGA.....Launch vehicle propellant, solid, fuel & binder, polyglycol adipate.

PGM-11 A.....U.S., launch vehicle, see Redstone.

PGM-17 A.....U.S., launch vehicle, Thor.

PGM-19 A.....U.S., launch vehicle, Jupiter.

PHASE 3D.....Germany, satellite, mobile communications, LEO. See AMSAT PHASE 3D. Also known as AMSAT-OSCAR 40, or AO 40.

Phasing orbit.....- An orbit maintained until the geometry is favorable to establish a desired final orbit.

- An orbit between the Earth and Moon that follows the Moon around in its orbit.
phasing1.gifFigure 39 WMAP Trajectory to L2, showing Phasing Orbits and Lissajous Orbits.

phi.....Φ, φ, phi, 21, Greek Alphabet.

Philippe Perrin.....France, CNES, astronaut, STS-111, 2002/06/05. First launch 2002/06/05

Phillip DD 498.....USS Phillip DD 498, recovery ship, part of the fleet which recovered or was on duty and capable of recovering the following: MERCURY Atlas 8.

Phillips, John L.....U.S., astronaut, STS-100, 2001/4/19. SOYUZ TMA 6 Expedition 11, 2005/4/15, First launch 2001/04/19

Phillips Magnavox Electronics.....U.S., aerospace company, became part of G.M. Hughs Electronics in 1992.

phobos.....See Phobus.

Phobos.....Mars moon. See also Demos.

PHOBOS.....Russia, international project to study Mars and its moon Phobos. Also known as FOBOS.

- PHOBOS 01, 1988 058A, 1988/07/07, Tyuratam, SL-12, MARS Trajectory.

- PHOBOS 02, 1988 059A, 1988/07/12, Tyuratam, SL-12, MARS Trajectory.

First launch 1988/07/07

PHOBOS GRUNT.....Russia, satellite, scientific. Land on Phobos and return sample. First launch 2009/00/00

Phobus.....Son and attendant of Ares. Also personification of the fear which possesses armies and causes their defeat.

Phoebe.....Saturn moon, one of 19. See Prometheus, Pandora, Atlas, Epimetheus, Janus, Mimas, Helene, Enceladus, Tethys, Calypso, Telesto, Dione, Pan, 1995-S4, Rhea, Titan, Hyperion, Laptus, Phoebe.

PHOENIX.....U.S., satellite, Mars robotic lander. The robotic lander will search for water in Mars north polar region. First launch 2007/00/00

PHOTON.....Russia, satellite, scientific. Analyze gamma rays from the sun.

pi.....Π, π, pi, 16, Greek Alphabet.

PICARD.....France, satellite, microsatellite, scientific, solar observation. First launch 2008/00/00

Picasso, Pablo.....Spain, 1881-1973, painter.

PICASSO.....Europe, CNES/U.S. NASA, satellite, scientific. Lidar instrumentation.

PICCOLO CUBO DEL POLITECNICO DI TORINO.....Italy, satellite, imaging, see PICPOT.

PICOSAT.....UK, satellite, see P97.

PICOSAT.....U.S., satellite, technology. First launch 2000/01/24

picosatellite.....Satellite, weight 0.22 - 2.2 lbs (0.1-1 kg)

PicoStar.....U.S., satellite bus, Orbital Sciences Corp. Micro satellites.,

PICPOT.....Italy, satellite, imaging. Also known as PICCOLO CUBO DEL POLITECNICO DI TORINO First launch 2006/07/26

Pierce DD 753.....USS Pierce DD 753, recovery ship, part of the fleet which recovered or was on duty and capable of recovering the following: MERCURY Atlas 7.

Piers Sellers.....U.S., astronaut, STS-112, 2002/10/07, STS-121, 2006/07/04. First launch 2002/10/07

PIGGYPACK SATELLITE.....U.S., satellite, see TRANSIT 2-A First launch 1960/06/22

PILLBOX.....U.S., satellite, see TIROS 1 First launch 1960/04/01

PION.....Russia, satellite, scientific. Research of the upper atmosphere Deployed from RESURS F satellite.

- PION 01, 1989 038C, 1989/06/09, RESURS-F, SL-4, LEO, 1989/07/23.

- PION 02, 1989 038D, 1989/06/09, RESURS-F, SL-4, LEO, 1989/07/24.

- PION 03, 1989 055C, 1989/08/07, RESURS-F, SL-4, LEO, 1989/09/19.

- PION 04, 1989 055D, 1989/08/07, RESURS-F, SL-4, LEO, 1989/09/19.

- PION 05, 1992 056C, 1992/08/19, RESURS-F, SL-4, LEO, 1992/09/25.

- PION 06, 1992 056D, 1992/08/19, RESURS-F, SL-4, LEO, 1992/09/24.

First launch 1989/06/09

PIONEER.....U.S., satellite, scientific. Explore the planets (1, 2, 3, 9, E failed), (4 Moon), (5, 6, 7, 8 Solar Orbits), (10 Jupiter), (11 Jupiter & Saturn), (Pioneer-Venus 1, 2 Venus+.)

- PIONEER 01, 1958 H1, 1958/10/11, ETR, Thor Able, Trans LUNA, decayed 10/12/5.

- PIONEER 02, None, 1958/11/08, ETR, Thor Able, FTO.

