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R

R.O.C......Republic of China, also known as ROC.

R-2.....Australia, satellite, FTO. First launch 1970/09/02

R-27A.....U.S., launch vehicle motor, thrust 200,000 lbf ( kN), pressure ? psi (? bar),

R-3.....Russia, launch vehicle. See Kosmos, large.

R-36-0.....Ukraine, launch vehicle, see Tsyklon. Also known as Missile R-12, 8K69orb, SL-11,. FOBS, F-1-r, 8K69. First launch 1965/12/16

R-360.....Ukraine, Launch Vehicle, see R-36-0.

R-36M.....Ukraine, launch vehicle, see Tsylkon 2, 8K69. 2,800 kg, LEO. Was SS-20 Satan Missile. Used in Dnepr launch vehicle.

R-36M2.....Russia, launch vehicle, Dnepr-1.

R-40A.....U.S., rocket engine, thruster. Manufactured by Marquardt, uses bi propellant fuel, thrust lbf 870 ( 6.5 kN), pressure psi 150 (10.3 bar). Used on the STS.

R-4D.....U.S., launch vehicle motor, reaction control thruster used on the APOLLO SM and LMAS. Thrust, 100 lbf (0.45 kN) each, liquid propellant N2O4/MMH on the SM, or liquid propellant N2O4/UDMH on the LMAS.

R-7.....Russia, launch vehicle, derived from the first ICBM. Was developed into the following:

Luna 8K72, R-7A 8K74,

Molniya 8K78,

Molniya 8K78M,

Polyot 11A59,

R-7 8K71 Semyorka,

Soyuz 11A511,

Soyuz 11A511L,

Soyuz 11A511M,

Soyuz 11A511U,

Soyuz 11A511U2,

Soyuz 11A514,

Soyuz M.

Sputnik 8A91,

Sputnik 8K71PS,

Voskhod 11A57,

Vostok 11A510,

Vostok 8A92M,

Vostok 8Ak92,

Vostok 8K72,

Vostok 8K72K,

First launch 1957/05/15

R-7A.....Russia, launch vehicle. Also known as 8K74, Soyuz booster.

R-8.....Russia, launch vehicle motor, vernier, 1 engine with 4 chambers. Thrust 17,600 lbf (78 kN), pressure 1117 psi (77 bar), used on Zenit launch vehicle.

R-IS.....Russia, satellite, interceptor. RAKETOPLAN-ISTREBITEL SPUTNIKOV, rocket plane interceptor. Object names is R-IS.

R&D DATA RELAY.....U.S., satellite, communications. High frequency relay function for MIDAS satellites, also known as program 313. First launch 1972/10/20

R2150.....U.S. launch vehicle, 500 lbs (225 kg), SSO. Built by AeroAstro.

Ra.....Egypt, sun god.

RA.....U.S., satellite, see RANGER.

RA of Node.....Orbital component. Kaplerian element. See Right Ascension of ascending node.

RAAN.....Orbital component. Kaplerian element. See right ascension of ascending node.

Radar Adour.....Kourou, organization. ESA tracking station, Kourou, Guyane.

Radar Beam guidance.....See Guidance.

Radar control guidance.....See Guidance.

RADAR.....Japan, satellite, reconnaissance, synthetic aperture radar sensor, LEO. Part of a constellation of 4 satellites, RADAR 1 & 2, OPTICAL 1 & 2. See IGS.

RADAR CALIBRATION TARGET.....U.S., satellite. See RADCAT.

RADAR IMAGING SATELLITE.....India, satelite, see RISAT.

RADAR SATELLITE.....Canada, satellite. See RADARSAT.

RADARSAT.....Canada, satellite, commercial synthetic aperture radar (SAR) remote sensing. RADAR SATELLITE. Launched at the WSMC by a Delta 2 into a LEO. First launch 1995/11/04

RADCAL.....U.S., satellite. See RADICAL.

RADCAT.....U.S., satellite, technology. DoD, RADAR CALIBRATION TARGET.

1968/08/16, WTR, Atlas Burner 2, FTO.

First launch 1968/08/16

Radford DD 446.....USS Radford DD 446, recovery ship, part of the fleet which recovered or was on duty and capable of recovering the following: MERCURY Atlas 8.

Radiation.....Electromagnetic energy, photons.

RADIATION BALANCE.....U.S., satellite, see VANGUARD. First launch 1959/06/22

RADIATION BELT MAPPER MISSION.....U.S., satellite, scientific, geospace mission under NASA’s Living with a star contract with APL. First launch 2010/00/00

RADIATION CALIBRATION SATELLITE.....U.S., satellite. See RADICAL.

RADIATION DOSIMETRY.....U.S. satellite. See RADOS.

RADIATION EXPERIMENT.....U.S. satellite. See REX.

RADIATION LABORATORY.....U.S., satellite, see EXPLOER 9. First launch 1960/11/03

RADIATION METEOROID.....U.S., NASA, satellite, scientific. Launched from WI by a Scout into LEO. Decayed 1971/02/07. First launch 1970/11/09

RADIATION SATELLITE.....U.S., satellite, see EXPLOER 7. First launch 1959/10/13

RADICAL.....U.S. satellite, technology. RADIATION CALIBRATION satellite.

- RADICAL, 1993 041A, 1993/06/25, VAFB, Scout, LEO.

First launch 1993/06/25

radio frequency spectrum.....See band.

Radio Amateur Satellite Corp......U.S., corporation. Sponsors the development of AMSAT OSCAR satellites. Radio Amateur Satellite Corp., PO Box 27, Washington, D.C. 20044

Radio Corporation of America.....U.S., aerospace company. RCA.

Radio Navigation guidance.....See Guidance.

Radio NPO.....Russia, organization, development of GORZONT.

RADIO.....Russia, satellite, see RS. Small radio relay satellite for use by amateurs.

RADIO ASTRONOMY EXPLORER.....U.S., satellites, scientific. Part of the EXPLORER series, see RAE.

RADIO SKAF.....Russia, satellite, communications, amateur radio, equipment installed in the Orlan-M No. 14 space suit, launched from the ISS. Also known as AMSAT-OSCAR 54. First launch 2005/09/08

RADIO STAR.....U.S., satellite, see TRANSIT 1-B First launch 1960/04/13

RADIOASTRON.....Russia, satellite, scientific observatory. Observes quasars and high-energy phenomena via radio interferometry. 33 ft (56 m) diameter telescope. First launch 2007/00/00

Radioisotope Thermoelectric Generator.....U.S. See RTG.

Radius of orbit of a planet.....See planet.

Radius of orbit.....The radius of an orbit around a body. See Planet.

RADOSE.....U.S. Air Force, satellite, technology. RADIATION DOSIMETRY. Launched at the WTR by a Thor Agena D into a LEO. Decayed 1963/07/30. First launch 1963/06/15

RADSAT.....U.S., satellite, technology. Launched at WTR, Atlas F, LEO. First launch 1972/10/02

raduga.....Russia, rainbow.

RADUGA.....Russia, satellite, communications, military, GEO. Satellite for telephone, telegraph, and domestic TV. Renamed STATSIONAR. Also known as GRAN. RADUGA-1 is also known as 17F15. Was KOSMOS 2406 launched 2004/06/10. Some confusion about KOSMOS sequence 2405 and 2406. First launch 1975/12/22

RAE.....U.S., satellite, scientific, RADIO ASTRONOMY EXPLORER, see EXPLORER 38 and 49. First launch 1968/07/04

RAFAELO.....Italy satellite, see REAFFAELLO.

RAFFAELLO.....Italy ASI, satellite, ISS multipurpose module. First launch 2001/04/19

Raffaelo.....Raffaelo Sanzio, 1483-1520, artist.

RAFT.....U.S., satellite, technology, US Naval Academy cubesats . First launch 2006/12/21

rahmem.....German for frame.

RAINBOW.....U.S., satellite, communications, Direct to home TV. Uses Lockheed Martin A2100 bus. First launch 2003/07/17

RAKA.....Russia, organization, Russia Aerospace Agency. See Rosaviacosmos.

raket.....Russia, rocket.

rakete.....German for rocket.

Raketnay Dvigatel.....Russia, means rocket engine, abbreviation RD.

RAKETOPLAN.....Russia, satellite, reusable orbital space shuttle, renamed BURAN .

RAKETOPLAN-ISTREBITEL SPUTNIKOV.....Russia, satellite, interceptor, see R-IS.

RALPH.....U.S., satellite. See TIPS.

RAM.....U.S., NASA, Reentry Ablative Material project to test protective material during the heat of reentry.

RAM B, 1962/00/00,

RAM, 1964/04/10, Wallops Island, Scout.

RAM, 1967/10/19.

First launch 1962/00/00

Ramon, Ilan.....Russia, cosmonaut, STS-107, 2003/01/16. First launch 2003/01/16

RAMOS.....Russia and U.S., satellite, space based early warning system. RUSSIAN AMERICAN OBSERVATION SATELLITE. First launch 2005/00/00

Randolph CVS 15.....USS Randolph CVS 15, recovery ship, part of the fleet which recovered or was on duty and capable of recovering the following: MERCURY Atlas 6, MERCURY Atlas 7.

Range Sentinel.....USNS Range Sentinel (T-AGM-22). See tracking ship.

