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S.....Russia, abbreviation for Spetsial’nyy, Special, capable of independent flight.

S/2004 S1.....Saturn Moon, discovered in 2004 by CASSINI Spacecraft.

S/2004 S2.....Saturn Moon, discovered in 2004 by CASSINI Spacecraft.

S band.....Electromagnetic frequencies between 2 to 4 GHZ. See band.

S/MM.....U.S., Russia, designation for SPACE SHUTTLE mission to MIR.

S-16.....U.S., satellite, see OSO.

S-3.....U.S., satellite, see EXPLORER 23.

S-310.....Japan, Rocket.

S-3D.....U.S., launch vehicle motor. Thrust 150,000 lbf (660 kN), pressure ? psi (? bar), liquid propellant LOX/Kerosene (RP-1). DoD Rocket Motor Designation, Rocketdyne, LR79. Used on the Juno II launch vehicle.

S-51.....UK, satellite, see ARIEL 1.

S-520.....Japan, Rocket.

S-69.....U.S., satellite, see SOICAL CONE, and SOICAL CYLINDER. First launch 1969/09/30

S-IB.....U.S., launch vehicle stage, used 8 H-1 engines. Used on Saturn 1 launch vehicle.

S-IC.....U.S., launch vehicle stage, used 5 F-1 engines, Saturn V launch vehicle.

S-II.....U.S., launch vehicle stage, used 5 J-2 engines, Saturn V launch vehicle.

S-IV.....U.S., launch vehicle stage. Used 6 RL-10A-3 engines. Used on Saturn 1 launch vehicle.

S-IVB.....U.S., launch vehicle stage, used J-2 engine. Used on Saturn 1B and V launch vehicles.

S-S/C.....U.S., NASA, satellite, research, lunar. Shepherding spacecraft. Will hit the Moon, generating debris plumes. Launch with the LRO and LCROSS satelites. First launch 2006/04/17

S1-5400.....Russia, launch vehicle motor, Thrust ? lbf (? kN), pressure ? psi (? bar), liquid propellant LOX/Kerosene. Used on Block L stage.

S138.....India, launch vehicle motor, solid fuel 138 tons. See PS1.

S139.....India, launch vehicle motor, solid fuel 139 tons. See PS1.

S2-AK.....Russia, satellite, see MAGION 2. First launch 1989/09/28

S2-AP.....Russia, satellite, see MAGION 3. First launch

S3.....U.S., satellite, First launch 1974/10/29

S33.....Brazil, launch vehicle motor, thrust 4,600 lbf (20.5 kN), pressure 550 psi (38 bar), solid propellant HTPB. Used on VLM launch vehicle.

S40.....Brazil, launch vehicle motor, thrust 45,500 lbf (202 kN), pressure 840 psi (58 bar), solid propellant HTPB. Used on VLS and VLM launch vehicles.

S400.....U.S., satellite. First launch 1992/10/12

S43.....Brazil, launch vehicle motor, thrust 68,000 lbf (305 kN), pressure 840 psi (58 bar), solid propellant HTPB. Used on VLS launch vehicle.

S44.....Brazil, launch vehicle motor, thrust 7,400 lbf (33 kN), pressure 595 psi (41 bar), solid propellant HTPB. Used on VLS and VLM launch vehicles.

S5.92.....Russia, launch vehicle motor, variable thrust and pressure, max thrust 4,400 lbf (19.6 kN), pressure 1420 psi (98 bar), liquid propellant N2O4/UDMH. Manufactured by KB Khimash. Used on Soyuz U and Soyuz ST.

S5.98.....Russia, engine, KB Khimavtomatiki, liquid N2O4/UDMH. Thrust 4,410 lbf (19.62 kN), pressure unknown. Used on Breeze M and KM stage.

S5.98M.....Russia, launch vehicle motor, thrust 4410 lbf (19 kN), pressure 1405 psi (97 bar), liquid propellant N2O4/UDMH, manufactured by Khimavtomatiki. Used on Proton launch vehicle.

S69-4 .....U.S., satellite. See SOICAL CONE.

S7.....India, launch vehicle motor, Solid 7 tons of propellant. Used on HPS3.

S70-3.....U.S., satellite, see CALSPHERE.

S73-7.....U.S.,satellite, calibration, launched at Vandenberg AFB by a Titan 3D into a LEO. Also known as CAL BALLOON. First launch 1974/04/10

S80-T.....France, satellite, experimental, low earth orbit communications. Launched at Kourou by Ariane 42P into LEO. First launch 1992/08/10

S9.....India, launch vehicle motor, solid fuel 9 tons each. See PSOM.

SA-200B.....satellite bus, Spectrum Astro, LEO.

SA-200HP.....satellite bus, Spectrum Astro, LEO.

SA-200S.....satellite bus, Spectrum Astro, LEO.

SA VEGA.....Russia, satellite, see VEGA.

SA VENERI.....Russia, satellite, see VENERA.

SA-200HP.....U.S., satellite, scientific. See DEEP SPACE 1.

SA-200LL.....U.S., satellite bus, Spectrum Astro. GEO/MEO.

SABIA.....Brazil & Argentina, satellite, remote sensing.

Sabine AO 25.....USS Sabine AO 25, recovery ship, part of the fleet which recovered or was on duty and capable of recovering the following: APOLLO 4.

SABS.....Saudi Arabia, satellite, direct broadcast. SAUDI ARABIA DIRECT BROADCAST SATELLITE.

SAC.....Argentina, satellite. SATELITE DE APLICACIONES CIENTIFACS. Launched with the HETE FTO.

- SAC B 1996 061A, 1996/11/04, Wallops/L-1011, Pegasus XL, LEO

First launch 1996/11/04

SAC.....India, organization, see ISRO. Also known as Space Applictions Center.

Sacco, Albert.....U.S., astronaut, STS-73, 1995/10/20. First launch 1995/10/20

SACI.....Brazil, satellite, scientific, LEO SSO. First launch 1999/10/14

SACRED.....U.S., satellite, technolgy, Arizona, picosatellite that is a cubesat. First launch 2006/07/26

SAFIR.....Germany, satellite, mobile communications, LEO sun synchronous, 6 satellite constellation. SATELLITE FOR INFORMATION RELAY. First launch 1998/07/10

SAFIR 313.....Iran, satellite, experimental, LEO, launched using a modified Shahab 3 missile. First launch 2005/03

Sagan.....Carl Sagan, 1934-1996, planetary scientist, author.

SAGAN MEMORIAL STATION.....U.S., satellite, scientific, MARS PATHFINDER LANDER, landing site on Mars.

SAGE.....U.S., satellite, scientific. Designed to study dust and liquid droplets in the upper atmosphere by measuring their filtering effect on sunlight. Launched at Wallops Island by a Scout into a LEO. Decayed 04/11/89. First launch 1979/02/18

Sagitattus.....Astrological Sign, Archer, 11/22-12/21.

sakigake.....Japan, pioneer.

SAKIGAKE.....Japan, satellite, scientific. Observe Comet Halley, Also known as M5-T5, encountered Comet Halley 1986/03/11. Launched at Kagoshima by a Mu-3S into a heliocentric orbit. First launch 1985/01/07

sakura.....Japan, means cherry blossom.

SAKURA.....Japan, satellite. See CS.

Salinan ATF 161.....USS Salinan ATF 161, recovery ship, part of the fleet which recovered or was on duty and capable of recovering the following: APOLLO 10, APOLLO 11, APOLLO 15.

Salisbury.....Australia, City, suburb of Adelaide and the location of Weapons Research Establishment. See Adelaide and WRE.

Salmoiraghi.....Europe, aerospace company, joined with Aerfer in 1970 to become Aeritalia.

SALSA.....Europe ESA, satellite, scientific, HEO, 57 hour periods, lopsided pyramid formation, 90o inclination. 4 satellites (SALSA, SAMBA, RUMBA, TANGO) Observes near Earth space in 3 dimensions. Also known as CLUSTER. First launch 2000/07/16

Salvager.....USS Salvager, ARSD 3, prime recovery ship for Little Joe I.

salyut.....Russia for salute.

Salyut Design Bureau of the Khrunichev State Space Scientific and Production Center.....Russia, organization. Address: 18, Novozavodskaya ul., 121087 Moscow, Telephone: (7 095) 145-9884, FAX:(7 095) 142-5921. The design bureau develops aviation, rocket and space technology. Its main activities are: design of heavy and light launch vehicles of the "Proton" and "Rokot" type design of 20-ton class spacecraft design and manufacturing of the Boosters for several types of launchers, design of reentry capsules with various mass parameters, Spinoff includes: industrial equipment, in particular for the bread-baking industry, development of plasma purification plants, development of refrigerators, and more. Founded 1951/00/00.

SALYUT.....Russia, satellite, manned scientific & military space station, LEO. First space station. At total of 7 SALYUT space stations were launched, which were supplied the cosmonauts using the SOYUZ spacecraft and resupplied by the PROGRESS spacecraft. The first generation space stations were SALYUT 1 through 5, with 6 and 7 being the second generation. The third generation is call MIR.

SALYUT 1, launched by SL-13 from Tyuratam on 1971/04/19, reentered the atmosphere and burned 1971/10/11. Also known as 11F715, 17Ks/n 121. Visited by SOYUZ 10 and 11.

- SALYUT, launched by SL-13 from Tyuratam on 1972/07/29, FTO.

- SALYUT 2, launched by SL-13 from Tyuratam on 1973/04/03, reentered the atmosphere and burned 1973/05/22. No SOYUZ visits.

- SALYUT 3, launched by SL-13 from Tyuratam on 1974/06/24, reentered the atmosphere and burned 1975/08/24. Visited by SOYUZ 14 and 15.

- SALYUT 4, launched by SL-13 from Tyuratam on 1974/12/26, reentered the atmosphere and burned 1977/02/02. Also known as 17Ks/n 124. Visited by SOYUZ 17 and 18B.

- SALYUT 5, launched by SL-13 from Tyuratam on 1976/06/22, reentered the atmosphere and burned 1977/08/08. Visited by SOYUZ 21, 23 and 24.

- SALYUT 6, launched by SL-13 from Tyuratam on 1977/09/29, reentered the atmosphere and burned 1982/07/29. Also known as 17Ks/n 126. Visited by SOYUZ 25 through 40, T-1 through T-4, to a total of 20 Flights.

- SALYUT 7, launched by SL-13 from Tyuratam on 1982/04/19, reentered the atmosphere and burned 1991/02/07. Visited by SOYUZ T-5 through T-15, for a total of 11 Flights.

First launch 1971/04/19

Sam.....U.S., payload. Rhesus monkey launched from Wallops Island and to an altitude of 55 miles into space. Recovered by USS Borie. Launched by a Scout. First launch 1959/12/04

Samara NTK Imeni N.D. Kuznestov.....Russia, Moscow, organization. See OKB-276.

SAMBA.....Europe, satellite, scientific, LEO SSO. See CLUSTER SALSA.First launch 2000/08/09

Samos.....Greek. Island in the Aegean. In Greek mythology, home of Midas.

SAMOS.....U.S. Air Force, satellite, surveillance. SATELLITE AND MISSILE OBSERVATION SYSTEM, conduct TV surveillance of the entire world from polar, non-geosynchronous orbit, transmitting pictures to earth, and returned film capsules. Originally SAMOS's name came from the mythical home of King Midas. SAMOS F-4 may have been FERRETS and called PROGRAM 989. DoD System Management Code WS-117M, WS-210A. Also known as Project Pied Piper & Sentry.

- SAMOS 001, None, 1960/10/11, WTR, Atlas Agena A, FTO.

- SAMOS 002, 1961 A1, 1961/01/31, WTR, Atlas Agena A, LEO, decayed 10/21/7.

- SAMOS 003, None, 1961/09/09, WTR, Atlas Agena B, FTO.

- SAMOS 004, None, 1961/11/22, WTR, Atlas Agena B, FTO.

- SAMOS 005, 1961 035A, 1961/12/22, WTR, Atlas Agena B, LEO, decayed 08/14/62.

- SAMOS 006, 1962 007A, 1962/03/07, WTR, Atlas Agena B, LEO, decayed 06/7/63.

- SAMOS 007, 1962 017A, 1962/04/26, WTR, Atlas Agena B, LEO, decayed 04/26/62.

- SAMOS 008, 1962 023A, 1962/06/17, WTR, Atlas Agena B, LEO, decayed 06/18/62.

- SAMOS 009, 1962 030A, 1962/07/18, WTR, Atlas Agena B, LEO, decayed 07/25/62.

- SAMOS 010, 1962 035A,1962/08/05, WTR, Atlas Agena B, LEO, decayed 08/06/62.

- SAMOS 011, 1962 064A, 1962/11/11, WTR, Atlas Agena B, LEO.

- SAMOS, None, 1972/05/20, Vandenberg, Titan IIIB Agena, FTO.

- SAMOS 092, 1972 013A, 1973/03/09, Vandenberg, Titan IIIB Agena, LEO, 1973/05/19.

- SAMOS 093, 1973 028A, 1973/05/16, Vandenberg, Titan IIIB Agena, 1973/06/13.

- SAMOS, None, 1973/06/26, Vandenberg, Titan IIIB Agena, FTO.