- PIONEER 03, 1958 H1, 1958/12/06, ETR, Juno II, Trans Luna decayed 12/7/59.

- PIONEER 04, 1959 N1, 1959/03/03, ETR, Juno II, Solar orbit.

- PIONEER P-3, None, 1959/11/26, ETR, Atlas Able, FTO.

- PIONEER 05, 1960 A1, 1960/03/11, ETR, Thor Able, Solar orbit, DATA UNTIL 06/26.

- PIONEER P-30, None, 1960/09/25, ETR, Atlas Able, FTO.

- PIONEER P-31, None, 1960/12/18, ETR, Atlas Able, FTO.

- PIONEER 06, 1965 105A, 1965/12/16, ETR, TAD, Solar orbit.

- PIONEER 07, 1966 075A, 1966/08/17, ETR, TAD, Solar orbit.

- PIONEER 08, 1967 123A, 1967/12/13, ETR, TAD, Solar orbit.

- PIONEER 09, 1968 100A, 1968/11/08, ETR, TAID, Solar orbit.

- PIONEER E, None, 1969/08/27, ETR, LTTA-Delta, FTO.

- PIONEER 10, 1972 012A, 1972/03/03, ETR, Atlas Centaur, Escape solar, - PIONEER F.

- PIONEER 11, 1973 019A, 1973/04/06, ETR, Atlas Centaur, Trans Solar, - PIONEER G.

- PIONEER 12, 1978 051A, 1978/05/20, ETR, Atlas Centaur, Trans VENUS, - PIONEER VENUS 1, or PV1.

- PIONEER 13, 1978 078A, 1978/08/08, ETR, Atlas Centaur, Trans VENUS, - PIONEER VENUS 2 or PV2.

First launch 1958/10/11

PIONEER VENUS MULTIPROVE.....U.S., satellite, see PV2.

PIONEER VENUS ORBITER.....U.S., satellite, see PV1.

pirs.....Russia, means pier.

PIRS.....Russia, satellite, ISSA module, LEO, placed in orbit by Progress-M. Was the TSIKOVOCHNY OSTEK N0 1 or SO-1, docking module article 240 GK N0 1L. Built by Energia. First launch 2001/09/14

Pisces.....Astrological Sign, Fish, 2/19/3/20.

PIX.....U.S. satellite, scientific. PLASMA INTERACTION EXPERIMENT. Launched at the WTR by a Delta into LEO. First launch 1978/03/05

PKM.....China, launch vehicle motor, Perigee Kick Motor, manufactured in China, used on the CZ-2E launch vehicle.

PL-40.....India, launch vehicle motor, Polar launch Vehicle Liquid 40 tons. See PS2.

PLA.....China, military space agency, see Peoples Liberation Army.

Planck.....Max Planck, 1858-1947, quantum theorist.

PLANCK.....Europe, ESA, satellite, scientific, see PLANCK SURVEYOR.

PLANCK SURVEYOR.....Europe, ESA, satellite, scientific. Measure cosmic background. First launch 2005/00/00

Planet.....Radius of orbit


Planet Radius of orbit

[106 km]























Period of Revolution


Planet Period of Revolution




27.3 days


87.97 days


224.7 days


365.25 days


687 days


11.86 years


29.46 years


84 years


164.8 years


284.8 years

Diameter of Sun and planets


Planet Diameter [km]























Mass of planets

Earth = 5.976x1024 kg


Planet Relative Mass

Earth = 1























Acceleration of Gravity at surface


Planet Acceleration of Gravity
























Escape Velocity at Surface


Planet Escape Velocity
























PLANET-A.....Japan, satellite. See SUISEI

PLANET-B.....Japan, ISAS, satellite, scientific, Mars orbit. Orbiter that will dip to within 108 miles of the Mars surface. Launch using a M-5. Renamed NOXOMI. Will orbit Mars in 2003. First launch 1998/07/03

Plant No. 293 Dept.....Russia, Poblipki, Kaliningrad, Korolev, organization. See OKB-2.



PLASMA MOTOR GENERATOR.....U.S., satellite. See PMG.

PLASMA PROBE.....U.S., satellite, see EXPLOER 10. First launch 1961/03/25

Pleiades.....Greek, a cluster of stars in the constellation Taurus, six of which are visible and represent the six daughters of Atlas.

PLEIADES.....France and Italy, satellite, optical, high resolution, 2 satellite constellation. Also known as COSMOS PLEIADES. Part of Orfeo program, takes 70 cm per pixal high resolution digital images of Earth. First launch 2008/00/00

Plesetsk Cosmodrom.....Russia, space vehicle launch facility. Plesetsk, Russia Cosmodrom (launch site) is located south of Archangel at a latitude which enables satellites to be placed in polar and highly elliptical orbits. Location 62.7o N, 40.3o E. Its existence was established following its first orbital launch (Cosmos 112) in March 1966. The Plesetsk Cosmodrom, also called Mirny, is known to Russians as the Northern Cosmodrom and has similarities to Vandenberg Air Force Base in the U.S. It contains a large number of launch pads as well as underground silos. It has been the world's busiest space center, supporting over 1200 launches. It is near the town of Plesetsk, it is collocated with the town of Mirny. The facility can launch Soyuz, Molniya, Tsyklon, and Cosmos vehicles. POC Glavkosmos, 9, Krasnoproletarskaya St, Moscow 103030, Russia or the Space Commerce Corporation. Cyrillic КОСМОДРОМ ПЛЕСЕЦК, for Cosmodrom Plesetsk, or Plesetsk Kosmodrom.