Range Tracker T-AGM-1.....USNS Range Tracker T-AGM-1, tracking ship.

RANGER.....U.S. NASA/JPL, satellite, scientific. Space probes to photograph and land on the moon, RANGER 1-9.

- RANGER 1 was a test probes for the RANGER lunar impact series. They were meant for high Earth orbit testing in 1961, but rocket problems left them in useless low orbits which quickly decayed. Launched 1961/08/23, Eastern Test Range, Atlas-Agena B, Decayed 1961/08/30.

- RANGER 2 was a test probes for the RANGER lunar impact series. They were meant for high Earth orbit testing in 191961, but rocket problems left them in useless low orbits which quickly decayed. Launched 1961/11/18, Eastern Test Range, Atlas-Agena B, Decayed 1961/11/20.

- RANGER 3, was intended to land an instrument capsule on the surface of the Moon, but problems during the launch caused the probe to miss the Moon and head into solar orbit. RANGER 3 did try to take some images of the Moon as it flew by, but the camera was unfortunately aimed at deep space during the attempt. Launched 1962/01/26, Eastern Test Range, Atlas-Agena B, Moon arrival, missed Moon, in Solar orbit.

- RANGER 4, had the same purpose as RANGER 3, but suffered technical problems en route and crashed on the lunar far side, the first U.S. probe to reach the Moon, albeit without returning data. Launched 1962/04/23, Eastern Test Range, Atlas-Agena B, Moon impact 1962/04/26.

- RANGER 5, similar to RANGER 3 and 4, lost all solar panel and battery power en route and eventually missed the Moon and drifted off into solar orbit. Launched 1962/10/18, Eastern Test Range, Atlas-Agena B, Moon arrival, missed Moon, in Solar orbit.

- RANGER 6 had a more modified lunar Missions: It sent back live images of the lunar surface as it headed towards an impact with the Moon. RANGER 6 failed this objective in 1964 when its cameras did not operate. Launched 1964/01/30, Eastern Test Range, Atlas-Agena B, Moon impact 1964/02/02.

- RANGER 7 had a more modified lunar Missions: It sent back live images of the lunar surface as it headed towards an impact with the Moon. RANGER 7 performed well, becoming the first U.S. lunar probes to return thousands of lunar images through 191965. Launched 1964/07/28, Eastern Test Range, Atlas-Agena D, Moon impact 1964/07/31.

- RANGER 8 had a more modified lunar Missions: It sent back live images of the lunar surface as it headed towards an impact with the Moon. Launched 1965/02/17, Eastern Test Range, Atlas-Agena B, Moon impact 1965/02/20.

- RANGER 9 had a more modified lunar Missions: It sent back live images of the lunar surface as it headed towards an impact with the Moon. Launched 1965/03/21, Eastern Test Range, Atlas-Agena B, Moon impact 1965/03/24.

First launch 1961/02/23

Rankin AKA 103.....USS Rankin AKA 103, recovery ship, part of the fleet which recovered or was on duty and capable of recovering the following: APOLLO 8.

RAPIDEYE.....Germany, satellite, microsatellite, Earth observation, 5 satellite constellation built by Surrey Satellite Technology Ltd, of the UK. Uses TOPSAT bus. Owned by Rapideye, Munich, Germany. First launch 2005/00/00

Rasco-2.....Poland, rocket, cloud seeding. First launch 1966/00/00

RASCOM.....South Africa, satellite, communication, GEO. Regional African Satellite Communications organization. First launch 2006/00/00

raum.....German for space.

raum fähre.....German for shuttle.

raumfahrt.....German for walk in space.

raumschiff.....German for space ship.

raumsonde.....German for space probe.

Raytheon.....U.S., aerospace company. Address: 870 Winter Street, Lexington, MA 02451, USA. www.reatheon.com

RC.....Launch vehicle motor, Rocket Research Corp. (formerly RR).

RCA.....U.S., satellite. See SATCOM.

RCA.....U.S., aerospace company. Radio Corporation of America, New York.

RCA SATCOM.....U.S., satellite. See SATCOM.

RCS.....U.S., launch vehicle motor, attitude control. Thrust 12 lbf (0.05 kN), pressure psi ( bar), liquid propellant N2O4/MMH. Manufactured by Kaiser Marquardt Co.

RCS.....U.S., launch vehicle motor, used on STS Space Shuttles. Reaction Control System. 38 promary thrusters and 6 vernier motors. Primary thruster, thrust 870 lbf (3.87 kN), pressure ? psi (? bar), liquid propellant N2O4/MMH. Vernier motors, thrust 25 lbf (110 N), pressure ? psi (? bar), liquid propellant N2O4/MMH.

RCS.....satellite bus, Swales Aerospace, LEO. 

RCS.....Russia, launch vehicle motor, thrust 19,000 lbf (85 kN), pressure ? psi (? bar), liquid propellant LOX/Kerosene. Retro & correction stage. Used on Energiya stage 3 EUS.

RD.....Russia, Raketnay Dvigatel, РД, means rocket engine.

RD.....Launch vehicle motor, U.S., Rocketdyne (now Rockwell/Hercules).

RD-0105.....Russia, launch vehicle motor, used on the upper stages of the R-7. The fuel was liquid propellant LOX/Kerosene. Developed by Kosberg KB.

RD-0107.....Russia, launch vehicle motor, used on the Block L Molniya. The fuel was liquid propellant LOX/Kerosene. Developed by Kosberg KB.

RD-0109.....Russia, launch vehicle motor, used on the Vostok upper stage. The fuel was liquid propellant LOX/Kerosene. Developed by Kosberg KB.

RD-0110.....Russia, launch vehicle motor, thrust 67,000 lbf (298 kN), pressure 986 psi (68 bar), liquid propellant LOX/Kerosene. 1 engine with 4 thrust chambers and 4 verniers. Manufactured by KB Kimavtomatiki. Used on Soyuz U, FG, TM/TMA and Molniya M. Also known as RD-110.

RD-0124 .....Russia, launch vehicle motor, thrust 67,000 lbf (294 kN), pressure 2350 psi (162 bar), liquid propellant LOX/Kerosene. 1 engine with 4 thrust chambers and 4 verniers. Manufactured by KB Kimavtomatiki. Used on Soyuz 2-1B.

RD-0124A.....Russia, Engine, KB Khimavtomatiki, liquid, LOX/Kerosene, 66,160 lbf (294 kN), pressure 2350 psi (162 bar). Used on Angara stage 2.

RD-0210.....Russia, launch vehicle motor, various versions. The fuel was liquid propellant N2O4/UDMH. Developed by Kosberg KB. See Proton K Block DM and Proton M/Breeze M.

RD-0211.....Russia, launch vehicle motor, thrust ? lbf (? kN), pressure ? psi (? bar), liquid propellant N2O4/UDMH. Developed by Kosberg KB. Used on the Proton K launch vehicle. See RD-468.

RD-0213.....Russia, launch vehicle motor. The fuel was liquid propellant N2O4/UDMH. Developed by Kosberg KB. Used on the Proton launch vehicle Block V.

RD-0225.....Russia, launch vehicle motor. The fuel was liquid propellant N2O4/UDMH. Developed by Kosberg KB. Used on the Energiya launch vehicle stage 2 and the Proton launch vehicle Block D.

RD-0233.....Russia, launch vehicle motor, thrust each 105,000 lbf (467 kN), pressure 2975 psi (205 bar), propellant N2O4/UDMH. Manufactured by Khimavtomatiki. Used on Rockot/Breeze KM and Strela.

RD-0235.....Russia, launch vehicle motor, thrust 54,000lbf (240 kN), pressure 1090 psi (75 bar), liquid propellant N2O4/UDMH. Manufactured by Khimavtomatiki. Used on Rockot/Breeze KM and Strela.

RD-0236.....Russia, launch vehicle motor, vernier, 1 engine with 4 nozzles, thrust 3540 lbf (15.8 kN), pressure 1090 psi (75 bar), liquid propellant N2O4/UDMH. Manufactured by Khimavtomatiki. Used on Rockot/Breeze KM and Strela.

RD-0243.....Russia, launch vehicle motor, 1 RD-0244 main engine with 1 RD-0245 vernier engine with 4 thrusters. Used on Shtil launch vehicle.

RD-0244.....Russia, launch vehicle motor, thrust 153,000 lbf (682 kN), pressure 4000 psi (275 bar), liquid propellant N2O4/UDMH. Used on RD-0243 motors on Shtil.

RD-0245.....Russia, launch vehicle motor, vernier, total thrust 47,000 lbf (211 kN), pressure 2130 psi (147 bar), liquid propellant N2O4/UDMH. Used on RD-0243, Shtil.

RD-0255.....Russia, Ukraine, launch vehicle motor, 1 engine + 4 verniers, used on DNEPR stage 2. Thrust 170.000 lbf (760 kN), pressure ? psi (? bar), propellant N2O4/UDMH.

RD-0288.....Russia, Ukraine, launch vehicle motor, VMZ, used on DNEPR stage 2. Thrust 171,000 lbf ( 740 kN), pressure ? psi (? bar), propellant N2O4/UDMH.

RD-100 series.....Russia, launch vehicle motor, series use liquid propellant LOX and not storable propellants.