- SAMOS 094, 1973 046A, 1973/07/13, Vandenberg, Titan IIIB Agena, LEO,1973/10/12.

- SAMOS 097, 1974 007A, 1974/02/13, Vandenberg, Titan IIIB Agena, LEO, 1974/03/17.

- SAMOS 102, 1975 032A, 1975/04/18, Vandenberg, Titan IIIB Agena, LEO 1975/06/15.

- SAMOS 110, 1977 019A, 1977/03/13, Vandenberg, Titan IIIB Agena, LEO 1977/05/26.

First launch 1960/10/11


- SAMPEX, 1992 038A, 1992/07/03, WSMC, Scout, LEO. First launch 1992/07/03


San Marco.....Yohanan Marcus, c. 30, religious writer.

San Marco Equatorial Range.....Kenya, San Marco, space vehicle launch facility. Location 2.9o S, 40.3o E. Also known as the SMER. Operated by Italy, ASI, and the U.S. It is located in the Formosa Bay, three miles offshore from the coast of Kenya. The nearest town is Malindi. The complex consists of 3 offshore type platforms:

- San Maraco, for vehicle assembling, testing and launch, which is a platform is a 3,000 ton 98 by 382 foot steel structure standing on 20 legs embedded in the sea floor. Scout rockets are assembled and tested in a horizontal position, then raised to a vertical position for launch.

- Santa Rita, which contains equipment for communications, vehicle telemetry, command and control, and weather. It is About 4,000 feet from San Marco and connected to it by 23 electrical cables.

- Santa Rita II, which contains radar equipment.

The most famous satellite launched from San Marco and the first U.S. Satellite lunched by another nation, Italy, was Explorer 42, better known as UHURU, in 1970.

SAN MARCO.....Italy, satellite, measure atmospheric density.

- SAN MARCO, 01, 1964 084A, 1964/12/15, WI, Scout, LEO, 1965/09/13.

- SAN MARCO, 02, 1967 938A, 1967/04/26, San Marco, Scout, LEO, 1967/10/14.

- SAN MARCO, 03, 1971 036A, 1971/04/24, San Marco, Scout, LEO, 1971/11/29.

- SAN MARCO, 04, 1974 009A, 1974/02/18, San Marco, Scout, LEO, 1976/05/04.

- SAN MARCO, D, 1988 026A, 1988/03/25, San Marco, Scout, LEO, 1988/12/06.

First launch WI 1964/12/15

Sandal.....Russia, launch vehicle. See Kosmos, small.

Sandhawk.....U.S., rocket, upper atmosphere geophysics. First launch 1966/00/00

Sandoval LPA 194.....USS Sandoval LPA 194, recovery ship, part of the fleet which recovered or was on duty and capable of recovering the following: APOLLO 8.

Sanjiang Space Group.....China, aerospace company, part of the China Aerospace Corporation.

Santiago Station.....Chile/U.S., organization, NASA, STDN, Spaceflight Tracking and Data Network. Santiago Station, Chile, c/o American Embassy, APO, Miami, FL 34033. For STS, Attn.: Station Director, Embajada de Los EE.UU., APO Miami, FL 34033. Later Santiago, Chile-GAGO, Attention: GSFC Representative or Station Director, NASA/STDN Santiago Station, American Embassy, APO Miami, FL 34033-0001.

SAOCOM.....Argentina, satellite, remote sensing. First launch

SAPPHIRE.....U.S., satellite, infrared sensor, voice synthesizer, LEO. STANFORD AUDIO-PHONIC PHOTOGRAPHIC AND INFRARED EXPERIMENT. First launch 2001/09/30

Sapwood.....Russia, launch vehicle. See Sputnik or Vostolk.

SAR-LUPE.....German, satellite, radar, 5 satellite constellation. First launch 2006/12/19

SARA.....Europe, satellite, radio astronomy experiment. Designed to survey radio-electric emissions from Jupiter. Built by the French Club ESIEESPACE. Supplement information gathered by ULYSSES and GALILEO.

- SARA, 1991 050E, 1991/07/17, Kourou, Ariane4, LEO

First launch 1991/07/17

Sarafanov, Gennadi.....Russia, cosmonaut, SOYUZ 15, 1974/08/26. First launch 1974/08/26

SAREX.....U.S., NASA, Shuttle Armature Radio Experiment. Joint effort by NASA, American Radio Relay League (ARRL) and the Radio Amateurs Satellite Corporation (AMSAT). Also know as ham radio for amateur radio. Equipment flown on the STS, launched at KSC.

- 1983/11/28, STS-9.

- 1985/07/29, STS-51F.

- 1990/12/02, STS-35.

- 1992/03/24, STS-45.

- 1992/09/12, STS-47.

- 1993/04/26, STS-55.

- 1994/02/03, STS-60.

- 1995/09/07, STS-69.

- 1996/09/16, STS-80

- First launch 1983/11/28

Sargent.....U.S., launch vehicle motor. Thrust 1600 lbf (7 kN), pressure ? psi (? bar), solid propellant Ammonium perchlorate and Polysulphide. Also knowns as JPL Baby Sergeant.

SARIT.....Italy, satellite, direct broadcast TV, GEO. Satellite di Radiodiffusuione Italiane.

sarlette.....France, little star.

SARLUPE.....Germany, satellite, reconnaissance, radar. Constellation of 5 satellites.

SARSAT.....U.S., Russia & France, satellite, communications. SEA AND AIR RESCUE SATELLITE. A joint project of various satellite for sea and air rescue locations. First used on NOAA-9, launched at the WTR by an Atlas E. Also known as SARSAT-COSPAS. In Russian COSMICHESKAYA SISTYMA POISKA AVARIYNACH SUBOV. First launch 1984/12/12

SARSAT-COSPAS.....Russia, U.S., & France, satellite. See SARSAT.

Sarsfield DD 837.....USS Sarsfield DD 837, recovery ship, part of the fleet which recovered or was on duty and capable of recovering the following: MERCURY Atlas 6, GEMINI 3.

SAS.....U.S., satellite, astronomy. SMALL ASTRONOMY SATELLITE, part of the EXPLORER series.

SAST.....China, Shanghai, organization, see Shanghai Academy of Spaceflight Technology.

Satan.....Russia, launch vehicle, see SS-18.

Satan.....Ukraine, launch vehicle, see Ikar.

SATCOM.....U.S., satellite, communications. SATELLITE, FOR COMMERCIAL COMMUNICATIONS and television by RCA (Radio Corporation of America).. Was RCA - SATCOM.

- SATCOM 01, 1975 117A, 1975/12/13, ETR, Delta, GOE.

- SATCOM 02, 1976 029A, 1976/03/26, ETR, Delta, GEO.

- SATCOM 03R, 1981 114A, 1981/11/20, ETR, Delta, GEO.

- SATCOM 04, 1982 004A, 1982/01/16, ESMC, Delta, GEO.

- SATCOM 05, 1982 105A, 1982/10/28, ESMC, Delta, GEO.

- SATCOM 06, 1983 030A, 1983/04/11, ESMC, Delta, GEO.

- SATCOM 07, 1983 094A, 1983/09/08, ESMC, Delta, GEO.

- SATCOM K1, 1986 003B, 1986/01/12, STS-61C, COLUMBIA, GEO.

- SATCOM K2, 1985 109D, 1985/11/28, STS-61B, ATLANTIS SPAM-D, GEO.

- SATCOM C1, 1990 100A, 1990/11/20, Kourou, Ariane42P, GEO.

- SATCOM C3, 1992 060B, 1992/09/10, Kourou, Ariane44LP, GEO.

- SATCOM C4, 1992 057A, 1992/08/31, ESMC, Delta 2, GEO.

First launch 1975/12/13


satellite.....The technical definition of the term satellite is any attendant body revolving about another (primary) body. In the solar system, a second body or moon, that revolves about a plant, is considered a satellite. An artificial object revolving about a cosmic body, such as a spacecraft orbiting about the Earth is also considered a satellite. The term satellite, used herein, will mean any man made object placed in orbit around the Earth, moon, planet, Sun, galaxy, or heavenly body, unless other wise noted. Homo Saipan (e.g. Man) made satellites are classified by the function they perform. The following is a list of the more common functions.

- active: transmits signals.

- amateur radio: active relay of messages between ham radio operators. Satellites are typically small, low budget, usually launched as a secondary payload.

- anti-missile: development and use of technology to destroy other satellites.

- astronomy: gathers scientific data.

- burial: contain Cremated ashes

- classified: Some information about the satellite is not released to the public.

- communications or telecommunications.

- dbs-direct broadcast: broadcast television or radio signals directly to subscribers ground based satellite dishes.

- defense.

- early warning: used to detect the launch of missiles and rockets.

- earth observation.

- electronic intelligence: monitor military and domestic electronic communications.

- elint: electronic intelligence.

- ew: early warning.

- geodetic: measures location of points on Earth.

- lunar: gathers data about the moon, includes orbiters, fly-buys, hard and soft landing.

- manned.

- meteorological or weather.

- military.

- nuclear detection: detects nuclear explosions on or above the surface of Earth.

- navigation.

- offense.

- passive

- planetary: gathers data about the other planets including orbiters, fly-buys, hard and soft landers.

- reconnaissance.

- rescue: satellites that can rescue, repair, or resupply other satellites.

- resource.

- science and technology.

- secret.

- space station: Missions to build or resupply manned orbiting space stations.

- spy

- surveillance.

- search and rescue.

- technology: test new technology used in satellite systems.

- telecommunications or communications.

- transport: primary mission is to transport people or materials to space.

See satellite names or satellite/spacecraft designation.

satellite, active.....See active satellite.

satellite, artificial.....Any manmade satellite (made by Homo sapiens).

satellite bus.....That part of the satellite containing the structural frame, systems for house-keeping, telemetry, tracking, satellite controls, communications, system status monitoring, position keeping, attitude control, thermal control and electrical power. It excludes the mission payload.

satellite designation.....At least two types of satellite designations have been identified. The first is the "International Designation", the second is "Catalog Number". Both systems identify all satellites in orbit (past and present), including nose cones, rocket motors, parts and any other space debris, which are detected by radar. Between 1958 and 1993 over 22,000 satellites have been identified, but only a fraction have formal satellite names, e.g. COSMOS 2195. See satellite or satellite names. If a launch attempt does not place a satellite in orbit, the listing will not appear under either of these designations. e.g. MERCURY Redstone 4 launched 1961/07/21, Virgil Grissom's sub orbital flight, or the CLUSTER Satellite launch by the Ariane 5 on 1996/06/04 which exploded shortly after launch.

       The International designation has two forms. Between 1958 and 1962, each satellite was identified by the year of launch and a Greek alphabet letter and an Arabic number. e.g. VANGUARD 1's international designation is 1958 BETA 2. That means the VANGUARD 1 was the second successful launch of a satellite(s) placed in orbit in 1958, BETA being the second letter in the Greek alphabet. The "2" means the satellite was the second satellite placed in orbit by that launch vehicle that day. BETA 1 was probably the VANGUARD's launch vehicle last stage motor or nose cone. If the Greek alphabet was used up in any given year (only 26 characters), a Roman letter was added in front of the Greek name, e.g. 1961 A-EPSILON 1 is Also know as DISCOVERER 34. Starting on 1963/01/01 the International designation was changed to the year followed by a 3 digit Arabic number followed by a Roman letter(s), e.g. 1963-008B is Also known as LUNA 4. However, pre 1963 designation has been changed to the post 1963 designation. In 1996, satellites numbered under the older designation that existed between 1958 and 1962, were updated to the designation which started in 1963. As a result, satellites launched between 1958 and 1962 may have two designations. The International designations will be used herein. Numerous references use this designation and the reader is encouraged to use them.

       The Catalog number was established and maintained by U.S. Space Command (formally the North American Air Defense Command [NORAD]). This system sequentially numbers each manmade satellite in space capable of being detected. e.g. number 22028 is Also EUTELSAT 2 F4. If a satellite breaks up or separates or improved radar is used, the newly identified satellite are added to the list in sequential order. One will occasionally see a jump in the numbering system vs launch date because this phenomena. e.g. 1959 ALPHA 1 (NORAD 11), known as VANGUARD 2, was Also launched with 1959 ALPHA 4 (NORAD 14934).

       Finally, as an example, using the historical numbering and the latest changes, The VANGUARD 2 (popular name) satellite which was launched on 1959/02/17 is Also designated as 1959 A1 or 1959 ALPHA 1 or 1959 α1 (international designation 1958-1962) or 1959 001A (international designation renumbered in 1996) or 11 or NORAD 11 (catalog number).See Also UN Office for Outer Space Affairs.