Pluto.....The 9th planet from the Sun, 3,666 million miles from the Sun, period of revolution 249 years, diameter 1,400 miles, 1 satellites (See Charon), unknown rings. graphic symbol.

pluto.gifFigure 40 Pluto graphic symbol.

Pluto orbit.....Orbit around the planet Pluto.

PLUTO EXPRESS.....U.S., NASA/JPL, satellite, scientific. Studying Titan, Triton, Pluto and icy bodies beyond Neptune. Satellite would arrive at Pluto about 2013-16. First launch 2006/00/00


PMG.....U.S., satellite, tether experiment. PLASMA MOTOR GENERATOR. First launch 1993/06/23

PMRF.....U.S., space vehicle launch facility. See Pacific Missile Range Facility.

PN06.....U.S., satellite, see PIONEER 6.

PO.....Russia, organization, production association.

PO Arsenal imeni M. V. Frunze.....Russia, organization. See TsKB-7.

PO.64.....France, launch vehicle motor, used in Rubis launch vehicle stage, stage 3 of Diamant.

PO.68.....France, launch vehicle motor, with a Colibri grain, stage 3 of Diamant.

POAC.....China, organization, Payload Operation and Application Centre, P.O. Box 8701,100080, P.R., China, Tel:86-010-6263.0662, Fax: 86-010-6263.0645,



POGOS.....U.S. Satellites. See OGO 4.

First launch 1967/07/28

POGS.....U.S., satellites, Classified, USA 56, 1990 031A. Launched at the WTR by an Atlas E into a Polar Orbit. First launch 1990/04/11

Pogue, Bill.....U.S., astronaut, APOLLO/SKYLAB 4, 1973/11/16. First launch 1973/11/16

Point Arguello.....U.S., space vehicle launch facility. Navy launch facility (Point Arguello Naval Missile Facility (PANMF)) used to launch USAF's SAMOS satellites. Facility became part of Vandenberg Air Force Base.

Point Arguello Naval Missile Facility.....U.S., space vehicle launch facility. See Point Arguello

Poker Flats Range.....U.S., organization. Poker Flat Research Range is owned by the Geophysical Institute of the University of Alaska, Fairbanks, AL, U.S. The sounding rocket facility mission offerings are primarily auroral and middle-upper atmosphere research since 1968. The site is located 30 miles northeast of Fairbanks.

POLAIRE.....France, satellite, scientific. Launched at Kourou by a Diamant B, FTO. Also known as Diamant B-4 or D-2A Polar. First launch 1971/12/05

Polansky, Mark.....STS-098, 2001/02/07, STS-116, 2006/12/09. First launch 2001/2/7

polar orbit.....The satellite travels over the north and south poles.

Polar Orbit, first.....U.S. DISCOVERER 1, first satellite to be placed in polar orbit, launch from Vandenberg on 1959/02/28

Polar Satellite Launch Vehicle.....India, launch vehicle. See PSLV.

POLAR.....U.S. NASA, satellite, science, HEO. Part of the Global Geospace Science (GGS) program. Part of the International Solar-Terrestrial Physics (ISTP) Program. Measure the energetic behavior impact of the Sun on the Earth. See also WIND. Launched at the WTR by a Delta 2. First launch 1996/02/24


POLAR BEAR.....U.S., satellite, scientific. POLAR BEAR, POLAR BEACON EXPERIMENTAL AND AURORAL RESEARCH satellite, sidelined for 8 years in the National Air and Space Museum, was a former Transit navigation satellite replacement. Outfitted with additional instrumentation and launched to photograph the northern lights. Launched at the WSMC by a Scout into LEO. 1986/11/14

POLAR PLATFORM/ENVISAT.....Europe, satellite, earth observation. Polar platform is the structure of the ENVIRONMENTAL SATELLITE. See ENVISAT.


Polechtchouk, Alexandre.....Russia, cosmonaut. See Poleschuk.

Poleshchuk, Alexander.....Russia, cosmonaut, SOYUZ TM 16, 1993/01/24. First launch 1993/01/24

Polet.....Russia, Omsk, organization, manufactures the Cosmos-3M rocket.

Polet NPO.....Russia, organization, manufactures rocket engines. Was the Omsk Aviation Plant.

Poliakov, Valeri.....Russia, cosmonaut. See Polyakov.

POLKA DOT BALLOON.....U.S., satellite, see EXPLOER 9. First launch 1961/02/16

POLLUX.....France, scientific satellite.

- POLLUX/CASTOR, 1973/05/21, Kourou, Diamant B, FTO.

- POLLUX/CASTOR, 1975/02/06, Kourou, Diamant B, LEO, STARLETTE.

- POLLUX/CASTOR, 1975/05/17, Kourou, Diamant B-P4, LEO, D.

First launch 1973/05/21

POLR.....U.S., satellite, see POLAR.

Polyakov, Valery.....Russia, cosmonaut, SOYUZ TM 06, 1988/08/29, SOYUZ TM 18, 1994/01/08. First launch 1988/08/29

Polyblock UR-500.....Russia, launch vehicle, see Proton.

Polybutadiene acrylic acid.....Launch vehicle propellant, see PBAA. PBAAs typical formulation is PBAA + AP + Al + small amounts of additives, Is up to 265. See Solid propellant for more information.