RD-107.....Russia, launch vehicle motor, 1 engine with 4 thrust chambers, thrust total 182,000 lbf (813 kN), pressure 848 psi (58 bar), 2 verniers, thrust ? Lbf ( kN). Liquid propellant LOX/kerosene T-1 or RP-1. Manufactured by NPO Energomash. Used on Soyuz U and Molniya M.

RD-107A.....Russia, launch vehicle motor, 1 engine with 4 thrust chambers, thrust total 188,000 lbf (838 kN), pressure ? psi (? bar), 2 verniers, thrust ? Lbf (? kN). Liquid propellant LOX/kerosene T-1 or RP-1. Manufactured by NPO Energomash. Used on Soyuz FG and 2.

RD-108.....Russia, launch vehicle motor, 1 engine with 4 thrust chambers, thrust total 175,000 lbf (779 kN), pressure 740 psi (51 bar), 4 verniers, thrust ? Lbf (? kN). Liquid propellant LOX/kerosene T-1 or RP-1. Manufactured by NPO Energomash. Used on Soyuz U.

RD-108A.....Russia, launch vehicle motor, 1 engine with 4 thrust chambers, thrust total 178,000 lbf (792 kN), pressure ? psi (? bar), 4 verniers, thrust ? Lbf (? kN). Liquid propellant LOX/kerosene T-1 or RP-1. Manufactured by NPO Energomash. Used on Soyuz FG and 2.

RD-110.....Russia, launch vehicle motor. See RD-0110.

RD-119.....Russia, launch vehicle engine. Thrust 24,000 lbf (105 kN), pressure ? psi (? bar), liquid propellant LOX/UDMH. Used on the B-1 launch vehicle.

RD-120.....Russia, launch vehicle motor, thrust 233,000 lbf (992 kN), pressure 2364 psi (163 bar), liquid propellant LOX/Kerosene. Article No. 11D123. Used on Zenit launch vehicle.

RD-170.....Russia, launch vehicle motor. Thrust 1,631,000 lbf (7289 kN), pressure ? psi (? bar), Used on Zenit 2 and Energia stage 1.

RD-171.....Russia, launch vehicle motor with 4 thrust chambers. Thrust 1,630,000 lbf (7289 kN), pressure 3556 psi (245 bar), liquid propellant LOX/Kerosene. Article No. 11D520. Used on Zenit launch vehicle.

RD-180.....Russia & U.S., launch vehicle motor, used on Atlas IIIA/B and Atlas 5, 1 propulsion system with 2 thrust chambers. NPO Energomash & Pratt & Whitney, RD AMROSS. Thrust 860,000 lbf (3827 kN), pressure 3734 psi (257 bar), propellant LOX/RP-1.

RD-191.....Russia, Engine, NPO Energomash, liquid, LOX/RG-1 grade kerosene, 431,000 lbf (1920 kN), pressure 3725 psi (257 bar). Used on Angara Universal Module.

RD-200 series.....Russia, launch vehicle motor, series use nitrogen and storable propellants.

RD-214.....Russia, launch vehicle engine, 4 chamber. Thrust 163,000 lbf (717 kN), pressure ? psi (? bar), liquid propellant Nitric Acid/Kerosene. Used on the B-1 launch vehicle.

RD-216.....Russia, launch vehicle motor, NPO Energomash, used on Kosmos stage 1. Thrust 334,000 lbf (1485 kN), pressure 1088 psi (75 bar), propellant Nitric Acid + 27% N2O4/UDMH.

RD-219.....Russia, launch vehicle motor, used on R-36 Tsyklon rockets.

RD-253.....Russia, launch vehicle motor, thrust 2,364,000 lbf (9,500 kN), pressure ? psi (? bar), liquid propellant N2O4/UDMH. Used on the Proton K launch vehicle.

RD-259.....Russia, launch vehicle motor, thrust 394,000 lbf (1,580 kN), pressure 2130 psi (147 bar), propellant liquid N2 O4/UDMH, manufactured by NPO Energomash. Used on Proton launch vehicle.

RD-260.....Russia/Ukraine, launch vehicle motor, used on Tsyklon 2K, 3 and 4 stage 1. 2 chambers each, thrust 190,000 lbf (842 kN), pressure 1250 psi (86 bar), propellant N2O4/UDMH.

RD-261.....Russia/Ukraine, launch vehicle motor, used on Tsyklon 2K, 3, and 4. Uses 3 RD-260 motors.

RD-262.....Russia/Ukraine, launch vehicle motor, used on Tsyklon 2K, 3 and 4. Stage 2. 2 chambers, thrust 211,000 lbf (934 kN), pressure 1337 psi (92 bar), propellant N2O4/UDMH.

RD-264.....Russia, Ukraine, launch vehicle motor, NPO Energomash, 4 thrust chambers, used on DNEPR stage 1. Thrust 1,017,000 lbf (4525 kN), pressure ? psi (? bar), propellant N2O4/UDMH.

RD-300 series.....Russia, launch vehicle motor, series exotic propellants.

RD-461.....Russia, launch vehicle motor, thrust 16,000 lbf (302 kN), pressure ? psi (? bar), liquid propellant LOX/Kerosene. 1 engine with 4 thrust chambers and 4 verniers. Manufactured by KB Kimavtomatiki. Used on Soyuz U, FG, and Molniya M.

RD-465.....Russia, launch vehicle motor, thrust 131,000 lbf (582 kN), pressure ? psi (? bar), propellant liquid N2O4/UDMH, manufactured by Khimavtomatiki. Used on Proton launch vehicle.

RD-468.....Russia, launch vehicle motor, thrust 131,000 lbf (582 kN), pressure ? psi (? bar), propellant liquid N2O4/UDMH, manufactured by Khimavtomatiki. Also known as RD-0211. Used on Proton launch vehicle.

RD-473.....Russia, launch vehicle motor, 1 core engine with 1 vernier engine with 4 nozzles, core engine thrust 131,000 lbf (583 kN), pressure 2130 psi (147 bar), vernier engine with 4 nozzels, thrust 7,000lbf (31 kN), pressure 2130 psi (147 bar). Propellant liquid N2O4/UDMH, manufactured by Khimavtomatiki. Used on Proton launch vehicle.

RD-8.....Russia, launch vehicle motor, thrust 17,800 lbf (8 kN), pressure ? psi (? bar), liquid propellant LOX/Kerosene. Manufactured by Yuzhnoye.

RD-855.....Russia/Ukraine, launch vehicle motor, used on Tsyklon 2K, 3 and 4. Stage 1 and stage 2. 4 chambers steering engine, thrust 73,000 lbf (325 kN), pressure 1250 psi (86 bar), propellant N2O4/UDMH.

RD-856.....Russia/Ukraine, launch vehicle motor, thrust 12,100 lbf (54 kN), pressure ? psi (? bar), solid propellant HTPB.

RD-861.....Russia/Ukraine, launch vehicle motor, used on Tsyklon 3. Stage 3 C5M. Thrust 17,600 lbf (78 kN), pressure 1330 psi (91.7 bar), propellant N2O4/UDMH.

RD-861k.....Russia/Ukraine, launch vehicle motor, used on Stage 3 of Tsyklon 4, thrust 17,200 lbf (76.4 kN), pressure 1313 psi (90.5 bar), propellant N2O4/UDMH.

RD-864.....Russia, Ukraine, launch vehicle motor, Yuzhmash, dual-mode liquid, used on DNEPR stage 1. Thrust 4268 lbf (18 kN), pressure ? psi ( ? bar), propellant N2O4/UDMH.

RD-869 .....Russia, launch vehicle engine. Thrust 560 lbf (2.5 kN), pressure ?psi (? bar), liquid propellant N2O4/UDMH. Manufactured by Yuzhnoye. Used on the AVUM stage 4 of the Vega launch vehicle.

re-entered.....When a satellite will enter the atmosphere. See also entered, returned.

RE-ENTRY FLIGHT DEMONSTRATOR.....U.S., satellite. See RFD.

Reaction Motors.....U.S., company, merged with Thiokol.

Readdy, William.....U.S., astronaut, STS-42, 1992/01/22, STS-51, 1993/09/12, STS-79, 1996/09/16. First launch 1992/01/22

reconnaissance.....See classified satellite.

RECOVERABLE SATELLITE.....China, satellite. See FANHUE SHI WEIXING (FSW).

recovery.....The procedure or action that occurs when a whole payload, satellite, or section, instrumentation package, or other part of a launch vehicle is recovered after launch. Examples of different types of recovery are:

- In the air, DISCOVERER series captured by aircraft as it passed through the atmosphere;

- At sea, MERCURY, GEMINI, and APOLLO, splashes down (lands in the water), a helicopter or ships retrieve the capsule from the sea;

- On land, SOYUZ, and STS where the capsule or vehicle lands on land (touchdown);

- In orbit, STS captures a satellite in orbit and performs maintenance or returns the satellite to Earth.

recovery force.....flotte récupéeration (Fr),, bergun (D).

Recovery.....USS Recovery, ARS 43, prime recovery ship for Little Joe 5A.

Recovery and Tracking Ships.....U.S., Ships used in the tracking and/or recovery of manned spacecraft.

red.....rouge (Fr)., rot (D).

Red Fuming Nitric Acid.....Launch vehicle propellant, Nitric Acid 84%, Nitrogen Tetroxide 13%, water 3%.. Also known as RFNA.