       Countries may have unique satellite or spacecraft designation nomenclature. See for the U.S. DoD military and satellite designation. For Russia (USSR and CIS) see Russia Spacecraft and launch vehicle designation.

satellite launch sites.....See space vehicle launch facility.

satellite launched twice.....U.S. WESTAR 6, which was launched in 1984. Did not go into correct orbit and was rescued by STS 51A. Re-launched by China on LM-3 as ASIASAT. 1990/04/07

satellite mass.....See satellite weight

satellite names.....See satellite designation.

satellite orbital elements.....See Keplerian elements.

satellite ownership.....The country which owns the satellite or in which the company or corporation who owns the satellite is located.

satellite weight.....- large, greater than 2200 lbs (1,000 kg)

- medium-sized 1100 - 2200 lbs (500-1,000 kg)

- minisatellite 220 - 1100 lbs (100-500 kg)

- microsatellite 22- 220 lbs (10-100 kg)

- nanosatellite 2.2 - 22 lbs (1-10 kg)

- picosatellite 0.22 - 2.2 lbs (0.1-1 kg)

- femtosatellite less than 0.22 lbs (0.1 kg)

Satellite designation.....U.S. See DOD Missile and satellite Designation.

Satellite, first.....Russia, SPUTNIK, first launch 1957/10/04

Satellite launch vehicle.....A launch vehicle that places a satellite in orbit.

Satellite Launch Vehicle.....India, launch vehicle, see SLV.


SATELLITE DATA SYSTEM.....U.S., satellite. See SDS.



SATELLITE PER ASTRONOMIA IN RAGGI X.....Italy & Netherlands, satellite. See SAX.



SATELLITES TEST VEHICLE.....Australia, satellite. See STV.

SATELLON.....U.S., satellite, see ECHO 1 First launch 1960/08/12

satelloon.....A balloon which is a satellite, e.g. ECHO.

Satish Dhawan Space Center.....India, Srihirakota, space vehicle launch facility. Was the Srihirakota Launch Center.

SATIVOD.....France, satellite, broadband communications, LEO. First launch 2002/00/00

SATMEX.....Mexico, satellite, communication, GEO. Also known as MORELOS 5. First launch 1998/12/06

SATNAV.....Abbreviation for Satellite Navigation.

Saturn.....The 6th planet from the Sun, 888 million miles from the Sun, period of revolution 29.46 years, diameter 74,900 miles, 18 satellites (See Prometheus, Pandora, Atlas, Epimetheus, Janus, Mimas, Helene, Enceladus, Tethys, Calypso, Telesto, Dione, Pan, 1995-S4, Rhea, Titan, Hyperion, Laptus, Phoebe.), thousands of rings. Other names for Saturn, roman god: Mesopotamian Ninurta, Shamash, god; Greece Cronus, god.

saturn.gifFigure 45 Saturn graphic symbol.

Saturn.....U.S., launch vehicle. NASA heavy lift Launch Vehicle. Started with a components of the Thor and Jupiter missiles, known as Juno 5. Named for the planet Saturn, the next large planet from Jupiter and the next missile in the series developed by the Army Ballistic Missile Agency. The Saturn V was built to send the APOLLO Astronauts to the Moon.

- Stage 1, S-1C, 5 F-1 engines.

- Stage 2, S-II, 5 J-2 engines.

- Stage 3, S-IVB, J-2 engine, 6 Attitude control engines, each thrust 150 lbf (0.66 kN), pressure psi ( bar), liquid propellant N2O4/MMH. 3 ullage rocket motor, TX-280.

- Stage 4, LMDE, thrust 10,000 lbf (47 kN), pressure 104 psi ( bar), propellant Hydrazine/UDMH/N2O4. Manufactured by Space Technologies Laboratories.

- Stage 5, LMAS engine, thrust 3500 lbf (15.7 kN), pressure psi ( bar), propellant Hydrazine/UDMH/N2O4. and 16 16 R-4D attitude control thrusters.(Space World 1969/03}

- Stage 6, SM engine, thrust 20,000 lbf (91 kN), pressure psi ( bar), launch vehicle propellant, 16 R-4D attitude control thrusters.(Darling}(Space World 1969/03}

       - Launch Escape System (LES), thrust 147,000 lbf (654 kN), pressure psi ( bar), First launch ?

Early launches:

- Saturn 01, NONE. First launch 1961/10/27, PC, Saturn I Block 1, Suborbit

- Saturn 02, NONE. First launch 1962/04/25, PC, Saturn, Suborbit

- Saturn 03, NONE. First launch 1962/11/16, CC, Saturn, Suborbit

- Saturn SA-5, 1964 005A, 1964/01/29, ETR, Saturn I Block 2, LEO, Decayed 1966/04/30

- Saturn SA-6, 1964 028A. First launch 1964/05/28, ETR, Saturn I Block 2, LEO, Decayed 1964/06/01

- Saturn SA-7, 1964 057A. First launch 1964/09/18, ETR, Saturn I Block 2, LEO, Decayed 1964/09/22.

Other satellites launched with the Saturn include PEGASUS, APOLLO, and SKYLAB.

First launch 1961/10/27

Saturn IB.....U.S., launch vehicle, 22,500 lbs (10,200 kg) LEO, APOLLO 2, AS-203 tests. First launch 1966/07/05

Saturn V.....U.S., launch vehicle, manned lunar landing, 262,000 lbs (119,000 kg) LEO, APOLLO. First launch 1967/11/09

SATURN S-IVB.....U.S., satellite, see APOLLO.


SAUDI COMSAT.....Saudi Arabia, satellite, communications, LEO. First launch 2004/06/29

SAUDISAT.....Saudi Arabia, satellite, communications. Built by KACST. First launch 2000/09/26

Savage.....Russia, launch vehicle, see SS-13.

Savinykh, Viktor.....Russia, cosmonaut, SOYUZ TM 04, 1988/06/07, SOYUZ T13, 1985/06/08, SOYUZ T5, 1981/03/12. First launch 1981/03/12

Savitskaya, Svetlana.....Russia, cosmonaut, SOYUZ T7, 1982/08/19, SOYUZ T12, 1984/07/17. First launch 1982/08/19

Sawfly .....Russia, launch vehicle, SS-N-8.

SAX.....Italy, Netherlands, satellite, astronomy. SATELLITE PER ASTRONOMIA in raggi X. X-ray astronomy satellite. Launched at the ETR by an Atlas 1. Also known as BEPPO SAX. First launch 1996/04/30

SB 2000.....France, satellite bus, see Spacebus 2000.

SB 3000.....France, satellite bus, see Spacebus 3000.

SB 3000B.....France, satellite bus, see Spacebus 3000B.

SB 3000B3S.....France, satellite bus, see Spacebus 3000B3S.

SB 4000.....U.S., satellite bus, see Spacebus 4000.

SB Designation.....U.S., launch vehicle designation. See DoD designation.

SB-1 A.....U.S., launch vehicle, DoD designation, see Atlas E.

SB-2 A.....U.S., launch vehicle, DoD designation, see Atlas II.

SB-2B.....U.S., launch vehicle, DoD designation, see Atlas IIA/AS.

SB-3 A.....U.S., launch vehicle, DoD designation, see Delta II.

SB-310.....Japan, launch vehicle motor, used on Mu-4S and Lambda-4S stage 0, strap-ons. Thrust 170,000 lbf (776 kN), pressure ? psi (? bar).

SB-4 A.....U.S., launch vehicle, DoD designation, see Titan II.

SB-5 A/B.....U.S., launch vehicle, DoD designation, see Titan IV.

SB-6 A.....U.S., launch vehicle, DoD designation, see Titan 34D.

SB-735.....Japan, launch vehicle motors, thrust 73,000 lbf (327 kN), pressure ? psi (? bar), solid propellant CTPB. Used on Mu-3S-II launch vehicle.

SBB.....Japan, launch vehicle motor, uses Castor IVAXL. Used on the H-IIA.

SBD.....U.S., satellite, technology, test of enlarged Microstar bus. SPECIAL BUS DESIGN. FTO. First launch 2001/09/21

SBIRS.....U.S. DoD, satellite, early warning system. SPACE BASED INFRARED SYSTEM, to replace the DSP. Works with SMTS. LEO and GEO. See SBIRS-HIGH and SBIRS-LOW. First launch 2006/00/00

SBIRS-HIGH.....U.S. DoD, satellite, early warning system, GEO. Part of the SPACE BASED INFRARED SYSTEM, 4 satellite GEO component of the Air Forces's space-based infrared missile warning system. See SBIRS and SBIRS-LOW. First launch 2004/00/00

SBIRS-LOW.....U.S., Air Force, satellite, early warning system, 24 satellite constellation. LEO, component of the Air Force's space-based infrared missile warning system. See Also SBIRS. First launch 2004/00/00

SBR.....U.S., satellite, Radar, SPACE BASED RADAR. DoD designation LS-10 A.

SBS.....Launch Vehicle, SelfContained booster Stage.

SBS.....U.S., satellite, communications. SMALL BUSINESS SYSTEMS, provided integrated, all-digital, interference-free transmission of telephone, computer, electronic mail and video tele-conferencing from geosynchronous orbit.

- SBS 01, 1980 091A, 1980/11/15, ETR, Delta, GEO.

- SBS 02, 1981 096A, 1981/09/24, ETR, Delta, GEO.

- SBS 03, 1982 011B, 1982/11/11, STS-05, COLUMBIA PAM-D, GEO.

- SBS 04, 1984 083B, 1984/08/31, STS-41D, DISCOVERY PAM-D, GEO.

- SBS 05, 1988 081B, 1988/09/08, Kourou, Ariane3, GEO.

- SBS 06, 1990 091A, 1990/10/12, Kourou, Ariane4, GEO.

First launch 1980/11/15

SBS-1.....Russia, Launch Vehicle, solid and liquid motor stages. Used on DNEPR for GEO.

SBSS Block 10.....U.S., satellite, reconnaissance, also known as PATHFINDER OR SBSS PATHFINDER.

SBSS Block 20.....U.S., satellite, reconnaissance. LEO, 4 satellite constilletation. Optical and infrared sensors. First launch 2013/00/00


SBTS.....Brazil, see BRASILSAT 1 and 2.

SBWASS.....U.S., satellite, Part of USA series, see NTS.

Scalpel.....Russia, launch vehicle, see SS-24.

SCATHA.....U.S., satellite, scientific. SPACECRAFT CHARGING AT HIGH ALTITUDES, was to investigate the electrical charging effects on spacecraft in high-altitudes orbits caused by their passing through the earth's magnetic field.

- SCATHA, 1979 007A, 1979/01/30, ETR, Delta, HEO.

First launch 1979/01/30

SCC.....Japan, company, Space Communications Corporation 2-8, Higashi-shinagawa 2-chome, Shinagawa-ku Tokyo 140-0002, JAPAN.

SCD.....Brazil, satellite, meteorological. SATELITE DE COLETA DE DADOS, Brazil's domestically produced spacecraft, built by the Instituto Nacional de Pesquisas Espaciales. Relays weather and environment data from collection stations.

SCD 01, 1993 009B, 1993/02/09, ESMCB-52, Pegasus, LEO.

SCD 2A, 1997/11/02, VLS, FTO.

First launch


SCE.....U.S., satellite, communications. SELECTIVE COMMUNICATIONS EXPERIMENT. See Also STACKSAT. Launched at the WTR by an Atlas E into a Polar Orbit. First launch 1990/04/11

scheitem.....German for failure.

Schirra, Wally.....U.S., astronaut, MERCURY Atlas 8, 1962/10/03, Gemini 6, 1965/10/25, APOLLO 7, 1968/10/11. First launch 1962/10/03

Schlegel, Hans.....Germany, astronaut, STS-55, 1993/04/26. First launch 1993/04/26

Schmitt, Harrison.....U.S., astronaut, APOLLO 17, 1972/12/07. First launch 1972/12/07

Schweickart, Russell.....U.S., astronaut, APOLLO 9, 1969/03/03. First launch 1969/03/03

science satellite.....A satellite which observes scientific phenomena, e.g. SURVEYOR

Scientific and Production Association "Planeta".....Russia, organization, NPO "Planeta", 7, Bolshoi Predtechensky per., 123242 Moscow, Telephone: (7 095) 252-3717, FAX: (7 095) 200-4210. NPO "Planeta" is the leading scientific and production organization dealing with space systems intended for operative remote sensing and ecological monitoring of the Earth's surface and atmosphere.

SCISAT.....Canada, satellite, scientific, LEO. First launch 2003/08/13

Scobee, Dick.....U.S., astronaut, STS-41C (11), 1984/04/06, STS-51L (25), 1986/01/28. First launch 1984/04/06

SCORE.....U.S. Army Satellite, communications. SIGNAL COMMUNICATION BY ORBITING RELAY EQUIPMENT. First ever communications satellite. First message broadcast from space, voice of President Eisenhower.

- SCORE, 1958 Z1, 1958/12/18, ETR, Atlas B, LEO, 1959/01/21.

First launch 1958/12/18

Scorpio.....Astrological Sign, Scorpion, 10/23-11/21.

Scorpius.....U.S., launch vehicle, 700 lbm (314 kg), LEO. Manufactured by Microcosm, Inc. Stage 1, 6 Microcosm 20K engine. Stage 2, Microcosm 20K engine. Stage 3, Microcosm 2.5K engine.

Scorpius Sprite.....U.S., launch vehicle, 330 lbs (150 kg), LEO First launch 2000/00/00

Scott, David.....U.S., astronaut, GEMINI 8, 1966/03/16, APOLLO 9, 1969/03/03, APOLLO 15, 1971/07/26. First launch 1966/03/16

Scott, Winston.....U.S., astronaut, STS-72, 1996/01/11, STS-087, 1997/11/19. First launch 1996/01/11

Scout.....U.S., launch vehicle, NASA solid propellant Launch vehicle, LEO. Solid Controlled Orbital Utility Test system. Vanguard's third stage was the upper stages of the vehicle. no longer in active service First orbital launch, FTO 1960/12/04. First orbital launch, success 1961/02/16, EXPLORER 9.