Polybutadiene acrylonitrile.....Launch vehicle propellant, see PBAN. PBAMs typical formulation is PBAN + AP + Al + small amounts of additives, Is up to 265. See Solid propellant for more information.

polycaprolactone polyol.....Launch vehicle propellant, solid, fuel & binder, also known as PCP.

polyethylene glycol.....Launch vehicle propellant, solid, fuel & binder, see PEG.

polyglycol adipate.....Launch vehicle propellant, solid, fuel & binder, also known as PGA.

polyot.....Russia, flight .

Polyot.....Russia, launch vehicle, built by Energia, based upon a modified Start. Launched from An-124-100 Ruslan aircraft, payload 6600 lbs (3000 kg). Operated by Vosdushhny Start, Air launch company. First launch 2003/00/00

POLYOT.....Russia, satellite, anti-satellite tests. Maneuverable satellite capable of changing orbits Also known as I2B..

- POLYOT 1, 1963 043A, Tyuratam, SL-5, LEO, decayed 1982/10/16.

First launch 1963/11/01

polypropylene glycol.....Launch vehicle propellant, solid, fuel & binder, also known as PPG. C6H14O3

Polysulfide.....U.S., launch vehicle propellant, solid, fuel. Chemical symbol -(SC5H10O2S)-. Developed by Thiokol. Polysulfide + AP, Is about 200.

polyurethane polyester.....Launch vehicle propellant, solid, fuel & binder, also known as PU.

POLYUS.....Russia, satellite, space weapons platform. Launched 1987/05/15, Baikonur, by Energia, FTO. Also known as 15F19DM and SKIF-DM.

Polyut.....Russia, launch vehicle. Also known as 11A59, derived from the R-7.

Ponce de Leon.....U.S., organization, NASA, STDN, Spaceflight Tracking and Data Network. Ponce de Leon. For STS, Attn.: Commanding Officer, Ponce de Leon Inlet, P.O. Box 370, New Symurna, FL 32069.

Ponchatoula AO 148.....USS Ponchatoula AO 148, recovery ship, part of the fleet which recovered or was on duty and capable of recovering the following: GEMINI 4, GEMINI 6, GEMINI 7, APOLLO 14.

Pontes, Marcos.....Brazil, cosmonaut, SOYUZ TMA 8, 2006/03/30. First launch 2006/03/30

Popov, Leonid.....Russia, cosmonaut, SOYUZ 35, 1980/04/09, SOYUZ 40, 1981/05/14, SOYUZ T7, 1982/08/19. First launch 1980/04/09

Popovich, Pavel.....Russia, cosmonaut, SOYUZ 14, 1974/07/03, VOSTOK 04 (GOLDEN EAGLE), 1962/08/12. First launch 1962/08/12

POPPY.....U.S., NAVY, satellite, signal intelligence, flew in constellation. See GRAB.

POR.....Pacific Ocean Region. The area over the Pacific Ocean where GEO satellites are positioned.

Port Canaveral.....U.S., space vehicle launch facility, Florida. U.S. See Cape Canaveral Air Station.

Port Stanley.....Falkland Island, organization. Location 520 S, 580 W. See ESTRACK.

porte-avions.....French for carrier.

Portia.....Uranus moon, one of 17. See Miranda, Ariel, Umbriel, Titania, Oberon, Puck, Belinda, Rosalind, Portia, Juliet, Dosdemona, Cressida, Bianca, Ophelia, Cordelia, Caliban, Sycorax.


POSAT.....Portugal, satellite, experimental. PORTUGAL SATELLITE, host earth imaging systems. First launch at Kourou by Ariane 40, LEO. 1993/09/26

Poseidon.....Greece, god of the Sea.

Poseidon.....U.S., launch vehicle, UGM-73, ICBM, 440 lbm (200 kg) LEO.

Posigrade orbit.....An orbit which has an inclination (i) of less than 90o. The satellite travels in the same direction as Earth's rotation west to east. Also known as prograde orbit.

Potassium nitrate.....Launch vehicle propellant, solid, oxidizer. Chemical symbol KNO3. Also known as KN.

Potassium perchlorate.....Launch vehicle propellant, solid, oxidizer. Chemical symbol KClO4. Also known as KP.

Potential Energy.....See orbital total energy. Also known as PE.

POTOK.....Russia, satellite, communication, military, GEO. Also known as 11F663, GEYSER, and GEIZER. Launched at Baikonur by a Proton into GEO, COSMOS 1366. First launch 1982/05/18

Pound.....Currency of Great Britain.

poursuite.....French for tracking.

Power DD 839.....USS Power DD 839, recovery ship, part of the fleet which recovered or was on duty and capable of recovering the following: GEMINI 6, GEMINI 7.

PPG.....Launch vehicle propellant, solid, fuel & binder, polypropylene glycol.

PRACTICE.....China, satellite, scientific, renamed SKW-2, also called CHINA 2. See SKW. First launch 1971/03/03

Pratt & Whitney Orbus 21D.....U.S., launch vehicle motor, see Orbus 21D.

Pratt & Whitney RL10A-4-1.....U.S., launch vehicle motor, see RL10A-4-1.

Pratt & Whitney RL10A-4-2.....U.S., launch vehicle motor, see RL10A-4-2.