Red Lake tracking site.....Australia, organization, Self-contained instrumentation post used to track Woomera launches. Located 40 km from Woomera. Also NASA Tracking Station No. 9. Now closed.

Redstone.....Geographical location, U.S., See also Redstone Arsenal, Alabama, location of W. von Braun's U.S. Army rocket team.

Redstone.....U.S., launch vehicle. Army, Redstone, IRBM. Also known as, PGM-11 A, PTM-11B, Pre 1963 designation [SSM-G-14, SSM-A-14, M8, XM9], Stage 1, A-7 engine (XLR43-NA-1). See Jupiter C and MERCURY Redstone. First launch 1953/08/20

Redstone Arsenal.....U.S., organization. Army, activated. 1941/10/06.

Redstone T AGM 20.....USS Redstone T AGM 20, recovery ship, part of the fleet which recovered or was on duty and capable of recovering the following: APOLLO 9, APOLLO 17, SKYLAB 1, SKYLAB 2, SKYLAB 3.

Redue.....Belgium, organization. 500 N, 50 E. see ESTRACK.

reentry.....The event occurring when a spacecraft or other object returns to the sensible atmosphere after being rocketed to altitudes above the sensible atmosphere.

REFLECTOR.....Russia, satellite, see RFEFLEKTOR.

REFLEKTOR.....Russia, satellite, space debris detection, laser reflector.

First launch 2001/12/10

REGATTA.....Russia, satellite, scientific.

Reightler, Ken.....U.S., astronaut, STS-48, 1991/09/12, STS-60, 1994/02/03. First launch 1991/09/12

Reilly, James.....U.S., astronaut, STS-089, 1998/01/22, STS-104, 2001/7/12. First launch 1998/01/22

REIMEI.....Japan, satellite, technology. Was INDEX. First launch 2005/08/23

Reise.....German for travel.

Reiter, Thomas.....Germany, cosmonaut, SOYUZ TM 22, 1995/09/03, STS-121 Expedition 13, 2006/07/04. First launch 1995/09/03

RELATIVITY.....UK, satellite, scientific. Test the theory of relativity by measuring the procession of an orbital gyroscope produced by its movements through a gravitational field.

RELAY.....U.S., satellite, communications. Test intercontinental microwave communications at a low altitude repeater satellite and to measure radiation levels.

- RELAY 01, 1962 068a, 1962/12/13, ETR, Delta, Transmitted Until 1965/02.

- RELAY 02, 1964 003a, 1964/01/21, ETR, Delta, Transmitted Until 1965/09/26.

First launch 1962/12/13

RELAY MIRROR EXPERIMENT.....U.S., satellites. See REM.

RELIKT.....Russia, satellite. See LIBRIS.

Remek, Valdimir.....Czechoslovakia, cosmonaut, SOYUZ 28, 1978/03/02. First launch 1978/03/02

Remey DD 688.....USS Remey DD 688, recovery ship, part of the fleet which recovered or was on duty and capable of recovering the following: MERCURY Atlas 7.

Remote Tracking Stations.....U.S., organization. See RTS.

REMOTE SENSING SATELLITE.....China, satellite, YAOGAN.

rendez-vous.....French for docking.

rendezvous.....First rendezvous, GEMINI 7 and GEMINI 6. 1965/12/15

Renminbi.....Currency of China.

Renshaw DD 499.....USS Renshaw DD 499, recovery ship, part of the fleet which recovered or was on duty and capable of recovering the following: MERCURY Atlas 8, GEMINI 6, GEMINI 7.

REP.....U.S., satellite, technology. RADAR EVALUATION PROJECT, launched from GEMINI 5. First launch 1965/08/21

Resnik, Judith.....U.S., astronaut, STS-41D (12), 1984/08/30, STS-51L (25), 1986/01/28. First launch 1984/08/30

RESOURCE 21.....U.S., satellite, remote sensing, LEO, 4 satellite constellation.

RESOURCE SATELLITE.....India. See RESOURCESAT.

RESOURCESAT.....India, satellite, remote sensing. RESOURCE SATELLITE. 3 satellite constellation. Also known as IRS-P6. First launch 2003/10/13

RESSAT.....Europe, satellite, communication, GEO.

resurs.....Russia, resource.

RESURS.....Russia, satellite, earth resource. Based on YANTAR (ZENIT) platform. Resurs 500, Russia satellite to spur interest in Russian space hardware. Landed in the Pacific Ocean, near Seattle, Washington, U.S. Named for the 500 Anniversary of Columbus' voyage. Satellite given to the city of Seattle. Small subsatellites were released from RESURS Satellites while in orbit and were called PIONs. Manufactured by TsSKB/Progrsss plant in Samara. RUSERS O is manufactured by VNII Elektromekaniki.

- RESURS-01, 1985/10/23 also known as 11F697

- RESURS F1, 1966/07/16, also known as 14F40.

- RESURS F1, 1988/05/31, also known as 14F43.

- RESURS F1, 1979/09/05, also known as 17F41.

- RESURS F2, 1987/12/26, also known as 17F42.

- RUSERS F3, also known as RUSERS T

- RUSERS R, also known as ALMAZ.

- RESURS F1M

- RESURS SPEKTR V

- RESURS SPEKTR R

- RESURS NIKA K

- RESURS DK.

- RESURS O, based on METEOR, scans photographs and transmits to ground digitally.

- RESURS F 01, 1989 053A, 1989/05/25, Plesetsk, SL-4, LEO, 1989/06/17

- RESURS F 02, 1989 049A, 1989/06/27, Plesetsk, SL-4, LEO, 1989/07/11

- RESURS F 03, 1989 055A, 1989/07/18, Plesetsk, SL-4, LEO, 1989/08/08

- RESURS F 04, 1989 063A, 1989/08/15, Plesetsk, SL-4, LEO, 1989/09/14

- RESURS F 05, 1989 073A, 1989/09/06, Plesetsk, SL-4, LEO, 1989/09/22

- RESURS F 06, 1990 047A, 1990/05/29, Plesetsk, SL-4, LEO, 1990/06/14

- RESURS F 07, 1990 060A, 1990/07/17, Plesetsk, SL-4, LEO, 1990/08/16

- RESURS F 08, 1990 073A, 1990/08/16, Plesetsk, SL-4, LEO, 1990/09/01

- RESURS F 09, 1990 082A, 1990/09/07, Plesetsk, SL-4, LEO, 1990/09/21

- RESURS F 10, 1991 035A, 1991/05/21, Plesetsk, SL-4, LEO, 1991/06/20

- RESURS F 11, 1991 044A, 1991/06/28, Plesetsk, SL-4, LEO, 1991/07/21

- RESURS F 12, 1991 052A, 1991/07/23, Plesetsk, SL-4, LEO, 1991/08/08

- RESURS F 13, 1991 058A, 1991/08/21, Plesetsk, SL-4, LEO, 1991/09/20

- RESURS F 14, 1992 024A, 1992/04/29, Plesetsk, SL-4, LEO, 1992/05/29

- RESURS F 15, 1992 033A, 1992/06/23, Plesetsk, SL-4, LEO, 1992/07/09

- RESURS F 16, 1992 056A, 1992/08/19, Plesetsk, SL-4, LEO, 1992/09/04

- RESURS F 17, 1993 033A, 1993/05/21, Plesetsk, SL-4, LEO, 1993/06/20

- RESURS F 18, 1993 040A, 1993/06/25, Plesetsk, SL-4, LEO, 1993/07/12

- RESURS F 19, 1993 053A, 1993/08/24, Plesetsk, SL-4, LEO, 1993/09/10

- RESURS F 20, 1995 050A, 1995/09/26, Plesetsk, SL-4, LEO, 1995/10/26

- RESURS 500, 1992 075A, 1992/11/15, Plesetsk, SL-4, LEO, 1992/11/22

- RESURS O-01, 1994 074A, 1994/11/04, Tyuratam, SL-16, LEO

- RESURS-01 4, 1998/07/10, Zenit-2

First launch 1989/05/25

RESURS DK 1.....Russia, satellite, see DK 1.

retour.....French for return.

RETRIEVABLE REMOTE-SENSING SATELLITE.....China, satellite, remote sensing. See SKW. First launch 1975/11/26

RETRIEVABLE SATELLITE.....China, satellite. See FANHUE SHI WEIXING (FSW).

retrieval of a satellite.....First retrieval, repair of a satellite, SOLAR MAXIMUM SATELLITE, Solar Maximum Mission, by STS-41C. 1984/04/12

Retro & correction stage.....Russia, launch vehicle motor, see RCS.

retrograde orbit.....The satellite travels in the opposite direction of the earths rotation.

return.....retour (Fr),, rückkehr (D).

RETURN SATELLITE.....China, satellite. See FANHUI SHI WEIXING.

returned.....The intentional actions which will bring a satellite into the atmosphere. See also decayed, re-entered.

Reusable launch vehicle.....See RLV.

revolution.....Movement of a planet around the Sun; more generally, orbital motion.

REX.....U.S., satellite, scientific. RADIATION EXPERIMENT SATELLITE.

- REX 1, 1991 045A, 1991/06/29, WTR, Scout, LEO.