- X-1, 130 lbs (59 kg) LEO. Stage 1, Algol 1C motor. Stage 2, Castor 1. Stage 3, Antares 1. Stage 4, Altair 1. First launch 1960/07/01.

- X-2, 168 lbs (76 kg) LEO. Stage 1, Algol 1D motor. Stage 2, Castor 1. Stage 3, Antares II. Stage 4, Altair 1. First launch 1962/04/26.

- X-3. First launch 192 lbs (87 kg) LEO. Stage 1, Algol IIA motor. Stage 2, Castor 1. Stage 3, Antares II. Stage 4, Altair 1. First launch 1962/08/31

- X-4, 227 lbs (103 kg) LEO. Stage 1, Algol IIB motor. Stage 2, Castor 1. Stage 3, Antares II. Stage 4, Altair 1. First launch 1963/07/28.

- A-1, 269 lbs (122 kg) LEO. Stage 1, Algol IIB motor. Stage 2, Castor II. Stage 3, Antares II. Stage 4, Altair II. First launch 1966/12/21.

- B-1, 315 lbs (143 kg) LEO. Stage 1, Algol IIB motor. Stage 2, Castor IIA. Stage 3, Antares IIA. Stage 4, Altair IIIA. First launch 1965/08/10

- D-1, 408 lbs (185 kg) LEO. Stage 1, Algol IIIA motor. Stage 2, Castor IIA. Stage 3, Antares IIA. Stage 4, Altair IIIA. First launch 1972/08/13

- F-1, 425 lbs (193 kg) LEO. Stage 1, Algol IIIA motor. Stage 2, Castor IIA. Stage 3, Antares IIB. Stage 4, Altair IIIA. First launch 1974/06/13

- G-1, 459 lbs (208 kg) LEO. Stage 1, Algol IIIA motor. Stage 2, Castor IIA. Stage 3, Antares IIIA. Stage 4, Altair IIIA. First launch 1979/10/30

First launch 1960/07/01

Scully-Power, Paul.....U.S., astronaut, STS-41G (13), 1984/10/05. First launch 1984/10/05

SDI.....U.S., satellite, SDIO sensor test.

- SDI DELTA SENSOR MODULE & USA 19,1986/09/05, ETR, Delta.


- SDI Subsatellites 1-5, 7-11, 1988/02/08, ETR, Delta.

- USA 30, 1988/02/08, ETR, Delta.

- SENSOR MODULE, 1988/02/08, ETR, Delta.

- SPX, 1988/02/08, ETR, Delta.

- USA 36, 1989/03/24, ETR, Delta.

First launch 1986/09/05

SDIO.....U.S., organization. Strategic Defense Initiative Organization, later renamed BMDO.. First launch 1991/05/01

SDO.....U.S., Europe, satellite, scientific, GEO. SOLAR DYNAMICS OBSERVATORY. Part of the Living With a Star (LWS) program. First launch 2007/08/00

SDS.....U.S. DOD/USAF & NRO, satellite, communications, Molniya orbit. SATELLITE DATA SYSTEM. Communications between satellite control facility ground stations.

- SDS 01, 1976 050A, 1976/06/02, WTR, Titan 34D Agena, HEO.

- SDS 02, 1976 080A, 1976/08/06, WTR, Titan 34D Agena, HEO.

- SDS 03, 1978 021A, 1978/02/25, WTR, Titan 34D Agena, HEO.

- SDS, 1978 075A, 1978/08/04, Vandenberg, Titan 111B Agena,

- SDS 04, 1980 100A, 1980/12/13, WTR, Titan 34D Agena, HEO.

- SDS 05, 1983 078A, 1983/07/28, WSMC, Titan 34D Agena, HEO.

- SDS 06, 1985 014A, 1985/02/08, WSMC, Titan 34D Agena, HEO, USA 9.

- SDS 07, 1987 015A, 1987/02/11, WSMC, Titan 34D Agena, HEO, USA 21.

- SDS II-1, 1989 061B, 1989/08/08, KSC, STS-28, USA 40.

First launch 1976/06/02

sea.....mer (Fr),, meer (D).

Sea Commander.....U.S., ship, command ship for Sea Launch, see Sea Launch Commander.

Sea Launch.....U.S., Russia, launch vehicle, see Zenit.

Sea Launch Assembly and Command Ship.....U.S., ship, command ship for Sea Launch, see Sea Launch Commander.

Sea Launch Co......U.S., Russia, & Norway, aerospace company with partners Boeing Commercial Space Co., Kvaerner of Norway, Russia RKK-Energia, and Ukraine KB Yuzhnoye and PO Yuzhmash. Launches in international waters for LEO and MEO with a Zenit-3SL launch vehicle. Launch Platform is Odyssey. Launch site, Pacific Ocean, 154o W, 0o N.

Sea Launch Commander.....U.S., ship, command ship for Sea Launch. Also known as Sea Launch Assembly, Command Ship (ACS), and Sea Commander.

Sea of Tranquillity.....Moon, space vehicle launch site, for APOLLO 11 EAGLE. First launch 1969/07/21

Sea Viewing Wide Filed of View Sensor.....U.S., satellite. See SEAWIFS.

SEA AND AIR RESCUE SATELLITE.....U.S., Russia, France, satellite. See SARSAT.

SEA GULL.....Russia, satellite, manned, VOSTOK 6, (SEA GULL), launched by SL-3, Tyuratam, Cosmonaut, Valentina Tereshkova, R 1963/06/19. First launch 1963/06/16

SEA STAR.....U.S., satellite. See SEAWIFS.

SEA-1.....Russia, satellite, ocean reconnaissance. Also known as MORE-1. See RORSAT.

search and rescue satellite.....A satellite used in support of search and rescue operation.

Searfoss, Richard.....U.S., astronaut, STS-58, 1993/10/18, STS-76, 1996/03/31. First launch 1993/10/18

SEASAT.....U.S., satellite, technology. Demonstrate techniques for global monitoring of oceanographic phenomena and features, carried first imaging radar, first SCATTERMETER radar, high precision altimeter radar and microwave radiometer. SEA SATELLITE.

- SEASAT 01, 1978 064A, 1978/06/27, WTR, Atlas Agena D, LEO.

First launch 1978/06/26

SEASAT.....France, satellite, telecommunication, GEO.

SEASTAR.....U.S., satellite, surveillance. See ORBVIEW 2.

SEAWIFS.....U.S., NASA, satellite, scientific. SEA VIEWING WIDE FILED OF VIEW SENSOR. Determine global ocean colors and to derive from these measurements various biological indicators and other useful scientific products. Launch at WTR by Pegasus XL. First launch 1997/08/01

SEC.....U.S., launch vehicle stage, Atlas single engine Centaur.

Secondary payload orbital transfer vehicle.....U.S., launch vehicle, see SPOVT.

Secondary recovery ship.....See SRS.

SECOR.....U.S. Army, satellite, navigation. SEQUENTIAL COLLATION OF RANGE SPACECRAFT. Navigational satellite and part of the Army's overall Secor position-determination program. Preceded the U.S. Navy's Transit. Data classified.

- SECOR 01, 1964 001C, 1964/01/11, WTR, TAT Agena D, LEO.

- SECOR 02, 1965 017B, 1965/03/11, WTR, Thor Able Star, LEO, 1968/02/26.

- SECOR 03, 1965 016E, 1965/03/09, WTR, Thor Agena D, LEO.

- SECOR 04, 1965 027B, 1965/04/03, WTR, Atlas Agena D, LEO.

- SECOR 05, 1965 063A, 1965/08/10, WI, Scout, LEO.

- SECOR 06, 1966 051C, 1966/06/09, ETR, Atlas Agena D, LEO, 1967/07/06.

- SECOR 11, None, 1968/08/16, WTR, Atlas Burner II, FTO.

- SECOR 12, None, 1968/08/16, WTR, Atlas Burner II, FTO.

- SECOR 13, 1969 037B, 1969/04/14, WTR, Thorad Agena D, LEO.

First launch 1964/01/11

secret.....Satellite. See classified.

SECS/OTS.....UK, satellite, see SKYNET 4C.

Seddon, Margaret.....U.S., astronaut, STS-51D (16), 1985/04/12, STS-40, 1991/06/05, STS-58, 1993/10/18. First launch 1985/04/12

SEDS.....U.S. satellite, technology. SMALL EXPENDABLE DEPLOYER SYSTEM.

- SEDS 01, 1993 017B, 1993/03/30, ESMC, Delta 2,, 1994/03/30.

- SEDS 02, 1994 016B, 1994/03/10, ESMC, Delta 2, LEO, 1994/05/08.

First launch, KSC 1993/03/30

SEDSAT.....U.S., satellite, earth imaging. STUDENTS FOR THE EXPLORATION AND DEVELOPMENT OF SPACE SATELLITE. Launched at CC by a Delta 7925, into a LEO. Dual launch with DEEP SPACE 1. First launch 1988/10/25

SEEDS.....Japan, satellite, technology, Nihon University, picosatellite that is a cubesat. First launch 2006/07/26

Sega, Ronald.....U.S., astronaut, STS-60, 1994/02/03, STS-76, 1996/03/31. First launch 1994/02/03

Sego.....Russia, launch vehicle, SS-11 ICBM.

seite.....German for page.


Selene.....Greece, moon goddess.

SELENE.....Japan, NASDA, ISAS, satellite, scientific, lunar orbiter and lander. SELENOLOGICAL AND ENGINEERING EXPLORER First launch 2007/00/00

Selenia.....Europe, aerospace company, joined with Aeritalia in 1990 to became part Alenia.

selenocentric orbit.....Orbit about the moon.


SelfContained booster Stage.....Launch Vehicle, SBS.

semimajor axis.....Orbital component. Keplerian element, symbol A. It gives the size and shape of the orbit. ½ the distance from the perigee to apogee, the parameter that determines the axis of the orbit. See parabolic orbit, Keplerian elements, hyperbolic orbit, elliptical orbit.

Semyorka.....Russia, launch vehicle, see 8K71.

Semyouka Rocet.....Russia and France, launch vehicle, marketed by Starsem.


Sentinel.....USS Sentinel, recovery ship, part of the fleet which recovered or was on duty and capable of recovering the following: SKYLAB 1, SKYLAB 3.

SENTRY.....U.S., satellite. See VELA HOTEL, renamed SAMOS.

SEO.....India, satellite, earth observation, see BHASKARA.

SEOSAT.....Spain, satellite, micro satellite, remote sensing. First launch

SEP.....France, aerospace company. Address: 24 rue Salomondo Rothschild, Suresnes 92150, France.

SEP.....Solar Electric Propulsion. Electronic propulsion powered by solar power, used on satellites. First use on SMART-1 satellite.

séparation.....French for undocking.


Serb.....Russia, launch vehicle, SS-N-6.

Serebrov, Alexander.....Russia, cosmonaut, SOYUZ T7, 1982/08/19, SOYUZ T8, 1983/04/20, SOYUZ TM 08, 1989/09/05, SOYUZ TM 17, 1993/07/01. First launch 1982/08/19

Sergeant.....U.S. launch vehicle motor, see Sargent.

Sergeant.....U.S., launch vehicle motor. Also known as the TX-33 or TX-33-52 motors. Manufacatured by Thiokol.

SERT.....U.S., satellite, technology. SPACE ELECTRIC ROCKET TEST, assess the performance of electron bombardment ion engines over long periods of time.

- SERT 01, None, 1964/07/20, WI, Scout, SUBORBIT.

- SERT 02, 1970 009A, 1970/02/04, Vandenberg, TAT Delta Agena D, LEO.

First launch Wallops Island, 1964/07/20


SES.....Luxembourg, aerospace company. See Société Européenne des Satellites SA.

SES American Inc......U.S.,company, commercial satellite operator, 515, AAP, AMC, GSTAR, AURORA, SATCOM, SIRIUS, SPACENET, TDRS. 4 Research Way, Princeton, NJ 08540-6684, USA.

SESAT.....Europe and Siberia, satellite, communications, GEO. First launch 2000/08/17

SESP.....U.S., satellite. See STP.

SESP74.....U.S. Air Force, satellite.

- SESP74 02, 1976 065B, 1976/07/08, WTR, Titan IIID, HEO, 1986/04/24. First launch 1976/07/08

Setebos.....The God of Sycroax, and a character from Shakespear's The Tempest.

Setebos.....Uranus moon, 1999/was S U1

SETI.....U.S., organization. Search for Extra-Terrestrial Intelligence.

SEV.....U.S., satellite, see SECOR 5. First launch 1965/08/10

Sevastianov, Vitali.....Russia, cosmonaut. See Sevastyanov.

Sevastyanov, Vitali.....Russia, cosmonaut, SOYUZ 9, 1970/06/01, SOYUZ 18, 1975/05/24. First launch 1970/06/01

SEVER.....Russia, satellite, Also known as 5K.

Severemorsk.....Russia, Barents Sea launch location. Satellites launched from a submarine.