Pratt & Whitney Orbus 21G.....U.S., launch vehicle motor, see Orbus 21G.

Pratt & Whitney RD-180.....U.S., launch vehicle motor, see RD-180.

Pratt & Whitney RL10A-4.....U.S., launch vehicle motor, see RL10A-4.

PRC.....Peoples Republic of China, NORAD designation for China satellites.

precessing orbit.....See walking orbit.

Precourt, Charles.....U.S., astronaut, STS-55, 1993/04/26, STS-71, 1995/06/27, STS-084, 1997/05/15, STS-091, 1998/06/02. First launch 1993/04/26

Preserver ARS 8.....USS Preserver ARS 8, recovery ship, part of the fleet which recovered or was on duty and capable of recovering the following: APOLLO-SOYUZ.

Pretoria.....South Africa, organization. 260 S, 28 E0. See CNES Tracking stations.

Priboy.....Russia, launch vehicle, 2200 kg LEO. Also known as Surf.

Prima.....Italy, satellite bus, platform by Italy for multi-applications, built by Alenia Aerospazio. First use will be on DAVID satellite. First launch 2004/00/00

Prime recovery ship.....U.S. Navy ships which received the crew and/or capsule.

- USS Bennington, CVS 20, prime recovery ship for APOLLO 4.

- USS Borie, DD 704, prime recovery ship for Little Joe 2 (Sam).

- USS Boxer, CV 21, prime recovery ship for APOLLO 1.

- USS Decatur, DD 936, prime recovery ship for MA-4 (2 recovery ships).

- USS Donner, LSD 20, prime recovery ship for MR-2, MA-2.

- USS Essex, LHD 2, prime recover ship for APOLLO 7,.

- USS Guadalcanal, LPH 7, prime recovery ship for GEMINI 10, APOLLO 9.

- USS Guam, LPH 9, prime recovery ship for GEMINI 11.

- USS Hornet, CVS 12, prime recovery ship for APOLLO 3, 11, 12.

- USS Intrepid, CVS-11, prime recovery ship for GEMINI 3,.

- USS Iwo Jima, LPH 2, prime recovery ship for APOLLO 13.

- USS John R. Pierce (SS 753), prime recovery ship for MA-7 (Carpenter).

- USS Kearsarge, CV-33, prime recovery ship for Mercury-Cooper.

- USS Kiowa, ATF-72, prime recovery ship for Able & Baker, 1959/05/28.

- USS Lake Champlain, CV 39, primer recovery ship for MA-5 (Enos) (2 recovery ships), GEMINI 2, 5.

- USS Leonard Mason, DD 852, ? prime recover ship for GEMINI 8.

- USS New Orleans, LPH 11, prime recovery ship for APOLLO 14, Skylab 4, APOLLO-Soyuz.

- USS Noa, DD-841, prime recovery ship for Mercury-Glenn.

- USS Okinawa, LPH 3, prime recovery ship for APOLLO 6, 15.

- USS Plymouth Rock, LSD 29, prime recovery ship for MA-4 (2 recovery ships).

- USS Preserver, ARS 8, prime recovery ship for Little Joe 1A.

- USS Princeton, LPH 5, prime recovery ship for APOLLO 10.

- USS Recovery, ARS 43, prime recovery ship for Little Joe 5A.

- USS Salvager, ARSD 3, prime recovery ship for Little Joe I.

- USS Stormes, DD-780, prime recovery ship for MA-5 (Enos)(2 recovery ships).

- USS Strong, DD-758, prime recovery ship for Big Joe 1.

- USS Ticonderoga, CV 14, prime recovery ship for APOLLO 15, 16, 17, Skylab 2.

- USS Valley Forge, CV 45, prime recovery ship for MR-1A.

- USS Wasp, LDH 1, prime recovery ship for GEMINI 4, 6, 7, 9, 12.

- USS Yorktown, CV 10, prime recovery ship for APOLLO 8,.

PRIME.....U.S., Air Force, satellite, technology. Precision Recovery Including Maneuvering Entry. Part of START program, which included ASSET, and X24A lifting body program.

- PRIME 1, 1966/12/21, WTR, Atlas, SV-5D.

- PRIME 2, 1967/03/05, WTR, Atlas, SV-5D-II.

- PRIME 3, 1967/04/19, WTR, Atlas, SV-5D-III.

First launch 1966/12/21

Princeton.....USS Princeton, LPH 5, prime recovery ship for APOLLO 10.

priroda.....Russia, nature.

PRIRODA.....Russia, satellite, scientific. Laboratory docked with MIR. Launched at Tyuratam by Proton K. First launch 1996/04/23

PRISMA.....Sweden, satellite, robotic rendezvous mission, 2 satellite constellation, SSO. First launch 2008/00/00

Proba.....Belgium, satellite bus, Verhaert, micro satellite. TubSat,

PROBA.....Belgium, satellite, micro satellite, scientific, LEO SSO. PROJECT FOR ON-BOARD AUTONOMY. First launch 2001/10/22

probe.....Any device inserted into an environment for the purpose of obtaining information about the environment. Specifically, an instrumented vehicle moving through the atmosphere or space, or landing upon another celestial body to obtain information about the specific environment.