- REX 2, 1996 014A, 1996/03/09, WSMC/L-1011, Pegasus XL, LEO(first success of XL).

First launch 1991/06/29

REXS.....Japan, satellite, see DENPA.

RFD.....U.S., satellite, technology. Re-entry Flight Demonstrator, test involved placing U.S. Atomic Energy Commission (AEC), now the U.S. Department of Energy, nuclear reactor mock-ups in space and evaluating re-entry effect. First launch 1963/05/22

RFNA.....Launch vehicle propellant, liquid, see Red Fuming Nitric Acid.

Rhea.....Saturn moon, one of 19. See Prometheus, Pandora, Atlas, Epimetheus, Janus, Mimas, Helene, Enceladus, Tethys, Calypso, Telesto, Dione, Pan, 1995-S4, Rhea, Titan, Hyperion, Laptus, Phoebe.

rho.....Ρ, ρ, rho, 17, Greek Alphabet.

rhyolite.....Chemical, fine grain igneous rock rich in silica.

RHYOLITE.....U.S. CIA, satellite, signet. Electromagnetic or signal reconnaissance placed in geosynchronous orbit to intercept telemetry for Soviet (Russia) and Chinese missile launches. Replacements for FERRET satellites. Information classified. Also known as Program 720, was later renamed Program 472 AQUACADE.

- RHYOLITE 1, 1970 046A, 1970/06/19, Atlas Agena D, GEO.

- RHYOLITE 2, 1973 013A, 1973/03/06, Atlas Agena D, GEO.

- AQUACADE 3, 1977 114A, 1977/12/11, Atlas Agena D, GEO,RHYOLITE 3.

- AQUACADE 4, 1978 038A, 1978/04/08, Atlas Agena D, GEO, RHYOLITE 4.

First launch 1970/06/19

Rich DD 820.....USS Rich DD 820, recovery ship, part of the fleet which recovered or was on duty and capable of recovering the following: GEMINI 3, APOLLO 10.

Richards, Paul.....U.S., astronaut, STS-102, 2001/3/8. First launch 2001/03/08

Richards, Richard.....U.S., astronaut, STS-28, 1989/08/08, STS-41, 1990/10/06, STS-50, 1992/06/25, STS-64, 1994/09/09. First launch 1989/08/08

Richfield T. AGM 4.....USS Richfield T. AGM 4, recovery ship, part of the fleet which recovered or was on duty and capable of recovering the following: MERCURY Atlas 9.

RID.....Spain, organization. NASA DSN tracking station. See DSN.

Ride, Sally.....U.S., astronaut, STS-7, 1983/06/18, STS-41G (13), 1984/10/05. First launch 1983/06/18

riesig.....German for giant.

Rif-MA.....Russia, launch vehicle, 1430 lbs (650 kg), LEO.

right ascension of ascending node.....Orbital component. Keplerian element, right ascension of the ascending node, symbol Ω. It gives the rotation of the orbit plane from reference axis, "twist" of the orbit. Also known as the longitude of the ascending node. Also known as RAAN or RA of Node. One of six Keplerian elements, it indicates the rotation of the orbit plane from some reference point. Two numbers orient an orbital plane in space; inclinations is the first, the right ascension of ascending node is the second. After specifying inclination, an infinite number of orbital planes are possible. The intersection of the equatorial plane and the orbital plane must be specified by a location on the equator that fully defines the orbital plane. The line of nodes occurs in two places. However, by convention, only the ascending node (where the satellite crosses the equator going from south to north) is specified. The descending node (where the satellite crosses the equator going from north to south) is not.

       Because the Earth spins, conventional latitude and longitude points are not used to separate where the lines of node occur. Instead, an astronomical coordinate system is used, known as the right-ascension/declination coordinate system, which does not spin with the Earth. Right ascension of ascending node is an angle, measured at the center of the Earth, from the vernal equinox to the ascending node. For example, draw a line from the center of the Earth to the point where the satellite crossed the equator (going from south to north). If this line points directly at the vernal equinox, then RAAN = 0o.
 

RIGID SPHERE.....U.S., satellite, technology.

- RIGID SPHERE 01, 1971 067P, 1971/08/07, WTR, Atlas F, LEO, decayed 1981/09/01.

- RIGID SPHERE 02, 1971 067E, 1971/08/07, WTR, Atlas F, LEO.

First launch 1971/08/07

Riksha.....Russia, launch vehicle.

- Riksha, 10000 lbs (4900 kg), LEO.

- Riksha R0, 3200 lbs (1475 kg), LEO.

- Riksha R1, 6100 lbs (2800 kg), LEO.

- Riksha R2, 2100 lbs (975 kg), LEO.

First launch

RIMSAT.....Russia, satellite. See GORIZONT.

RINCON.....U.S., satellite, technology, Arizona, picosatellite that is a cubesat. First launch 2006/07/26

Rioumine, Valeri.....Russia, cosmonaut. See Ryumin

RISAT.....India, satellite, Earth observation, radar mapping. RADAR IMAGING SATELLITE. First launch

Rita I.....France, launch vehicle, stage 2 with P4 engine from the ballistic missile MSBS M1, Diamant BP4. Thrust 40,00 lbf (180 kN), pressure ? psi (? bar), solid propellant.

RITE TARGET.....Japan, satellite. First launch 2002/12/14

RK.....Russia, satellite, see ISKRA.

RKA.....Russia, organization. Space Agency, Rossiyskaya Kosmicheskaya Agentsvo, 42, Shchepkina ul., 129857 Moscow, Telephone:(7 095) 288-9905, FAX:(7 095) 251-8702, 883-5622. Founded 1992/02/25.

RKK Energiya.....Russia, corporation, aerospace, was OKB-1. See Korolev Rocket and Space Corporation "Energiya".

RL.....U.S., launch vehicle motor. Manufactured by Pratt & Whitney.

RL10A-3.....U.S., launch vehicle motor, thrust 15,000 lbf (67 kN), pressure 465 psi (32 bar), liquid propellant LOX/LH2. Used on stage S-IV, Saturn 1 launch vehicle.

RL10A-3-3A.....U.S., launch vehicle motor, thrust 16,500 lbf (73 kN), pressure 465 psi (32 bar), liquid propellant LOX/LH2. Manufactured by Pratt & Whitney. Used on Centaur for the Titan IVB.

RL10A-4.....U.S., launch vehicle motor, Pratt & Whitney. Thrust 41,000 lbf (185 kN), pressure 465 psi (32 bar), liquid propellant LOX/LH2.

RL10A-4-1.....U.S., launch vehicle motor, Pratt & Whitney. Thrust 22,000 lbf (99 kN), pressure 465 psi (32 bar), liquid propellant LOX/LH2.

RL10A-4-1B.....U.S., launch vehicle motor, Pratt & Whitney. Thrust 22,300 lbf (100 kN), pressure ? psi (? bar), liquid propellant LOX/LH2. Used on Atlas 3 launch vehicle.

RL10A-4-2.....U.S., launch vehicle motor, Pratt & Whitney. Thrust 22,000 lbf (99 kN), pressure 465 psi (32 bar), liquid propellant LOX/LH2.

RL10A-4N.....U.S., launch vehicle motor. See RL10A-4.

RL10B-2.....U.S., launch vehicle motor, Pratt & Whitney. Thrust 24,750 lbf (43,000 kN), pressure 465 psi (32 bar), liquid propellant LOX/LH2 Used on Delta IV-M and IV-H.

RLV.....Reusable launch vehicle. A spacecraft launch vehicle that can be reused to launch other spacecraft. An example is the STS where the two solid fuel Boosters and the space shuttle are reused.

RM.....Launch vehicle motor, Reaction Motors Div. (Thiokol).

RM.....U.S. Air Force satellite, infrared and EV measurement of earths infrared background. Launched at the WTR by an Atlas Burner II, FTO. First launch WTR. 1968/08/16

RM-36MU.....Ukraine, launch vehicle, see Ikar.

RME.....U.S. DoD, satellite, technology. RELAY MIRROR EXPERIMENT satellites hosts a 24 inch mirror to test laser pointing technology by deflecting ground-based beams back to earth. Launched at the ESMC by a Delta 2 into a LEO, reentered 1992/05/24. First launch 1990/02/14

RNIIKP.....Russia, organization, see Russian Scientific and Research Institute of Space Device Engineering.

Robert Owen DD 827.....USS Robert Owen DD 827, recovery ship, part of the fleet which recovered or was on duty and capable of recovering the following: GEMINI 3, GEMINI 4.

Robinson DD 562.....USS Robinson DD 562, recovery ship, part of the fleet which recovered or was on duty and capable of recovering the following: MERCURY Atlas 7.

Robinson, Stephen.....U.S., astronaut, STS-085, 1997/08/07, STS-095, 1998/10/29, STS-114, 2005/07/26. First launch 1997/08/07

ROC.....Republic of China, also known as R.O.C.

ROCK.....U.S., satellite, see XM ROCK.

rocket.....One or more stages of propulsion, for acceleration of a payload by means of a thrust acting independently of the medium in which it operates (does not require an atmosphere). Some rockets are used as satellite launch vehicles.