Severn AO 61.....USS Severn AO 61, recovery ship, part of the fleet which recovered or was on duty and capable of recovering the following: GEMINI 10, GEMINI 11.

SFA.....U.S., space vehicle launch facility. See Spaceport Florida Authority.

sfera.....Russia, sphere.

SFERA.....Russia, satellite, atmospheric observation. Launched from Plesetsk by Kosmos. First launch 1968/02/20

SFU.....Japan, satellite, scientific. SPACE FLYER UNIT. Reusable platform to hold up to nine experiments.

- SFU, 1995 011A, 1995/03/18, TANEGASHIMA, H-2, LEO, RETURNED 1996/01/20 BY STS-72.

First launch 1995/03/18

Shaanxi.....China, organization. See Xi'an Satellite Testing and Monitoring Center, China.

Shamash.....Mesopotamian, Saturn god.

Shanghai.....China, Long March (CZ) launch vehicle assemble plant.

Shanghai #2 Bureau of Machinery and Electrical Equipment.....China, organization, built the Feng Bao launch vehicle.

Shanghai Academy of Spaceflight Technology.....China, Shanghai, organization. Development of SHENZHOU serviced module, re-entry capsule. Also known as SAST, Shanghai Academy of Spaceflight Technology. Formed 1968/00/00.

Shanghai Academy of Spaceflight Technology.....China, organization. Principal responsibility for the design and production of the CZ family launch vehicles lies with the China Academy of Launch Vehicle Technology (CALT) and the Shanghai Academy of Spaceflight Technology (SAST), both of which belong to the China Aerospace Corporation.

Shanghai Institute for Biological Sciences.....China, Shanghai, organization, manned spaceflight studies.

Shanghai Institute of Machine and Electrical Design.....China, organization, see Shanghai Institute of Machine and Electrical Design (SIMED). Became part of the 5th Academy in 1963/01. Moved to in 1965 and renamed Seventh Research Division of the Eighth Institute of Design in the Seventh Ministry of Engineering Industry. Was also known as the Beijing Institute of Spacecraft Systems Engineering (BISSE).

Shanghai Space Adminisrtation.....China , organization

ole18.gifFigure 46 Shanghai Space Adminisrtation

Shanghai Space Bureau.....China, organization. Abbreviated SHT. The bureau designs satellite. Address Aerospace Building, 222 chaoqi road, Shanghai, 200233, China.

Shar.....India, space vehicle launch facility. ISRO Launch Site, Srihirakota Launch Range. See Srihirakota launch center.

Shar Center.....India, organization, see ISRO. Also known as SHAR.

SHAR.....India, organization, see ISRO. Also known as Shar Center.

Shargin, Yury.....Russia, cosmonaut, SOYUZ TMA 5, 2004/10/14. First launch 2004/10/14

Sharipov, Salizhan.....Uzbekistan, cosmonaut, STS-89, 1998/01/22, SOYUZ TMA 5, 2004/10/14. First launch 1998/01/22

Sharma, Rakesh.....India, cosmonaut, SOYUZ T11, 1984/04/03, SOYUZ TM 12, 1991/05/18. First launch 1984/04/03

Sharman, Helen.....British, cosmonaut, SOYUZ TM 12, 1991/05/18. First launch 1991/05/18

Shatalov, Valdimir.....Russia, cosmonaut, SOYUZ 04, 1969/01/14, SOYUZ 08, 1969/10/13, SOYUZ 10, 1971/04/23. First launch 1969/01/14

shauang chen-tse.....China, east wind center.

Shauang Chen-Tse.....China, space vehicle launch facility. See Jiuquan.

Shavit.....Israel, launch vehicle. Derived from the YA-3 Jericho 2 ballistic missile.

- Shavit, 350 lbs (160 kg), LEO. Stage 1 SRM 1,TAAS. Stage 2, SRM 2, TAAS. Stage 3, AUS-51.

- Shavit 1, 495 lbm (225 kg) LEO.

Launched the first Israeli satellite.. First launch 1988/09/19

shaviyt.....Israel, Hebrew for comet.

Shaw, Brewster.....U.S., astronaut, STS-9, 1983/11/28, STS-61B (23), 1985/11/26, STS-28, 1989/08/08. First launch 1983/11/28

Shekel.....Currency of Israel.

Sheldon name.....U.S., Library of Congress, Dr. Charles Sheldon, in 1968 emphasize the basic families of Russia (USSR) (Soviet) launch vehicles.

Example: A-1-m.

- A is the family (A, B, C, D, F, G, J, K).

- 1 upper stages (1 or 2).

- m type of upper stage (e = earth escape, M = maneuverable stage, r = reentry stage).

SHELS.....U.S., launch vehicle, Shuttle compatible propulsion module for the AFRL to place HITCHHIKER satellites in orbit deployed from the Space Shuttle.

SHENZHOU.....China, satellite. Part of manned space program, project 921. First launch 1999/11/19

Shepard, Allen.....U.S., astronaut, APOLLO 14, 1971/01/31. First launch 1971/01/31

Shepherd, William.....U.S., astronaut, STS-27, 1988/12/02, STS-41, 1990/10/06, STS-52, 1992/10/22, SOYUZ TM 31 & Expedition 1, 2000/10/31. First launch 1988/12/02

Sherlock, Nancy.....U.S., astronaut, STS-57, 1993/06/21. First launch 1993/06/21

shi jian.....China, practice .

SHI JIAN.....China, satellite, science. (Practice) science satellite, proton detector, electron detector, to study near earth space environment.

- SHI JIAN-1, 1971/03/03, Jiuquan, CZ-1, CHINA 2.

- SHI JIAN-2, 1979/07/28, Jiuquan, FB-1.

- SHI JIAN-2A, 1981/09/20, Jiuquan, FB-1, CHINA 11.

- SHI JIAN-2C, 1981/09/20, Jiuquan, FB-1, CHINA 10.

- SHI JIAN-2B, 1981/09/20, Jiuquan, FB-1, CHINA 09.

- SHI JIAN 04, 1994 010A, 1994/02/08, Xichang, CZ-3A, HEO, FIRST FLIGHT OF CZ-3A, KF 1. (PRACTICE 4)

First launch 1971/03/03

SHIJIAN.....China, satellite, see SHI JIAN.

shinsei.....Japan, nova or new star.

SHINSEI.....Japan, satellite, scientific.

- SHINSEI, 1971 080A, 1971/09/28, Kagoshima, MU 4S, LEO, SS-01.

Tanegashima first launch 1971/09/28

ship.....Many naval vessels were and are being used to track, or recover spacecraft or launch vehicles. See Appendix Ships.

shiyan kexuedi weixing.....Chinese for Space Physics Experiment.

SHIYAN.....China, satellite, microsatellite, imaging, polar orbit. Shiyuan means experimental. Also known as TANSUO.First launch 2004/04/18

SHIYAN KEXUEDI WEIXING.....China, satellite. See SKW.


SHIYONG TONGBU TONGXIN WEIXING.....China, satellite, communications, GEO. Chinese for Operational Geostationary Communications Satellite. STTW, SHIYONG TONGBU TONGXIN WEIXING. Known collectively as DFH, DONG FANG HONG 2-2.

- STTW 1, 1986 010A, 1986/02/01, Xi Chang, CZ-3, GEO, PRC 18, STW 2.

- STTW 2, 1988 014A, 1988/03/07, Xi Chang, CZ-3, GEO, STW.

- STTW 3, 1988 111A, 1988/12/22, Xi Chang, CZ-3, GEO, STW 3.

- STTW 4, 1990 011A, 1990/02/04, Xi Chang, CZ-3, GEO, PRC 26, STW 4.

- STTW 5, 1991 088A, 1991/12/28, XI Chang, CZ-3, HEO, STW 5.

First launch 1986/02/01

SHIYONG TONGXIN WEIXING.....China, satellite, communications, GEO. Means Experimental Communications Satellite, Also known as STW, SHIYONG TONGXIN WEIXING, and DONG GANG HONG..

- STW, 1984 008, 1984/01/29, Xi Chang, CZ-3, HEO, PRC 14.

- STW 1, 1984 035A, 1984/04/08, Xi Chang, CZ-3, GEO, PRC 15.

First launch 1984/01/29

Shonin, Georgi.....Russia, cosmonaut, SOYUZ 06, 1969/10/11. First launch 1969/10/11

Shotput.....U.S., rocket, suborbital testing of balloons satellites ejection and inflation. Used in Five launches from WI in 1959 and 1960 in the testing of the ECHO-1 satellite. First launch 1959/00/00

SHOYAN TONGBU TONGXING WEIXING.....Chain, satellite, communication, GEO. Was DONG FANG HONG 2-3. First launch 1986/02/01

Shrihirakota.....India, space vehicle launch facility. See Srihirakota.

Shriver, Loren.....U.S., astronaut, STS-51C (15), 1985/01/24, STS-31, 1990/04/24, STS-46, 1992/07/31. First launch 1985/01/24

SHT.....China, organization. See Shanghai Space Administration. Also known as Shanghai Space Bureau, China, designs satellite.

shtil.....Russia, means calm.

Shtil.....Russia, space launch vehicle. Converted R-29RM or RSM-54, three stage liquid propellant submarine launched missile (SS-N-23). Shtil means calm.

- Shtil, 176 lbs (80 k g), LEO, First launch 1998/07/07.

- 1, 309 lbm (140 kg), LEO. Stage 1, RD-0243. Stage 2, 1 ? engine, liquid propellant N2,O4/UDMH. Stage 3, 1 engine plus 4 thrusters, liquid propellant N2.O4/UDMH.

- 1N, 940 lbs (430 kg), LEO.

- 2N, 580 lbs (265 kg), LEO.

- 2R, 485 lbm (220 kg), LEO

- 2.1, 440 lbs (200 kg), LEO.

- 3N, 1470 lbs (670 kg), LEO.

First launch 1998/07/07

SHTIL.....Israel, satellite, technology. Launched by the Shtil launch vehicle from a Russia submarine in the Barents Sea. First launch 1998/07/07

Shtil'.....Russia, launch vehicle, see Shtil.

Shu Guang.....China, 1st manned flight program. Shu means very early, Guang means light, combined means dawn. Started in late 1969-1971. Stopped by the Cultural Revolution. Later manned flight Program 921.

shuang ch'eng tzu.....China, east wind center.

shuang cheng tzu.....China, east wind center.

Shuang Ch'eng Tzu.....China, space vehicle launch facility. See Shuang Cheng Tzu. Also known as Jiuquan.

Shuang Cheng Tzu.....China, space vehicle launch facility for early satellites. Now called Jiuquan. First launch 1970/04/24

shuttle.....navette (Fr)., raum fähre (D).

SHUTTLE.....U.S., satellite. See STS or Space Transportation System.


SHUTTLE-MIR MISSION.....U.S. & Russia, satellite. See SMM.

Shuttleworth, Mark.....South Africa, Tourist, 'uchastnik poleta', or 'flight participant', SOYUZ TM 34, 2002/04/25. First launch 2002/04/25

SI.....Units of measure, Système International d'Unitès. 7 basic units:

- length - meter [m]

- mass - kilogram [kg]

- time - seconds [s]

- temperature - kelvin [oK] (Centergrade will be used herein [Co])

- electric current - ampere [A]

- quantity of substance - mole [mol]

- luminous - candela [cd]

The United States use the FPS.

Siai Marchetti.....Europe, aerospace company, became part of Agusta in 1990, later sold to Aermacchi in 1996.

sich.....Ukraine, sickle.

SICH.....Ukraine, satellite, remote sensing, version of OKEAN.

- SICH 01, 1995 046A, 1995/08/31, Tyuratam, SL-14, LEO.

First launch 1995/08/31

Sickle.....Russia, launch vehicle, see SS-25.

SICRAL.....Italy, satellite, mobile military communications, GEO. Sistema Italiana de Communicazione Riservente Allarmi. Also known as SIRCAL. First launch 2001/02/07

Sigint.....Communications intelligence (comint) and electronic intelligence (elint) are collectively known as Signal Intelligence.


sigma.....Σ, σ, sigma, 18, Greek Alphabet.

SIGMA 7.....U.S., satellite, manned spacecraft MERCURY, MA-8. First launch 1962/10/03

SIGNAL.....Russia, satellite, mobile communications, LEO, 48 satellite constellation.



SIGNE.....France, satellite, gamma-ray astronomy.

- SIGNE 3, 1977 049A, 1977/06/17, Kapustin Yar, SL-8, LEO, INTERCOSMOS 1979/06/20.

First launch 1977/06/17

SILUET.....Russia, satellite, photo reconnaissance, 11F660. Part of YANTAR series of satellites. Current name is KOMETA.

SIM.....U.S., NASA, satellite, scientific, L2. Images stars that may host Earth-like planets. SPACE INTERFEROMETRY MISSION. First launch 2009/00/00

SIMBOL-X.....France, satellite, astrophysics, formation flying, x-ray astrophysics laboratory.

SIMED.....China, organization, see Shanghai Institute of Machine and Electrical Design.