PROBE 1.....China, satellite, see TAN CE.

prognoz.....Russia, forecast

PROGNOZ.....Russia, satellite, reconnaissance, GEO. COSMOS 2345, 2350

PROGNOZ.....Russia, France, Hungary, Czechoslovakia, Sweden, satellite, scientific. Studied the solar wind and the Sun. Third generation of PROGRNOZ M was also known as INTERBALL.

- PROGNOZ 01, 1972 029A, 1972/04/14, Tyuratam, SL-6, HEO.

- PROGNOZ 02, 1972 046A, 1972/06/29, Tyuratam, SL-6, HEO, 1982/12/15.

- PROGNOZ 03, 1973 009A, 1973/02/15, Tyuratam, SL-6, HEO.

- PROGNOZ 04, 1975 122A, 1975/12/22, Tyuratam, SL-6, HEO.

- PROGNOZ 05, 1976 112A, 1976/11/25, Tyuratam, SL-6, HEO.

- PROGNOZ 06, 1977 094A, 1977/09/22, Tyuratam, SL-6, HEO.

- PROGNOZ 07, 1978 101A, 1978/10/30, Tyuratam, SL-6, HEO, 1980/10/22.

- PROGNOZ 08, 1980 103A, 1980/12/25, Tyuratam, SL-6, HEO.

- PROGNOZ 09, 1983 067A, 1983/07/05, Tyuratam, SL-6, HEO.

- PROGNOZ 10, 1985 033A, 1985/04/28, Tyuratam, SL-6, HEO.

First launch 1972/04/14

prograde orbit.....Orbits of the Earth in the same direction as the rotation of the Earth (west-to-east).See posigrade orbit.

program.....programme (Fr),, programm (D).

Program.....U.S., See DoD Designation.

Program 1010.....U.S., satellite, program KENNAN/CRYSTAL, KH-11, reconnaissance satellite. See also Program 5500.

Program 102.....U.S., satellite, signal intelligence. Satellite program, managed by the USAF for NSA. Also known as Program 698bk, Program 770, and Subprogram F. Developed the FERRET Satellites.

Program 102.....U.S., satellite, Heavy ELINT Satellite. See also 698, Program 704, Program 770.

Program 11.....U.S., satellite, meteorological, see DMSP.

Program 110.....U.S., satellite, see GAMBIT" (KH-8). See also Program 1700.

Program 1115.....U.S., satellite, program CORONA reconnaissance satellite. See also Program 846 and Program 162.

Program 162.....U.S., satellite, see CORONA, KH-1/2/3/4, and Discoverer-A/B. See also 846..

Program 1700.....U.S., satellite, program GAMBIT, KH-8 reconnaissance satellite. See also Program 110.

Program 188.....U.S., satellite, see GAMBIT KH-7. See also 206.

Program 1900.....U.S., satellite, program HEXAGON, KH-9A, BIG BIRD reconnaissance satellite. See also Program 467.

Program 202.....U.S., satellite, Reentry Test Vehicle; Program continued by 698AN.

Program 206.....U.S., satellite, surveillance. Program for GAMBIT satellites.

Program 241.....U.S. satellite. See CORONA.

Program 313.....U.S. satellite. See R&D DATA RELAY.

Program 35.....U.S., satellite, meteorological, see DMSP.

Program 366.....U.S. satellite. See CHALET.

Program 417.....U.S., satellite, meteorological. See DMSP.

Program 467.....U.S. See BIG BIRD Satellite.

Program 472.....U.S., satellite. See RHYOLITE.

Program 5500.....U.S., satellite, program KENNAN/CRYSTAL, KH-11, reconnaissance satellite. See also 1010.

Program 621B.....U.S. DoD Designation, satellite system for precise navigation constellation of 20 satellites providing altitude as well as longitude and latitude. In 1963, technology limited. Lead to the Defense Navigation Satellite Development System. In 1974 the U.S. Air Force renamed it NAVSTAR GPS. The first satellite was NTS..

Program 694BH.....U.S., satellite, program, same as AFP-417, meteorological satellite DMSP..

Program 694BK.....U.S., satellite, early meteorological.

Program 698.....U.S., satellite, program, Heavy ELINT Satellite. See also Program 102, Program 704, Program 770.

Program 704.....U.S., satellite, program, Heavy ELINT Satellite. See also Program 102, Program 698, Program 770.

Program 720.....U.S., satellite. See RHYOLITE.

Program 770.....U.S., satellite, program, Heavy ELINT Satellite. See also Program 102, 698, Program 704.

Program 777.....U.S., satellite. See DSCS.

Program 827.....U.S., satellite. See CANYON.

Program 846.....U.S., satellite, program, CORONA, KH-1/2/3/4, Discoverer-A/B. Reconnaissance Satellite. See also Program 162.

Program 846.....U.S., satellite. See CORONA.

Program 989.....U.S., see P-11.

programm.....German for program.

programme.....French for program.

Progress OKB.....Russia, organization, Samara, development of spacecraft and Progress. See also TsSKB.

PROGRESS.....Russia, satellite, resupply for the SALYUT.

- PROGRESS-M also known as 11F615A55, 7K-TGM.

- PROGRESS-M2 also known s 11F815A77, 7K-TGM2.

- PROGRESS, 1978/01/20, also known as 7K-TG.

Was the SOYUZ-7K-TG, flew between 1978-1990, the TG stood for Transportnyy gruzovyy, transport cargo.

PROGRESS M1, improved version of the SOYUZ-7K-TGM. First launch 2000.