Rocket or Launch vehicle velocity change

ΔVr = Isp g ln(Mi/Mf)

ΔVr = Change in the velocity of the rocket [m/s]

Isp = Specific Impulse [s]

g = gravitational acceleration on Earth [m/s2]

= 9.81 [m/s2]

= 32.2 [ft/s2]

Mi = Initial mass of the rocket. [kg]

Mf = Final mass of the rocket. [kg]

rocket.....fusée (Fr),, rakete (D).

Rocket engine designation.....U.S. See DoD Designation. Russia, see RD. Also see launch vehicle and missile

Rocket Engine.....A device that converts thermal or electrical energy into thrust. May also be referred to as a rocket motor. Often used to describe a liquid fuel rocket, e.g. rocket engine. See also propellant, thrust, rocket motor designation.


Thrust

Ft = Vcd(M)/dt

= Ved(M)/dt + (Pe - Pa)Ae

= momenum + pressure

Ft = thrust [N] or [kgm/s2]

Vc = effective exhaust velocity of the exhaust gases [m/s]

Ve = exhaust velocity [m/s]

Pe = Pressure at exit [N/m2]

Pa = Pressure of atmosphere [N/m2]

Ae = Area of exit [m2]

d(M)/dt =mass flow rate [kg/s]

M = mass [kg]

Effective exhaust velocity

Vc = Ve +(Ae(Pe - Pa)/(d(M)/dt)

= (Is)(g)

= Ft/d(M)/dt

Vc = effective exhaust velocity of the exhaust gases [m/s]

d(M)/dt = mass flow rate [kg/s]

M = mass [kg]

Ve = Velocity of exhaust gasses at nozzle exit [m/s]

Is = Specific Impulse [s]

g =gravitational acceleration on Earth [m/s2]

= 9.81 [m/s2]

= 32.2 [ft/s2]

Ft = thrust [N] or [kgm/s2]

Ae = Area of nozzle exit [m2]

Pe = Pressure at nozzle exit [N/m2]

Pa = Pressure of atmosphere [N/m2]

Final Velocity, Terminal Velocity, Rocket Equation

VR = VeLn(MT - Mf)/MT

VR = Velocity of the space launch vehicle [m/s] (no atmospheric drag or other forces affecting the velocity of the space launch vehicle)

Ve = Velocity of exhaust gasses at nozzle exit [m/s]

MT = Total mass of the space launch vehicle [kg]

Mf = Mass of the propellant [kg]

Rocket Equation.....The final velocity or Terminal Velocity of a launch vehicle provided by a Rocket motor or engine. See rocket engine.

Rocket motor designation.....U.S. See DoD Designation. Russia, see RD. Also see launch vehicle and missile

Rocket Motor.....A device that converts thermal or electrical energy into thrust. May also be referred to as a rocket engine. Often used to describe a solid fuel rocket, e.g. rocket motor. See also propellant.

Rocket propulsion system classification.....- Energy source

              - Chemical

              - Nuclear

              - Solar

              - Electromagnetic

       - Function

              - boost stage

              - sustainer

              - attitude control

              - orbit station keeping

       - Type of propellant

              - solid fuel

              - liquid fuel

              - mono propellant

              - gaseous

              - hybrid

Rocket Propulsion....."Sub class of jet propulsion that produces thrust by ejecting stored matter called the propellant". See propulsion, rocket propulsion system classification.

Rocket Research Center.....U.S., organization. Cal Tech (California Institute of Technology) (reorganized and renamed to the Jet Propulsion Laboratory in 11/01/1944.) formed under Dr. von Karman. 1939/07/01/.

Rocket Space Corporation.....Russia, aerospace company. Address: Energia, 4a Lenin Street, Korolev, Moscow Area 141070, Russia. Abbreviation RSC.

Rocket System Corporation.....Japan, aerospace company. Address: Hamamatscho Central Building, 4F, 1-29-6, Minato-Ku, Tokyo, 1050013, Japan. Private organization for marketing the commercial launch services of Japan's new H-II launcher. Abbreviation RSC. Established in 1990/07/00

Rocket Technology Research Institute.....China, organization. See China Carrier Rocket Technology Research Institute.

Rocketdyne.....U.S., aerospace company, became part of Rockwell International Corporation. Rocketdyne became part of Boeing Co. in 1996.

rocketplane.....See winged spacecraft.

Rockon.....Russia, satellite, interceptor, see Rokot.

rockot.....Russia, roar or sound.

Rockwell.....U.S. aerospace company. Address: The Plaza Tower, 600 Anton Blvd., Costa Mesa, CA 92626, USA. North American Division became part of Boeing in 1996.

Rockwell International Aerospace.....U.S. aerospace company. Also known as the North American Division, became part of Boeing in 1996.

ROCSAT.....Taiwan, satellite, scientific, built by TRW. Launched at CC by Athena 1 into LEO. Also known as FORMOSAT, FORMOSA SATELLITE. First launch 1999/01/27

ROENTGEN SATELLITE.....U.S., Germany, satellite. See ROSAT.

Rohin.....Sanskrit, Aldebaran , fist magnitude star in the constellation Taurus.

Rohini RH-75.....India, rocket, solid fuel sounding rocket. First launch 1967/00/00

ROHINI.....India, satellite, remote sensing. Monocular electro-optical stereo scanner.

- ROHINI, None, 1979/08/10, Sriharikota, SLV-3, FTO.

- ROHINI, None, 1987/03/24, Sriharikota, SLV-3, FTO.

- ROHINI 01, 1980 062A, 1980/07/18, Sriharikota, SLV-3, LEO, 05/20/81.

- ROHINI 02, 1981 051A, 1981/05/31, Sriharikota, SLV-3, LEO, 06/8/81.

- ROHINI 03, 1983 033A, 1983/04/17, Sriharikota, SLV-3, LEO, 04/19/90.

- ROHINI C, 1992 028A, 1992/05/20, Sriharikota, ASLV, LEO, 7/14/92, SROSS.

Srihirakota first launch 1979/08/10

Rojdestvenski, Valeri.....Russia, cosmonaut. See Rozhdestvensky.

rokot.....Russia, roar, rumble.

Rokot.....Russia & German, launch vehicle, РОКОТ, based upon the RS-18, RS-19 or SS-19 (Stiletto) ICBM. Uses upper stage known as Breeze. Also known as Rockot,,15A35.

- Rokot/Breeze K, 4100 lbs (1900 kg), LEO, 14S12, SL-19.

- Rockot/Breeze KM, 4300 lbm (1950 kg), LEO, 14S45. Stage 1, 4 RD-0233 engines or 3 15D95 and 1 15D96 engines. Stage 2, RD-0235 engine with RD-0236 verniers with 4 nozzles or 15D113 engine. Stage Breeze KM, S5.98 engine with 11D458 verniers.

- Rokot/Breeze M, 3300 lbs (1500 kg), LEO.

First launch 1990/12/20

ROLL.....U.S., satellite, see XMROLL.

Roman Numeral System.....I = 1

II = 2

III = 3

IV = 4

V = 5

VI = 6

VII = 7

V III = 8

IX = 9

X = 10

XX = 20

XXX = 30

XL = 40

L = 50

LX = 60

LXX = 70

LXXX = 80

XXC = 80

XC = 90

C = 100

CC = 200

CCC = 300

CCCC = 400

D = 500

DC = 600

DCC = 700

DCCC = 800

CM = 900

M = 1000

MM = 2000.

Romanenko, Yuri.....Russia, cosmonaut, SOYUZ 26, 1977/12/10, SOYUZ 38, 1980/09/18, SOYUZ TM 02, 1987/02/05. First launch 1977/12/10

romb.....Russia, rhombus , oblique angle parallelogram.

ROMB.....Russia, satellite, Calibration. Also known as 11F634. First launch 1976/04/26

Rominger, Kent.....U.S., astronaut, STS-73, 1995/10/20, STS-80, 1996/11/19, STS-085, 1997/08/07, STS-096,1999/5/27, STS-100, 2001/4/19. First launch 1995/10/20

Rontgen.....Wilhelm Rontgen, 1845-1923, discovered X-rays.

Rooks.....USS Rooks, recovery ship, part of the fleet which recovered or was on duty and capable of recovering the following: MERCURY Redstone 3.

RORSAT.....Russia, satellite, surveillance, controlled ocean reconnaissance satellite using active radar. Launched at Baikonur by Soyuz or Tsyklon 2, using spacecraft US-A. First launch 1965/12/26

Rosalind.....Uranus moon, one of 17. See Miranda, Ariel, Umbriel, Titania, Oberon, Puck, Belinda, Rosalind, Portia, Juliet, Dosdemona, Cressida, Bianca, Ophelia, Cordelia, Caliban, Sycorax.

ROSAT.....U.S., Germany, satellite, scientific. ROENTGEN SATELLITE, X-ray observation. Launched at the ESMC by a Delta into a GEO. First launch 1990/06/01

Rosaviacosmos.....Russia, organization, Russia space agency, RSA. Formally RKA. Also known as RAKA.

Rose Knot.....USNS Rose Knot. See tracking ship.