SIMON BOLIVAR.....Venezuela, satellite, communications, remote sensing, purchased from China’s Great Wall Corp. First launch 2008/00/00

SIMPLESAT.....U.S., satellite, telescope. launched from STS 105, LEO. First launch 2001/08/20

SIMSAT.....Russia, satellite, dummy payload. First launch 2000/05/16

Sin.....Mesopotamia, moon god.

SINA.....Iran, satellite, imaging, spy satellite. Built by Polyot of Omsk, Russia. First launch 2005/10/00

SINAH.....Iran, satellite, imaging, used the Polyot's Sterkh satellite bus. First launch 2005/10/27

SINDI.....U.S. USAF, satellite, see MIGHTYSAT 2.

SINGAPORE- TELECOM.....Singapore & Taiwan, satellite, communications, see ST.

SINGAPORE-TAIWAN.....Singapore & Taiwan, satellite, communications, see ST.

Single Stage to Orbit.....See SSTO.

SINGLETON.....U.S. satellite, signal intelligence, LEO.

- USA 32, 1988/09/05, Vandenberg, Titan 2, LEO.

- USA 45, 1989/09/06, Vandenberg, Titan 2, LEO.

- USA 81, 1992/04/25, Vandenberg, Titan 2, LEO.

First launch 1988/09/05

SINGSAT.....China, satellite, mobile communications, LEO. SINGAPORE SATELLITE.

SINGTEL.....China, satellite, communications, GEO. First launch 1998/08/25

sino.....English, means Chinese.

Sino Satellite Communications Co. Ltd.....China, aerospace company, commercial satellite operator, communications, SINOSAT. Also known as SINOSATCOM. Address: F7, Block B, Yuetan Tower, No. 2, Yuetanbeijie, Xichengpu, Beijing, 100045 People's Republic fo China. Old address: PO Box 849-49, Beijing, 100830 People's Republic of China.

Sino Satellite Communications.....China, aerospace company, also known as Sinosat.

SINO.....China, satellite. See SINOSAT.

Sinosat.....China, aerospace company, see Sino Satellite Communications Co Ltd.

SINOSAT.....China, satellite, mobile communications, GEO. SINO (Chinese) SATELLITE. Also known as SINO, XINNUO, DFH-4. First launch 1998/07/18

SINOSATCOM.....China, aerospace company. See Sino Satellite Communications Co.

SIR.....U.S., NASA/JPL, satellite, technology, radar experiments. SIR-A, -B, -C carried on STS 2 and STS 7. See OSTA.

SIRCAL .....Italy, see SICRAL.

SIRIO.....Italy, satellite, experimental communications.

- SIRIO, 1977 080A, 1977/08/25, ETR, Delta, GEO.

First launch 1977/08/25

SIRIUS.....U.S., satellite, radio transmission, GEO. Also known as CD RARDIO. First launch 2000/06/30

SIRIUS.....Sweden, satellite, direct TV, GEO. Also known as BSB. First launch 1998/10/05

SIRTF.....U.S., Japan, satellite, astronomical, heliocentric orbit. SPACE INFRARED TELESCOPE FACILITY. It will study cosmic birth-the formation of galaxies, stars, and planets. SIRTF is the follow-on to the Infrared Astronomical Satellite (IRAS). The SIRTF mission will: (1) carry out high-sensitivity photometric and imaging observations of celestial sources in the 4- to 180-micron wavelength range and spectroscopic observations out to 40 microns; (2) study cosmic birth (formation of galaxies, stars, and planets); (3) observe new comets and other primitive bodies in the outer solar system; (4) study disks of solid material around nearby stars (planetary system development); (5) search for brown dwarfs and missing mass; (6) extend IRAS studies of forming stars to the earliest phases of star formation; (7) extend Cosmic Background Explorer (COBE) studies of the infrared background to finer spatial scales; (8) identify and study powerful infrared-emitting galaxies at the edge of the universe; and (9) provide infrared perspective for the understanding of quasars. First launch 2003/08/25

SJ.....China, satellite. See SHI JIAN.

SKB.....Russia, organization, special design bureau.

SKB Dept 3.....Russia, organization. (08/1946 to 04/1950). See OKB-1.

SKB Dept 9, NII-88.....Russia, Poblipki, Kaliningrad, Korolev, organization. See OKB-2.

SKB Yuzhnoye SKB-586.....Russia, Dnepropetrovsk, organization. See OKB-586.

SKB-586.....Russia, Dnepropetrovsk organization. See OKB-586.

Skean.....Russia, launch vehicle. See Kosmos, large

Skiff.....Russia, launch vehicle, see SS-N-23.

SKIPPER.....U.S. Utah State University and Moscow Aviation Institute, Russia, satellite, aero-braking.

- SKIPPER, 1995 072B, 1995/12/28, Tyuratam, SL-6, LEO.

First launch 1995/12/28

SKW.....China, satellites, scientific or reconnaissance. SHIYAN KEXUEDI WEIXING (Space Physics Experiment). Many are renamed after launch. Many of the non recoverable were scientific, many of the recoverable were reconnaissance.

- SKW, 1969/11/01, Jiuquan, CZ-1, FTO.

- SKW 1, 1970/04/24, Jiuquan, CZ-1, TUNGFANGHUNG, or CHINA 1 or MAO 1.

- SKW 2, 1971/03/03, Jiuquan, CZ-1, PRACTICE 1, or CHINA 2.

- SKW, 1974/07/12, Jiuquan, FB-1, FTO (non recoverable).

- SKW, 1974/11/05, Jiuquan, CZ-2, FTO, FANHUI SHI WEIXING, (recoverable).

- SKW 3, 1975/07/26, Jiuquan, FB-1, CHINA 3, (non recoverable).

- SKW 4, 1975/11/26, Jiuquan, CZ-2, CHINA 4, (recoverable).

- SKW 5, 1975/12/16, Jiuquan, FB-1, CHINA 5, (non recoverable).

- SKW 6, 1976/08/30, Jiuquan, FB-1, CHINA 6, (non recoverable).

- SKW 7, 1976/12/07, Jiuquan, CZ-2, CHINA 7, (recoverable).

- SKW 8, 1978/01/26, Jiuquan, CZ-2, CHINA 8, (recoverable).

- SKW, 1979/07/26, Jiuquan, FB-1, FTO, CHINA, (non recoverable).

- SKW 9A, B, C, 1981/09/20, Jiuquan, FB-1, PRC 9, 10, 11, (non recoverable).

- SKW 10, 1982/09/09, Jiuquan, CZ-2C, PRC 12, (recoverable).

- SKW 11, 1983/08/19, Jiuquan, CZ-2C, PRC 13, CHINA II, (recoverable).

- SKW 12, 1984/09/12, Jiuquan, CZ-2C, PRC 16, (recoverable).

- SKW 13, 1985/10/21, Jiuquan, CZ-2C, PRC 17, (recoverable).

- SKW 14, 1986/10/06, Jiuquan, CZ-2C, PRC 19, (recoverable).

First launch, FTO 1969/11/01

SKY.....U.S., satellite, communication, GEO.

Skybridge.....France and U.S. aerospace company, partnership with Alcatel and Loral Space & Communications others from Belgium, Canada, France, Japan and USA.

Skybridge LP.....U.S. aerospace company. Became part of Boeing in 1998.

SKYBRIDGE.....France, satellite, high-speed multimedia telecommunications. The constellation will be 64 LEO satellites. Prime contractor/investor Alcatel. In partnership with Loral's CYBERSTAR.

SKYLAB.....U.S., satellite, manned Space Station. Fashioned from the 4th stage (S-4B) of the Saturn 5 launch vehicle. Docked with the APOLLO CSM. The first launch place the SKYLAB in orbit using a Saturn 5 rocket from KSC.

- The first APOLLO launch for SKYLAB was designated APOLLO/SKYLAB 2, used CSM-116, launched by a Saturn 1B on 1973/05/22, astronauts Charles Conrad, Joseph Kerwin, Paul Weitz, returned on 1973/06/22, PRS U.S.S. Ticonderoga (CVS-14). SRS: USS Escape ARS 6, USS Grapple ARS 7, USS Redstone T. AGM 20, USS Sentinel, USS Vanguard T. AGM 19.

- APOLLO/SKYLAB 3, used CSM-117, launched by a Saturn 1B from KSC on 1973/07/29, astronauts Alan Bean, Owen Garriott, Jack Lousma, returned on 1973/09/25, PRS U.S.S. New Orleans (LPH-11). SRS: USS Adroit, USS Escape ARS 6, USS Redstone T. AGM 20, USS Vanguard T. AGM 19.

- APOLLO/SKYLAB 4, used CSM-118, launched by a Saturn 1B from KSC on 1973/11/16, Gerald Carr, Edward Gibson, William Pogue, returned on 1974/02/08, PRS U.S.S. New Orleans (LPH-11). SRS: USS Beaufort ATS 2, USS Bolster ARS 38, USS Grapple ARS 7, USS Opportune, USS Redstone T. AGM 20, USS Sentinel, USS Tawakoni ATF 114, USS Vanguard T. AGM 19.

The SKYLAB entered the atmosphere 1979/07/11.

First launch 1973/05/14

Skylark.....Australia/UK, rocket, sounding, performed a huge range of experiments. Renamed from the original CTV5 Series III. The longest lasting of all the Australian sounding rocket programs started with a single stage rocket in 1957. Twenty-four single stage versions were flown. A two stage version was first flown in April 1960. Most Flights until February 1968 were the two stage version, when a greatly improved version was launched. More than 250 were launched before launches largely ceased in 1979, although a few more occurred over the years. One was flown as late as 1987. First launch 1957/02/13

SKYMED-COSMOS.....Europe, satellite, weather observation, disaster warning and topography.

SKYNET.....United Kingdom & U.S., satellite. Launched at the ETR by a Delta.

- SKYNET 01, 1969 101A, 1969/11/22, ETR, Delta, GEO.

- SKYNET 01B, 1970 062A, 1970/08/19, ETR, TAT Delta, HEO.

- SKYNET 2A, 1974 002A, 1974/01/19, ETR, Thorad Delta, HEO, decayed 01/25/74.

- SKYNET 2B, 1974 094A, 1974/11/23, ETR, Thorad Delta, GEO.

- SKYNET 4A, 1990 001A, 1990/01/01, ESMC, Titan III, GEO.

- SKYNET 4B, 1988 109A, 1988/12/11, Kourou, Ariane 44LP, V-027, GEO.

- SKYNET 4C, 1990 079A, 1990/08/30, Kourou, Ariane 44LP, V-038, GEO, SECS/OTS.

- SKYNET 4D, 1998/01/10,, Delta.

- SKYNET 4E, 1999/02/26, Kourou, Ariane 44L V-116.

First launch 1969/11/22

SL.....Russia, launch vehicle. U.S. Department of Defense designation. See Russia Launch Vehicle Designation.

- SL-1, 2900 lbs (1300 kg) LEO. First launch 1957/10/04, Sputnik, Sheldon Name A, article 8K710 or 8K71PS.

- SL-2, 2900 lbs (1300 kg) LEO. First launch 1957/11/03, Sputnik, Sheldon Name A, article 8A91.

- SL-3, 10,400 lbs (4730 kg) LEO. First launch 1958/06/25, Vostok, Sheldon Name A-1, article 8K72, 8K72K, 8A92, 8A92M.

- SL-4, 15,400 lbs (7000 kg) LEO. First launch 1963/10/05, Soyuz, Sheldon Name A-2, article 11A57, 11A511, 11A511L, 11A511M, 11A511U, 11A511U2, 11A511U-FG.

- SL-5. First launch 1963/11/01, Sheldon Name A-1-m, article 11A59.

- SL-6. First launch 1960/10/10, Molniya, Sheldon Name A-2-e, article 8K78, 8K78M.

- SL-7, 1300 lbs (600 kg) LEO. First launch 1961/10/21, Kosmos-small, Sheldon Name B-1.

- SL-8, 3000 lbs (1350 kg) LEO. First launch 1964/08/18, Kosmos-large, Sheldon Name C-1.

- SL-9, 27,000 lbs (12,200 kg) LEO. First launch 1965/07/16, Proton, Sheldon Name D.

- SL-10. First launch 1965/12/27, Tsyklon, Sheldon Name F-1-r.

- SL-11. First launch 1966/09/17, Tsyklon, Sheldon Name F-1-m.

- SL-12. First launch 1967/04/08, Proton, Sheldon Name D-1-e.

- SL-13, 44,100 lbs (20,000 kg) LEO. First launch 1967/03/10, Proton, Sheldon Name D-1.

- SL-14, 8800 lbs (4000 kg) LEO. First launch 1977/09/24, Tsyklon, Sheldon Name F-2.

- SL-15, 220,000 lbs (100,000 kg) LEO. First launch 1969/02/19, N-1, Sheldon Name G-1-e.

- SL-16, 30,300 lbs (13,740 kg) LEO. First launch 1985/04/13, Zenit, Sheldon Name J-1.

- SL-17, 194,000 lbs (88,000 kg) LEO. First launch 1987/05/15, Energia & Energia/BURAN, Sheldon Name K-1.

- SL-19, Also known as Rokot.

- SL-24, Also known as Dnepr-1.

SL.....Sea launch.

SL-10.....Russia, launch vehicle. Sheldon Name F-1-r. See SL or Tsyklon.