First launch 1978/01/20

Project 101A.....U.S. early test of SAMOS radio readout components. Also known as E-2.

Project 201.....U.S., satellite, see AFP 201.

Project 2028.....U.S., satellite, program Space segment technologies for DSCS, SSS, GPSCS.

Project 2029.....U.S., satellite, program Systems analysis & demonstrations for DSCS, SSS, GPSCS.

Project 331.....China, project, develop communications satellite, initiated in 1977.

Project 416.....U.S., Army, project which resulted in EXPLORER 1 satellite.

Project 467.....U.S. Air Force Project 467, satellite. See BIG BIRD, HEXIGON Satellites, AFP-1900.

Project 57.....U.S.Early 1960's project to help clarify where space could be used successfully for military applications. One are identified was GPS. Awarded to Aerospace Corp.

Project 581.....China, project, develop Earth satellite, initiated in 1958, renewed in 1965 as project 651.

Project 647.....U.S., satellite, see AFP-647, DSP, DSPS.

Project 651.....China, project, develop Earth satellite, initiated in 1958 as project 581, restarted in 1965.

Project 701.....China, project, develop JI SHU SHIYAN WEIXING technology satellite, initiated in 1970.

Project 711.....U.S., satellite, see APF-711, FERRET.

Project 761.....China, project, develop sounding rocket programm, initiated in 1977.

Project 7660.....U.S., satellite, program Space surveillance techniques.

Project 911.....China, project, develop recoverable satellite program, initiated in 1967.

Project 921.....China, satellite, manned space flight project. Started in 1992. Earlier manned flight program, see Shu Guang.

Project Designation.....U.S. See DoD Designation.

Project Mole.....U.S., satellite. See MOL

Project Pied Piper & Sentry.....U.S. Air Force, satellite, surveillance, see SAMOS.

Project Pilot.....U.S., rocket, air launch earth orbit attempt, fto. First launch 1958/00/00

Project Principia.....U.S., launch vehicle motor, ARPA, develope solid fuel boosters over 1,000,000 lbs (4450 kN) thrust.

Project Tribe.....U.S., launch vehicle, Atlas-Agena, Atlas-Centaur, Thor-Hustler, Thor Delta.

Prometheus.....Saturn moon, one of 19. See Prometheus, Pandora, Atlas, Epimetheus, Janus, Mimas, Helene, Enceladus, Tethys, Calypso, Telesto, Dione, Pan, 1995-S4, Rhea, Titan, Hyperion, Laptus, Phoebe.

Propellant.....Chemicals used by rocket engines to provide thrust. Can be categorized by the physical state the propellant is stored in on the launch vehicle.

       - Solid propellant

       - Liquid propellant

       - Gaseous propellant

       - Hybrid propellant

The chemicals my be further classified by the number of chemicals used in propellants.

- Mono propellant uses a single chemical. A chemical my disassociate in an exothermic reaction providing the thermal energy to accelerate the chemical products through the rocket engine, thus providing thrust, e.g hydrazine. Or energy can be provided from another source to accelerate atoms to provide thrust, e.g. Xenon in electric propulsion. Gaseous propellants are a single chemical stored under pressure. The pressure acting on the propellant in the rocket motor provides the thrust.

- bi propellant uses two chemicals, usually and oxidizer and a fuel. The combustion of these chemicals provides the thermal energy necessary to accelerate the combustion products through the rocket engine, thereby providing thrust. e.g. liquid oxygen and liquid hydrogen.

See solid propellant, liquid propellant, gaseous propellant, hybrid propellant, mono propellant, bi propellant.

Propulseur d'appoint liquid.....ESA, launch vehicle motor, see PAL.

Propulseur d'appoint poudre.....ESA, launch vehicle motor booster, see PAP.

Propulsion.....The act of changing the motion of a body. See also jet propulsion, rocket propulsion and energy source.

Propulsion control subsystem.....See Space vehicle.


PROSEDS.....U.S., NASA, satellite, technology. PROPULSIVE SMALL EXPANDABLE DOPLOYER SYSTEM. Deploy 5 km ov bare wire and 10 km of spectra tether from a Deltl II upper stage to produce drag and de-orbit the stage.

Prospero.....Uranus moon, formally 1999 S U3.

Prospero.....Character from Shakespear's The Tempest.

PROSPERO.....United Kingdom, satellite, technology, launched at Woomera, Australia by a Black Arrow into a LEO. Also known as X-3. First United Kingdom satellite. First launch 1971/10/28

PROSTEYCHYY SPUTNIK.....Russia, satellite, see PS or SPUTNIK.

Proteus.....France, satellite bus, Alcatel Space. LEO.

Proteus.....Neptune moon, one of 8. See Triton, Naiad, Thalassa, Nereid, Despina, Galatea, Larissa, Proteus.

PROTEUS.....France, satellite, surveillance. Military surveillance and electronic eavesdropping satellite. First launch

Proton.....Russia, launch vehicle, GEO, 8K52, interplanetary. ПРОТОН. Built by Khrunichev. Based upon the Polyblock UR-500. UR is for Universal Rocket. 500 is series 500 of the Universal Rocket Family.