ROSETTA/ROLAND.....ESA, satellite, scientific, comet lander. Will require one gravity assist from Mars and two gravity assists from Earth. Will return images of 2 asteroids and rendezvous with comet P/Wertanen in 2011. Two landers ROLAND (German lead consortium) and CHAMPOLLION (NASA, CNES). Changed to one lander named PHILAE, 10 year mission co comet P/Churyumov-Gerasimenko, in 2014. Philae is the name of the Egyptian obelisk that was matched wit the Rosetta Stone to decipher ancient Egyptian hieroglyphs. Use gravity assist, Mars 2007/07, Earth 2005/03, 2007/11, 2009/00/ First launch 2004/03/02

ROSETTA-CHAMPOLLION.....Europe/U.S. ESA/NASA, satellite, comet rendezvous mission. See ROSETTA/ROLAND.

Rosman Station.....U.S., organization, NASA, STDN, Spaceflight Tracking and Data Network. Rosman Station, Rosman, NC. U.S.

Ross, Jerry.....U.S., astronaut, STS-61B (23), 1985/11/26, STS-27, 1988/12/02, STS-37, 1991/04/05, STS-55, 1993/04/26, STS-74, 1995/11/12, STS-088, 1988/12/06, STS-110, 2002/04/08 First launch 1985/11/26

Rossi.....Bruno Rossi, 1905-1993, X-ray astronomy pioneer.

ROSSI X-RAY TIMING EXPLORER.....U.S. NASA, satellite. See RXTE. Also known as RXTE.

ROST.....U.S., satellite, see ROSAT.

Roswell.....U.S., Roswell, NM, location of early Dr. Goddard's rocket tests.

Rotary Rocket Co......U.S., aerospace company. Address: 595 Penobscot Dr., Redwood City, CA 94063, USA.

Rotational inertia guidance.....See Guidance.

ROTOR.....Russia, satellite, see ZENIT.

Roukavichnikov, Nikolai.....Russia, cosmonaut. See Ruvkaishinikov.

Rozhdestvensky, Valeri.....Russia, cosmonaut, SOYUZ 23, 1976/10/14. First launch 1976/10/14

RP.....Launch vehicle motor, Rocket Power, Inc.

RP-1.....Launch vehicle propellant, kerosene, Rocket Propellant. Chemical symbol CH1.95-2.0.

RR.....Launch vehicle motor, Rolls Royce Ltd.

RS.....U.S., launch vehicle motor. Manufactured by Rocketdyne.

RS.....Russia, satellite, telecommunications. RADIO-ROSTO. Also known as RADIO and OSCAR.

- RS 001, 1978 100B, 1978/10/26, Plesetsk, SL-14, LEO, RADIO SPUTNIK 1.

- RS 002, 1978 100C, 1978/10/26, Plesetsk, SL-14, LEO, RADIO SPUTNIK 2.

- RS 003, 1981 120A, 1981/12/17, Plesetsk, SL-8, LEO, RADIO SPUTNIK 3.

- RS 004, 1981 120D, 1981/12/17, Plesetsk, SL-8, LEO, RADIO SPUTNIK 4.

- RS 005, 1981 120C, 1981/12/17, Plesetsk, SL-8, LEO, RADIO SPUTNIK.

- RS 006, 1981 120F, 1981/12/17, Plesetsk, SL-8, LEO, RADIO SPUTNIK.

- RS 007, 1981 120E, 1981/12/17, Plesetsk, SL-8, LEO, RADIO SPUTNIK.

- RS 008, 1981 120B, 1981/12/17, Plesetsk, SL-8, LEO, RADIO SPUTNIK.

- RS 10, 11, 1987/06/23, Plesetsk, SL-8, RADIO SPUTNIK 10/11, KOSMOS 1861.

- RS 14, 1991/01/29, Plesetsk, SL-8, OSCAR 21.

- RS 12, 13, 1991/02/05, Plesetsk, SL-8, RADIO SPUTNIK 12/13, KOSMOS 2123.

- RADIO-ROSTO RS-15, 1994 085A, 1994/12/26, Baikonur, Rokot, LEO, RS-15.

- RS 16, Svobodny, ZEYA satellite.

- RS 17, 1997-058C, 1997/11/03, MIR, LEO, SPUTNIK 40.

First launch 1978/10/26

RS 25.....U.S., rocket motor, single use SSME, Pratt & Whitney Rocketdyne. thrust lbf ( kN), pressure psi ( bar), liquid propellant LOX/LH2.

RS Designators.....U.S. DoD System designation. See WS Designators.

RS-12.....Russia, launch vehicle, see SS-13.

RS-17.....Russia, launch vehicle, see SS-17.

RS-18.....Russia, launch vehicle, see SS-19.

RS-20.....Ukraine, launch vehicle, see Ikar, SS-18.

RS-21.....U.S., launch vehicle motor, thrust 300 lbf (1.33 kN), pressure ? psi (? bar), liquid propellant N2O4/MMH. Manufactured by Rocketdyne. Used on the MARINER-MARS spacecraft.

RS-27.....U.S., launch vehicle motor, Rocketdyne. Thrust 207,000 lbf (911 kN), Pressure 700 psi (97 bar), propellant LOX/RP-1. Used on Delta II stage 1, Delta 6925..

RS-27A.....U.S., launch vehicle motor, Rocketdyne. Thrust 200,000 lbf (890 kN), Pressure 700 psi (97 bar), propellant LOX/RP-1. Used on Delta II stage 1.

RS-620A.....U.S., DoD System Management Code, X-20 Dyna-Soar. Also SS-464L. See RS.

RS-68.....U.S., launch vehicle motor, Rocketdyne. Thrust 656,000 lbf (2918 kN), pressure 1410 psi, (97 bar), liquid propellant LOX/LH2 Used on Delta IV stage 1.

RS-83.....U.S., launch vehicle motor. Thrust 640,000 lbf (2990 kN), pressure psi ( bar), liquid propellant LOX/LH2. Manufactured by Rocketdyne.

RS-84.....U.S., launch vehicle motor. Thrust lbf ( kN), pressure psi ( bar), liquid propellant LOX/Kerosene. Manufactured by Rocketdyne.

RSA.....Russia, organization. See Russia Space Agency.

RSAT.....U.S., satellite, see RADARSAT.

RSC.....Japan, aerospace company. See Rocket Systems Corporation of Tokyo, Japan.

RSC.....China, organization. Academy of Rocket Technology, China, Academy of Rocket Technology (CART) and other related technical institutes are the main departments in the rocket and satellite researching and manufacturing field in China. They know and take a direct part in the space activities.

RSC.....Russia, aerospace company. See Rocket Space Corporation.

RSC-Energia.....Russia, company, see Rocket Space Corporation, OKB-1.

RSM-50.....Russia, launch vehicle, see SS-N-18.

RSM-52.....Russia, launch vehicle, see SS-N-20.

RSRM.....U.S., launch vehicle motor, thrust 2,650,000 - 3,000,000 lbf (11,790 kN), pressure 918 psi (63 bar), solid propellant PBAM. Manufactured by ATK Thiokol. Redesigned Solid Rocket Motor.

RTDS.....U.S., satellite, First launch 1971/08/07

RTG.....U.S., satellite, scientific. Radioisotope Thermoelectric Generator, satellite power generating system used on PIONEER X and XI satellites instead of solar cells.

RTS.....U.S., AF, organization. Remote Tracking Stations, part of AFSCN:

- Colorado Tracking Station (CTS), "PIKE".

- Diego Garcia Tracking Station (DGS), "REEF".

- Guam Tracking Station (GTS), "GUAM".

- Hawaii Tracking Station (HTS), "HULA".

- Indian Ocean Tracking Station (IOS), "INDI".

- Hew Hampshire Tracking Station (NHS), "BOSS".

- Telemetry and Command Station (TCS), "LION".

- Thule Tracking Station (TTS), "POGO".

- Vandenberg Tracking Station (VTS), "COOK".

RTV-7.....U.S., satellite, see Deal 1 RTV-7.

RUBIN.....German and Russia, satellite. First launch 2000/07/15

RUBIN-3-DSI.....satellite, technology, measure launch environment, SSO. First launch 2002/11/28

rubis.....France, Ruby, chemical, red variety of corundum, used as a gem.

Rubis.....France, launch vehicle, stage 3 with a PO.64 engine, Diamant A. Thrust 11,600 lbf (52 kN), pressure ? psi (? bar), solid propellant.

RUBY.....Russia. See VOSKHOD 1.

rückkehr.....German for return.

Rukavishinikov, Nikolai.....Russia, cosmonaut, SOYUZ 10, 1971/04/23, SOYUZ 16, 1974/12/02, SOYUZ 33, 1979/04/10. First launch 1971/04/23

RUMBA.....Europe, satellite, scientific, LEO SSO. See CLUSTER and SALSA. First launch 2001/07/16

Runco, Mario.....U.S., astronaut, STS-44, 1991/11/24, STS-54, 1993/01/13, STS-77, 1996/05/19. First launch 1991/11/24

Rupee.....Currency of India.

Rupertus DD 851.....USS Rupertus DD 851, recovery ship, part of the fleet which recovered or was on duty and capable of recovering the following: GEMINI 4, GEMINI 6, GEMINI 7, GEMINI 9, APOLLO 8.

Russia.....1) Major Space related organizations; Rosaviacosmos, formally Rossiyskaya Kosmicheskaya Agentsvo. See Russia Major design bureauxs.

2) Launch sites; Plesetsk Cosmodrom, Kapustin Yar, and Baikonur (Tyuratam), in Kazakhstan.