SL-11.....Russia, launch vehicle. Sheldon Name F-1-m. See SL or Tsyklon.

SL-12.....Russia, launch vehicle. See SL or Proton.

SL-13.....Russia, launch vehicle. See SL or Proton.

SL-14.....Russia, launch vehicle. See SL or Tsyklon

SL-15.....Russia, launch vehicle. 220,000 lbs (100,000 kg) LEO. Sheldon Name G-1-e. See SL or N-1.

SL-16.....Russia, launch vehicle. See SL or Zenit.

SL-17.....Russia, launch vehicle. See SL or Energiya.

SL-19.....Russia, launch vehicle, see Rokot.

SL-24.....Russia, launch vehicle, Dnepr-1.

SL-3.....Russia, launch vehicle. See SL or Vostok.

SL-4.....Russia, launch vehicle. See SL or Soyuz.

SL-5.....Russia, launch vehicle. See SL or Sheldon Name A-1-m.

SL-6.....Russia, launch vehicle. See SL or Molniya.

SL-7.....Russia, launch vehicle. See SL or Kosmos, small.

SL-8.....Russia, launch vehicle. See SL or Kosmos, large.

SL-9.....Russia, launch vehicle. See SL or Proton.

SL-J.....U.S./Japan satellite, scientific, LEO. SPACELAB-JAPANESE, ETR, STS-47. First launch 1992/09/12

Slayton, Deke.....U.S., astronaut, APOLLO-SOYUZ APOLLO CSM-119, 1975/07/15. First launch 1975/07/15

SLC.....Space launch complex. Facility where rockets are launched to place satellites into space. Also known as satellite launch complex.

SLC.....Satellite launch complex. See also Space Launch Complex.

slingshot orbit.....An orbit in which the spacecraft is sent close to a planet or other large solar system object in order to use gravity to change the speed or direction of the spacecraft. This action conserves fuel. See gravity assist orbit.

SLOHSAT-FLEVO.....Europe, ESA, satellite, minisatellite, microgravity investigation. FACILITY FOR LIQUID EXPERIMENTATION AND VERIFICATION IN ORBIT. SLOH is the location of the NLR of The Netherlands.

SLOSHSAT-FLEVO.....Europe, ESA, satellite, see SLOHSAT-FLEVO.

SLS.....U.S. NASA, satellite, scientific, LEO. SPACELAB LIFE SCIENCES Laboratory. Investigate the effects of weightlessness exposure using both man and animal as specimens.

- SLS-1, 1991/06/05, ETR, STS-40.

First launch 1991/06/05

SLS.....South Launch Site.

SLV.....India, launch vehicle, Satellite Launch Vehicle, ASLV Augmented Satellite Launch Vehicle , PSLV Polar Satellite Launch Vehicle. GSLV Geostationary Satellite Launch Vehicle. Each stage has 2 designations, 1) Application of stage, e.g. PSOM is Polar launch Vehicle Strap On Motor. GS3 is Geosynchronous launch vehicle stage 3. 2) The second name indicates propellant type, S for solid, L for liquid, C for cryogenic, and the approximate weight of the propellant, e.g. L8 is liquid, 8 tons.

- SLV-3, 90 lbs (40 kg), LEO. Stage 1, thrust 95,000 lbf (422 kN), pressure 640 psi (44 bar), launch vehicle propellant PBAN. Stage 2, thrust 60,000 lbf (267 kN), pressure 555 psi (38 bar), launch vehicle propellant PBAN. Stage 3, thrust 20,400 lbf (90 kN), pressure 640 psi (44 bar), launch vehicle propellant HEF-20. Stage 4, thrust 6000 lbf (26 kN), pressure 426 psi (29 bar), launch vehicle propellant HEF-20. First launch 1979/08/10, Satellite launch vehicle.

- ASLV, 330 lbs (150 kg), LEO. Stage 0, 2 AS0 strap-ons. Stage 1, AS1. Stage 2, AS2. Stage 3, AS3. Stage 4, AS4.First launch 1987/03/24, Augmented Satellite launch vehicle.

- PSLV, 2640 lbs (1200 kg), LEO polar, 990 lbs (450 kg), GTO, Polar Satellite launch vehicle. Strap-on, PSOM, S9. Stage 1, PS1, S138, S139 Stage 2, PS2, PL-40, L40H. Stage 3 HPS3, S7. Stage 4, 2 PS4, L2.

- GSLV, 3520 lbs (1600 kg), LEO. Stage 1, 4 boosters 1 engine each Vikas, LPSC L40H, or S138. Stage 2 GS-2, VSSC S139, Vikas. Stage 3 GS3, C12, KDV-1 or CUS.

- GSLV Mk1, 17600 lbs (8000 kg), LEO, Geostationary Satellite launch vehicle.

- GSLV Mk2, 11000 lbs (5000 kg), LEO.

- GSLV Mk3, 6600 lbs (3000 kg), GTO.

First launch 1979/08/10

SLV.....Launch vehicle. Satellite Launch Vehicle or Standard Launch Vehicle.

SLV-3.....India, launch vehicle, LEO, 90 lbs (40 kg) LEO. Satellite Launch Vehicle, first Indian satellite. First launch 1979/08/10

SLV-3A.....U.S. launch vehicle. See Atlas SLV-3A.

SLV-3C.....U.S. launch vehicle. See Atlas LV-3A.

SLV-3D.....U.S. launch vehicle. See Atlas SLV-3D.

SM.....U.S., NASA, satellite, scientific, APOLLO, SERVICE MODULE. The command module combined with the service module was known as the command service module (CSM). See APOLLO.

SM.....U.S., Launch Vehicle designation, see DoD Designation.

SM-65.....U.S., launch vehicle, see Atlas.

SM-65A/B/C.....U.S., launch vehicle, see Atlas A, B, C.

SM-65D/E.....U.S., launch vehicle, see Atlas D or E.

SM-65F.....U.S., launch vehicle, see Atlas F.

SM-68.....U.S., launch vehicle, Titan I.

SM-68B.....U.S., launch vehicle, Titan II.

SM-75.....U.S., launch vehicle, Thor.

SM-78.....U.S., launch vehicle, Jupiter.

Small Kosmos (B-1).....Russia, launch vehicle, SL-7, LEO. First launch 1962/00/00


SMALL BODY SAMPLE RETURN.....U.S., NASA, satellite, scientific. Lands on comets and asteroids and return samples. First launch ?

SMALL BUSINESS SYSTEMS.....U.S., satellite. See SBS.


SMALL EXPLORER.....U.S. satellite. See SMEX or TRACE.




SMALLSAT.....Malaysia, satellite, communications. See TIUNGSAT. 2000/09/26

SMART.....ESA, satellite, scientific, lunar orbit, ion drive propulsion. SMALL MISSION for ADVANCED RESEARCH AND TECHNOLOGY. Entered Lunar orbit 2004/11/15. Crashed into moon on 2006/09/03. First launch 2003/09/27

SMART SAT.....Japan, science, weight approximately 220 lbs, (100 kg).

SMC.....See System Management Codes

SME.....U.S., NASA/JPL, satellite, scientific. SOLAR MESOSPHERE EXPLORER, atmospheric research satellite to study reactions between sunlight, ozone, and other chemicals.

- SME, 1981 100A, 1981/10/06, WTR, Thor Delta, LEO, decayed1981/03/5.

First launch 1981/10/06

SMER.....Keyna, space vehicle launch facility. See San Marco Equatorial Range.

SMEX.....U.S. NASA, satellite, scientific. SMALL EXPLORER program. See TRACE and FUSE.

Smith, Michael.....U.S., astronaut, STS-51L (25), 1986/01/28. First launch 1986/01/28

Smith, Steven.....U.S., astronaut, STS-68, 1994/09/30, STS-82, 1997/02/11, STS-103, 1999/12/19, STS-110, 2002/04/08. First launch 1994/09/30

Smithsonian Astrophysical Observatory Stations.....U.S., organization. Used in satellite observations:

- Organ Pass, NM. U.S.

- Olifantsfontein, S. Africa.

- Island Lagoon, Woomera, Australia.

- San Fernando, Spain.

- Tokyo, Japan.

- Nain Tal, India.

- Arequipa, Peru.

- Shiraz, Iran.

- Curaco, Netherlands Antilles.

- Jupiter, FL, U.S.

- Villa Dolores, Argentina.

- Maui, Hawaii, U.S.

SMLC.....Kenya & U.S., space vehicle launch facility, San Marco Launch Complex, see San Marco Equatorial Range.

SMM.....U.S., satellite. See SOLAR MAXIMUM MISSION.

SMM.....U.S. & Russia, satellite, LEO. SHUTTLE-MIR MISSION. U.S. Space Shuttle docks with the Russian MIR Space Station.

- SMM 1, 1995/06/27, KSC, STS 071.

- SMM 2, 1995/11/12, KSC, STS 074.

- SMM 3, 1996/03/22, KSC, STS 076.

- SMM 4, 1996/09/16, KSC, STS 079.

- SMM 5, 1997/01/12, KSC, STS 081.

- SMM 6, 1997/05/17, KSC, STS 084.

- SMM 7, 1997/09/25, KSC, STS 086.

- SMM 8, 1998/01/22, KSC, STS 089.

- SMM 9, 1998/06/02, KSC, STS 091.

First launch 1995/06/27

SMMS.....China, satellite, solar affects on Earth. SMALL MULTI-SIDE MULTI MISSION SATELLITE. Uses the CAST968 bus. First launch 2004/00/00

SMOS.....Europe, satellite, Earth observation. Measures soil moisture and ocean salinity. First launch 2007/00/00

SMPX.....U.S., satellite, see SAMPEX.

SMS.....U.S., satellite, meteorological. See SYNCHRONOUS METEOROLOGICAL SATELLITE.

SMTS.....U.S. DoD, satellite, surveillance. Early warning system satellite, SPACE AND MISSILE TRACKING SYSTEM, works with SBIRS. First launch ?

SNAP.....U.S., satellite, power. SUPPLEMENTAL NUCLEAR POWER, or SYSTEMS for NUCLEAR AUXILIARY POWER, radioisotope nuclear power generators for satellites.

SNAP.....Great Britain, satellite, technology. Also known as UOSAT-MST-1. First launch 1999/04/21

SNAP.....China, satellite, scientific, LEO SSO. First launch 2000/06/28

SNAP 1.....UK, satellite, nanosatellite, photographs external views of vehicles in orbit. First launch 2000/06/28

SNAPSHOT.....U.S. NASA/AEC, satellite, technology. First nuclear reactor, SNAP 10A, in orbit. - SNAPSHOT, 1965 027A, 1965/04/03, WTR, Atlas Agena D, LEO.

First launch 1965/04/03

Snecma.....France, company, aerospace. Snecma, 2 boulevard du Général Martial-Valin, 75724 Paris Cedex 15, France. Manufactures rocket engines and motors. Part owner in Europropulsion.

Snecma HM7B.....ESA, launch vehicle motor, see HM7B.

Snecma Viking VC.....ESA, launch vehicle motor, see Viking VC.

Snecma Viking VI.....ESA, launch vehicle motor, see Viking VI.

Snecma Vinci.....ESA, launch vehicle motor, see Vinci.

Snecma Vulcain.....ESA, launch vehicle motor, see Vulcain.

Snecma Vulcain 2.....ESA, launch vehicle motor, see Vulcain 2.

Snipe.....Russia, launch vehicle, see SS-N-17.

SNOE.....U.S., satellite, scientific, LEO. STUDENT NITRIC OXIDE EXPLORER, University of Colorado.

SONE, 1998/02/25, Pegasus XL, LEO. First launch 1998/02/25

SNOOPY.....U.S., satellite, manned spacecraft APOLLO 10, LM-4. See CHARLIE BROWN CMS-106. First launch 1969/05/18

SNPA.....UK, satellite, nanosatellite, photographic. First launch 2000/06/28

SO-1.....Russia, satellite, see PIRS.

SO-M.....Russia, satellite, see PROGNOZ.

SO-MS.....Russia, satellite, see INTERBOL.

Société Européenne des Satellites SA......Luxembourg, aerospace company, commercial satellite operator, communications, AAP, SMC, ASTRA, GSTAR, SATCOM, SIRIUS, SPACENET. Abbreviated SES. Address: Château de Batzdorf, Betzdort 6815, Luxembourg.

Sodium Perchlorate.....Launch vehicle propellant, solid, oxidizer. Chemical symbol NaClO4.

SOHO.....U.S. NASA & ESA, satellite, scientific. SOLAR & HELIOSPHERIC OBSERVATORY. For Solar Terrestrial Space Physics (STSP). Orbiting around the L1 lagrangian point.

- SOHO, 1995 065A, 1995/12/02, ESMC, Atlas 2AS.

First launch 1995/12/02

SOICAL.....U.S., satellite, calibration, launched at Vandenberg by LT Thor Agena D into LEO. First launch 1969/09/30

SOICAL CONE.....U.S., satellite. Also known as S69-4. See Also SOICAL CYLINDER. First launch 1969/09/30

SOICAL CYLINDER.....U.S., satellite. Also known as S69-4. See Also SOICAL CONE. First launch 1969/09/30

Sojourner.....Isabella Sojourner Truth, 1797-1883, human rights activist.