- Proton, D or SL-9 (2 stage), SL-12 (3 stage) and SL-13 (4 stage), 8K82, 45000 lbs (20900 kg), LEO

- Proton K, D-1 or SL-12, 8K82K (3 stage 45,000 lbs (20,000 kg) GTO. Stage 1, 6 RD-253 engines, total thrust 2,364,000 lbf (9,500 kN). Stage 2, 3 RD-0210 engines, RD-0211 engine. Stage 3, 3 RD-0210 engine.

- Proton K Block/D, 8K82K/Block D, D-1-e, SL-13

- Proton K Block/DM, 8K82K/Block DM, D-1-e, SL-13 43000 lbs (19760 kg), LEO. Stage 1, 6 RD-259 engines total thrust 2,100,000 lbf (9,500 kN). Stage 2, 4 RD-0210 (3 RD-465 and 1 RD-466 version) total thrust 524,000 lbf (2,330 kN) engines. Stage 3, RD-0210 (RD-473 version). Stage 4, Block DM, 11D58M/RD-58M engine.

- Proton K/DM-2M, 43000 lbs (19760 kg), LEO

- Proton K/DM-5, 43000 lbs (19760 kg), LEO

- Proton K/Breeze M, 5500 lbs (2500 kg), GEO

- Proton M, 48000 lbs (22000 kg), LEO

- Proton M/Breeze M, 8K82KM, 46000 lbs (21000 kg), LEO Stage 1, 6 RD-259 engines. Stage 2, 4 RD-0210 (3 RD-465 and 1 RD-466 version) engines. Stage 3, RD-0210 (RD-473 version). Stage 4 Breeze-M, S5.98M engine with 4 each 11D458 verniers.

First launch 1965/07/16

Proton K/DM.....Russia, launch vehicle motor, see Proton K/Block DM.

PROTON.....Russia, satellite, scientific. Satellite to investigate the nature of Cosmic Rays. First launch 1965/07/16

PRS.....Prime (or primary) recovery ship. Designated U.S. Navy ship which received astronauts during the pre U.S. STS launches. See prime recovery ship.

Prunariu, Dumitru.....Romania, cosmonaut, SOYUZ 40, 1981/05/14. First launch 1981/05/14

PS.....Russia, satellite, technology, PROSTEYCHYY SPUTNIK which means very simple satellite. Also known as SPUTNIK. See SPUTNIK.

PS1.....India, launch vehicle motor, 1 VSSC S139 motor, thrust 995,000 lbf (4430 kN), pressure ? psi (? bar), solid propellant HTPB. Polar launch Vehicle Stage 1 and GSLV stage 1.}

PS2.....India, launch vehicle motor, 1 VSSC L40H motor, thrust 180,000 lbf (804 kN), pressure 841 psi (58 bar), liquid propellant N2O4/UH25. Polar launch Vehicle Stage 2 and GSLV Stage 1.}

PS4.....India, launch vehicle motor, thrust 1,700 lbf (7.4 kN), pressure 123 psi (8.5 bar), liquid propellant MMO-3/MMH. Polar launch Vehicle Stage 4. Also known as L2. Used on PSLV Stage 4.}

psi.....Ψ, ψ, psi, 23, Greek Alphabet.

PSLV.....India, launch vehicle, 4 stage satellite launcher, 6600 lbs (3000 kg) LEO, 990 lbs (450 kg), GEO. Polar Satellite Launch Vehicle. See SLV.

PSN.....Indonesia, Jakarta, organization. Pasifik Satelit Nusantara, Company that provides communication services to Asia Pacific region.

PSOM.....India, launch vehicle motor, 6 VSSC S9 motors, each with thrust 152,000 lbf (677 kN), pressure ? psi (? bar), solid propellant HTPB. Polar launch Vehicle Strap On Motor.}. Old address: Jentra Milia Bldg., JL. H.R. Rasuna Said Kav X-6 No. 8, Jakarta 12940 Indonesia.

Ptah.....Egypt, god of creativity.

PTM-11 B.....U.S., launch vehicle, see Redstone.

PTM-17A.....U.S., launch vehicle, Thor.

PU.....Launch vehicle propellant, solid, fuel & binder, polyurethane polyester or polyether.

Puck.....Uranus moon, one of 17. See Miranda, Ariel, Umbriel, Titania, Oberon, Puck, Belinda, Rosalind, Portia, Juliet, Dosdemona, Cressida, Bianca, Ophelia, Cordelia, Caliban, Sycorax.

Purdy DD 734.....USS Purdy DD 734, recovery ship, part of the fleet which recovered or was on duty and capable of recovering the following: MERCURY Atlas 9.

Purvis DD 709.....USS Purvis DD 709, recovery ship, part of the fleet which recovered or was on duty and capable of recovering the following: MERCURY Atlas 6.

Putnam DD 757.....USS Putnam DD 757, recovery ship, part of the fleet which recovered or was on duty and capable of recovering the following: GEMINI 2.

PV1.....U.S., satellite, known as PIONEER VENUS 1, PIONEER VENUS ORBITER, and PIONEER 12.

PV2.....U.S., satellite, known as PIONEER VENUS 2, PIONEER VENUS MULTIPROVE, and PIONEER 12. Placed 3 probes on Venus, DAY PROBE, NIGHT PROBE, and NORTH PROBE.

PW.....Launch vehicle motor, Pratt & Whitney.

PWR.....U.S., aerospace company, formed in 2005 when Boeing sold Rocketdyne t Pratt & Whitney.

Pyrotechnic control subsystem.....See Space vehicle.

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Updated 2007/2/01