3) Launch vehicles, see SL series

4) Date convention; day, month, year

5) Currency; Ruble

6) First satellite launched; Sputnik, 1957/10/04

Russia Civilian Space Program.....Russia, satellite.

Weather satellites;

- METEOR 1, 1969076

- METEOR 2, 1974-93

- METEOR 3, 1989-94

- ELEKTRO, 1994-

- METEOR 3M, 2000-

Earth Resources

- OKEAN, 1988-

- RESURS F, 1989-

- RESURS O1, 1994

Materials processing

- FOTON, 1988-

Biological

- BION, 1972-96

Communications

- MOLNIYA 1, 1969-

- MOLNIYA 3, 1974-

- RADUGA, 1975-

- GORIZONT, 1975-2000

- EKRAN, 1976-92

- EKSPRESS, 1994-

- GALS, 1994-

- LUCH, 1994-5

Scientific

- GEO 1K, 1994

- PROGNOZ/INTERBALL, 1972-96

- KORONAS 1994

- MARS 8, 1996

Russia Launch Vehicle Designation.....See Russia spacecraft and launch vehicle designation.

Russia major design bureauxs.....Russia. Design bureauxs that play a major role in Russia's space program.

- KB Arsenal

- KB KimAutomatiki (OKB-154)

- KB KimMash (OKB-2)

- NPO Energomash (GDL)

- NPO Machinostroyeniye/Khrunichev (OKB-52)

- NPO Molniya (OKB-155 Branch 2)

- NPO Trud (OKB-276)

- NPO Yuzhnoye (OKB-586)

- NPO-PM (OKB-1 Branch 1)

- OKB Lavotchkin (OKB-301)

- RKK Energiya (OKB-1)

- TsSKB/Progress (OKB-1 Branch 3)

Russia Military Space Program.....Russia, satellite.

Photo reconnaissance

- 1st Generation, ZENIT, 1962-7

- 2nd Generation, ZENIT, 1962-78

- 3rd Generation, ZENIT, 1978-94

- 4th Generation, YANTAR, 1974-

- 5th Generation, TERILEN/NEMAN, 1982-

- 6th Generation, ORLETS 1, 1989-

- 7th Generation, ORLETS 2 1994-

- 8th Generation, ARKON, 1997-

Communications and Relays

- Relays, STRELA 1, 1970-92

- Store-dump, STRELA 2, 1970-94

- Relays, STRELA 3, 1986-

- 24 hour relay, POTOK, 1974

Electronic Intelligence

- 3rd Generation, TSELINA D, 1977-93

- 4th Generation, TSELINA 2, 1985-

Ocean electronic intelligence

- EORSAT, US-P, 1977-

Navigation

- High altitude, GLONASS, 1982-

- Low altitude, TSIKADA, 1997-

- Low altitude, PARUS, 1974-

- Rescue, NEDEZHDA, 1989-

Missile early warning

- Molniya orbit, OKO, 1972-

- 24 hour orbit, PROGNOZ, 1988-

Radar calibration

- YUG, 1977

- VEKTOR, 1974

- ROMB, 1976

Russia Military Space Force and Military Intelligence Directorate.....Russia, organization. See GRU.

Russia Satellite Designation.....See Russia Spacecraft and Launch Vehicle designation.

Russia Space Agency.....Russia, organization. Address: PSA, 129857 Russia, Moscow,42 Shchepkin Str. Also known as RSA, Rosaviacosmos.

Russia spacecraft and launch vehicle designation.....The article number is an alpha numeric designation for a specific spacecraft, launch vehicle or other part of a space launch system. See Russian Military Space Program and Russia Civilian Space Program.

- First position: numbers refer to the system category.

8 - Land based ballistic missile (use prior to 1968).

11 - Space launch system (may retain 8 if developed from a land based ballistic missile).

15 - Land based ballistic missile after 1968.

- Second position: letter, refer to system type.

A - Ballistic missile with conventional warhead (prior to 1968).

A - Liquid fueled ballistic missile (after 1968).

A - Space launch vehicle, designed by Korolev's OKB-1 bureau TsSKB.

K - Ballistic missile with nuclear warhead (prior to 1968).

K - Space launch vehicle designed by Yangel's OKB-586 bureau.

Zh - Ballistic Missile, solid propellant (after 1968).

D - Rocket engine.

S - Stage, may also be referred to as block.

F - Payload (spacecraft or warhead), used by factories.

- Third position, number, refers to the design bureau (OKB) code.

5 - Korolev OKB-1.

6 - Yangel ODK-586.

7 - Korolev OKB-1.

8 - Chelomei OKB-52.

9 - Korolev OKB -1.

- Fourth position, number refers to the project.

Example: 11F649.

Position

1

2

3

4

 

11

F

6

49

Space launch system Soyuz (11), Payload spacecraft (F), Design Bureau Yangel OKB-586 (6), and project 49 (reconnaissance satellite known as YANTAR-3KF).

       See Appendix, Russia/Soviet Missile Vehicle Designation.

- The U.S. DoD designation for Russian Missiles uses SS for surface-to-surface missiles and SS-N for naval surface to surface missiles.

- The NATO designation uses nouns beginning with S for surface-to-surface missiles.

- FOBS, fractional orbit bombardment system.

- ICBM, Intercontinental ballistic missile.

- IRBM, intermediate-range ballistic missile.

- SRBM, short-range ballistic missile.

- SLBM, submarine launch ballistic missile.

Russia Tracking Ship.....A ship used for tracking the satellite during launch or splashdown/landing. See also tracking ships.

- Cosmonaut Vikor Patsayev

- Cosmonaut Vladimir Komarov

- Cosmonaut Yuri Gagarin

- Academician Sergei Korolev

- Pavel Belyayev

- Georgi Dobrovolski

- Viktor Patsayev

- Bladislav Volkov

- Borovichi

- Kegostrov

- Morzhovets

- Nevel

- Marshal Nedelin (Russian Navy)

- Marshal Kyrlov (Russian Navy)

Russian Center for the Conversion of the Aerospace Sector.....Russia, organization, 35, Myasnitskaya ul., 101959 Moscow, Telephone:(7 095) 207-9367, FAX:(7 095) 207-5925. This is a public organization supported by the state. Its main task is to solve the problems of conversion in the aerospace industry. The Center works through a network of representatives, divisions and departments throughout the whole of Russia, the CIS countries and other regions of the world.

Russian-Italian Joint Venture ASTELIT.....Russia, organization. Address: apt. 32-33, 1, Mytnaya ul., 121069 Moscow, Telephone: (7 095) 291-0863, 925-3821, FAX: (7 095) 291-0925. This joint venture was founded in February 1992 by the Moscow Scientific and Industrial Association "Astra" which develops telecommunications systems and facilities, and two Italian companies: ITALCABLE (IRI-STET group) and TELESPAZIO. The main activity of ASTELIT is the provision of international telecommunications services for the Russian Federation and other countries and the delivery, putting into operation and commercial usage of communications systems and facilities. Founded 1992/02/00.

Russian Scientific and Research Institute of Mobile Vehicle Engineering.....Russia, organization, VNIITransMash, 2, Zarechnaya ul., 198323 St. Petersburg, Telephone:(7 812) 135-9850, FAX:(7 812) 135-9837. This organization manufactures and develops a wide range of transport vehicles, including planetary rovers. The Lunokhod chassis and the Mars rover chassis were developed here.

Russian Scientific and Research Institute of Space Device Engineering.....Russia, organization. RNIIKP, 53, Aviamotornaya ul. 111024 Moscow, Telephone: (7 095) 273-4719, FAX:(7 095) 273-1937. This is the leading organization dealing with the design and manufacturing of radio electronic equipment for the space sector. In particular, navigation and geodetic systems for space applications, manned Missions, exploration of the Moon and the planets were developed by RNIIKP.

Russian Scientific and Research Institute of Electromechanics.....Russia, organization. VNIIEM, 4, Khoromny tupik, 107817 Moscow, Telephone: (7 095) 208-8467, FAX:, (7 095) 207-4962. VNIIEM developed military electrotechnical systems. Since 1960 VNIIEM has develop and put into operation satellites for hydrometeorology, exploration of the Earth's natural resources and ecological monitoring. Attitude control and life support systems as well as solar cell tracking drives for various Russian space vehicles, including "SALYUT" and "MIR" were developed here. Founded 1941/00/00

RUSSIAN MARS 96.....Russia, satellite, scientific, Mars orbit. The satellite consists of a Mars orbiter and small surface penetration, the was to arrive 1997/09/12. Launched at Tyuratam by a SL-12. FTO.. First launch 1996/11/16

RV-A-10.....U.S., launch vehicle motor, Thiokol, replacement for Hermes A2. Used polysulfide propellant.

RW.....Runway.

RXTE.....U.S., NASA, satellite, scientific. ROSSI X-RAY TIMING EXPLORER. See XTE.. First launch 1995/12/30

Ryori.....Japan, meteorological rocket launch site, Ryori, Iwate, Japan.

Ryumin, Valeri.....Russia, cosmonaut, SOYUZ 25, 1977/10/09, SOYUZ 32, 1979/02/25, SOYUZ 35, 1980/04/09. First launch 1977/10/09

ryusei.....Japan, Meteor.

RYUSEI.....Japan, satellite. See OREX.

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Updated 2007/2/01