SOJOURNER.....U.S., satellite, Mars rover, see MARS PATHFINDER.

SOLA .....U.S., satellite, see SOLAR A.

solar orbit.....The spacecraft has achieved Earth escape velocity (25,000 miles per hour) and orbits the sun.

Solar cell propulsion system.....Solar cess convert the electromagnetic radiation from the sun into electric energy, which is used to propel the spacecraft by electrothermal rockets, electrostatic rockets, or electromagnetic engine.

Solar Electric Propulsion.....See SEP.

Solar propulsion system.....Solar radiation is used to provide the energy to accelerate a spacecraft. Several types include

       - Solar cells

       - Solar thermal

       - Solar sails.

Solar sail.....Large sail which uses the sun’s emitted photons to impart a momentum to the solar sail.

Solar System escape trajectory.....Orbit. Trajectory that would allow the spacecraft to escape the gravitational pull of any body in the solar system, including the Sun.

Solar thermal rocket.....Large diameter optics are used to concentrate the Sun's radiation onto a receiver which heats up a working fluid providing thrust.

SOLAR.....Japan, satellite, solar observation. Caries 4 instruments developed by Japanese, U.S. and British researchers.

- SOLAR A, 1991 062A, 08/30/91, Kagoshima, M-3S2, LEO, YOHKOH.

- SOLAR B, 2004/00/00.

First launch 1991/08/30



SOLAR DYNAMICS OBSERVATORY.....U.S., Europe, satellite. See SDO.

SOLAR EXPLORER.....U.S., satellites. Part of the EXPLORER series.

SOLAR MAXIMUM MISSION.....U.S. satellite, scientific, observe the Sun.

- SMM, 1980 014A, 1980/02/14, ETR, Delta, LEO, decayed 12/2/89.

Space Shuttle mission to repair the SOLAR MAXIMUM MISSION Satellite in orbit by STS 41-C on 04/9/84. First launch 1980/02/14



SOLAR PROBE.....U.S., NASA, satellite, scientific, solar flyby, heliocentric. First launch 2003/00/00


SOLAR SAIL SUB PAYLOAD.....Japan, satellite, technology, see SSP.

SOLAR SPACE TELESCOPE.....China & Germany, satellite, scientific.First launch 2003/00/00


soleil.....French for sun.

Soley DD 707.....USS Soley DD 707, recovery ship, part of the fleet which recovered or was on duty and capable of recovering the following: MERCURY Atlas 7.

Solid fuel.....The fuel component of the propellant that is stored and used as a solid in the launch vehicle. See also solid propellant.

Solid propellant.....A propellant that is stored and used as a solid in the launch vehicle. See also solid fuel. Several categories of solid propellants are used:

- Composite: A solid propellant typically contains an oxidizer, fuel, binder, curing agent, burn-rate modifier, plasticizer, bonding agents, stabilizer, processing aids. The vast majority of the mass is composed of the oxidizer and fuel. Composite propellants are typically identified by the fuel, e.g. the Titan SRMU's use HTPB solid propellant.

- Oxidizers;

- Ammonium perchlorate (AP)

- Ammonium nitrate (AN)

- Potassium perchlorate (KP)

- Potassium nitrate (KN)

- Sodium perchlorate

- Ammonium dinitramine (ADN)

- Sulfur

- Fuels include metals and binders.

- Aluminum (Al)

- Beryllium (Be)

- Zirconium (Zr)










- PU

- rubber

- asphalt (sub orbital rockets)

- sugar (sub orbital rockets)

- paraffin (sub orbital rockets)

              - charcoal (sub orbital rockets, fireworks)

              - sulfur (sub orbital rockets, fireworks)

              - Zinc (Z)(sub orbital rockets)

- Double base (DB).

- Nitrocellulose (NC)

       - Nitroglycerin (NG)

- Composite modified double base (CMDB)

Many combinations of solid propellant formulations are possible. However, only a few are typically used in Spacecraft launch vehicles and the formulation will given in the description of the solid propellant fuel. The literature typically refers to the propellant by the fuel name.

- HTPB’s typical formulation is HTPB + AP + Al + small amounts of additives, Is up to 265.

- PBAN’s typical formulation is PBAN + AP + Al + small amounts of additives, Is up to 265.

- CTPB’s typical formulation is CTPB + AP + AL +small amounts of additives, Is up to 265.

- PBAA’s typical formulation is PBAA + AP + AL + small amounts of additives, Is up to 265.

- Polysulfide + AP, Is up to 200.

- PU + AP + Al + small amounts of additive, Is up to 265.

- CMDB’s typical formulation is NG + Al, AP, KP + plasticizers + additives, Is up to 265.

Solid Strap-on.....ESA launch vehicle motor booster, see P9.5 or PAP.

solidaridad.....Spain, solidarity.

SOLIDARIDAD.....Mexico, satellite, communication, built by U.S. Hughes and launched by the Ariane booster.

- SOLIDARIDAD 1, 1993 073A, 1993/11/20, Kourou, Ariane 44LP, HEO.

- SOLIDARIDAD 2, 1994 065A, 1994/10/08, Kourou, ARIANE 44L, GEO.

First launch 1993/11/20

Soloviev, Anatoli.....Russia, cosmonaut. See Solovyov.

Solovyev, Vladimir.....Russia, cosmonaut, SOYUZ T10, 1984/02/08, SOYUZ T15, 1986/03/13. First launch 1984/02/08

Solovyov, Anatoli.....Russia, cosmonaut, SOYUZ TM 05, 1988/06/07, SOYUZ TM 09, 1990/02/11, SOYUZ TM 15, 1992/07/27, STS-71, 1995/06/27, SOYUZ TM 26, 1997/05/08. First launch 1988/06/07

SOLRAD.....U.S., satellite, scientific. SOLAR RADIATION.

- SOLRAD 01, 1960 007B (1960 H2), 1960/06/22, ETR, Thor Able Star, LEO.

- SOLRAD 04B, None, 1962/04/26, WTR, Scout, FTO.

- SOLRAD 06, 1963 021C, 1963/06/15, WTR, Thor Agena D, 1963/08/01.

- SOLRAD 07A, 1964 001D, 1964/01/11, WTR, TAT Agena D, LEO.

- SOLRAD 07B, 1965 016D, 1965/03/09, WTR, TAT Agena D, LEO.

- SOLRAD 01, 1965 093A, 1965/11/19, WI, Scout, LEO, EXPLORER 30.

- SOLRAD 02, 1968 017A, 1968/03/05, WI, Scout, LEO, 1990/11/16, EXPLORER 37, SOLAR EXPLORER B.

- SOLRAD 10, 1971 058A, 1971/07/08, WI, Scout, LEO, 1979/12/15, EXPLORER 44, S0LRAD 03

- SOLRAD IIA, 1976 023C, 1976/03/15, ETR, Titan IIIC,

- SOLRAD IIB, 1976 023D, 1976/03/15, ETR, Titan IIIC,

First launch 1960/06/22

SOLSTICE.....U.S., NASA, satellite, scientific.

SOLWIND.....U.S., satellite, research on the ionosphere and magnetosphere. Hit by USAF ASAT.

- SOLWIND P78 01, 1979 017A, 1978/02/24, WTR, Atlas F, LEO, 1992/07/20.

First launch 1979/02/24

Soma.....India (Brahmic), moon god.

SOMAYANA.....India, satellite, scientific, moon orbit. First launch 2007/00/00

Sonda 1.....Brazil, rocket, upper atmosphere meteorology. First launch 1969/00/00

Sonda 2.....Brazil, rocket, upper atmosphere geophysics. First launch 1973/00/00

sonde.....French for space probe.

sonne.....German for sun.

SORASEIRU SABUPEIRO-DO.....Japan, satellite, technology, see SSP.

SORCE.....U.S., NASA, satellite, solar observation, LEO. SOLAR RADIATION AND CLIMATE EXPERIMENT Uses the LEOSTAR-2 bus. First launch 2003/01/25

sortie.....French for walk in space.

SOUNDER PROBE.....U.S., satellite, scientific, PIONEER VENUS 2 probes launched into the plane Venus atmospheres. Other probes include NORTH PROBE, DAY PROBE, NIGHT PROBE.


Southern Europe.....Albania, Andorra, Bulgaria, Greece, Italy, Portugal, Romania, San Marino, Spain, Turkey, Vatican City, Bosnia-Herzegovina, Croatia, Macedonia, Serbia, Slovenia.

SOVCAN STAR.....Canada & Russia, satellite, mobile communications, GEO. SOVIET CANADA STAR (satellite).

Soviet Launch Vehicle Designation.....See Russia Spacecraft and Launch Vehicle designation.

Soviet Satellite Designation.....See Russia Spacecraft and Launch Vehicle designation.

Soviet Union Launch Vehicle Designation.....See Russia Spacecraft and Launch Vehicle designation.

Soviet Union Satellite Designation

See Russia Spacecraft and Launch Vehicle designation......

Soviet Union spacecraft and launch vehicle designation.....See Russia spacecraft and launch vehicle designation.

SOVZOND.....Russia, organization, see Joint Stock Company SOVZOND.

soyuz.....Russia, union, Союз.

Soyuz.....Russia, launch vehicle, LEO manned. СОЮЗ. More powerful upper stage than Vostok, called A-2 or SL-4 See SL-4. Soyuz designates stages and booster by blocks. The 1st stage used 4 separate boosters designated blocks B, B, G, and D. The central stage is block A. The last stage is block I.

- Soyuz, 11A511, 11510

- Soyuz L, 11A511L.

- Soyuz M, 11A511M.

- Soyuz U, 11A511U, 15400 lbs (7200 kg), LEO. Stage 1, strap-on, (Block B, V, G, D) 4 RD-107 engines. Stage 2, (Block A) RD-108 engine. Stage 3, Block 1, RD-0110 or RD-461 engine. Stage 4 Fregat. Similar to the Molniya M.

- Soyuz U2, 11A511U2.

- Soyuz FG, 15,430 lbm (7000 kg), LEO. Stage 1, strap-on, (Block B, V, G, D) 4 RD-107A engines. Stage 2, (Block A) RD-108A engine. Stage 3, Block 1, RD-0110 or RD-461 engine. Stage 3, Block 1, RD-0110 or RD-461 engine.

- Soyuz/Ikar, 7900 lbs (3600 kg), LEO.

- Soyuz/Fregat, 11A511-FG, 7900 lbs (3600 kg), LEO.

- Soyuz 2 (Rus), 16500 lbs (7580 kg), LEO.

- Soyuz 2-1B, 17,400 lbm (7900 kg), LEO. Stage 1, strap-on, (Block B, V, G, D) 4 RD-107A engines. Stage 2, (Block A) RD-108A engine. Stage 3, upgraded Block 1, RD-0124 engine.

- Soyuz 2 Fregat 10000 lbs (4700 kg), SSO. See Soyuz U.

- Soyuz ST, see Soyuz 2 Fregat.

- Soyuz TM/TMA, stage 0, 4 Energomash RD107 engines, stage 1, 1 Energomash RD108 engines, stage 2, 1 Khimavtomatiki RD-0110 engines.

First launch 1963/10/05

Soyuz 11A511.....Russia, launch vehicle, based upon the R-7. The 7K was for manned launches, 9K for rocket stages, 11K for a tanker, and Zenit-4.

Soyuz 11A511L.....Russia, launch vehicle, based upon the R-7.

Soyuz 11A511M.....Russia, launch vehicle, based upon the R-7.

Soyuz 11A511U.....Russia, launch vehicle, see 11A511U.

Soyuz 11A511U2.....Russia, launch vehicle, based upon the R-7.

Soyuz 11A514.....Russia, launch vehicle, based upon the R-7.

Soyuz/Fregat.....Russia, space vehicle launch facility, see Soyuz.

Soyuz M.....Russia, launch vehicle, based upon the R-7. Under development.

Soyuz TM.....Russian, launch vehicle, manned, see Soyuz.

Soyuz TMA.....Russian, launch vehicle, manned, see Soyuz.

SOYUZ.....Russia, satellite, manned spacecraft, LEO. Third Russian manned space program.. SOYUZ has 3 parts, service module, nearly spherical orbital module, and a bell shaped reentry capsule. It can hold up to three cosmonauts. All have been launched by the SL-4 at Tyuratam. SOYUZ 19 was the Russian contribution to the SOYUZ-APOLLO or APOLLO SOYUZ project. The SOYUZ is Also used to transport cosmonauts to the SOLYUT and MIR space stations. The improved second generation SOYUZ started with SOYUZ 12 and ended with SOYUZ 40. A total of 41 launches were attempted for the first and second generation SOYUZ. A third generation of SOYUZ spacecraft with improved systems was designated with a T before the number, e.g. SOYUZ T-1, was the first spacecraft of the improved series, where SOYUZ T-15 was the last of 16 SOYUZ T launches.

       The T means troika for three, because the improved spacecraft carried three cosmonauts. However, not all the SOYUZ T launches carried three cosmonauts. The first of the restyled SOYUZ T was designated SOYUZ TM-1. Through 1991, 13 SOYUZ TM spacecraft have been launched. Longest flight, 365 days, 22 hours, 39 minutes, Soyuz TM-4/TM-6, Vladimir Titov, Musa Manarov 1987/12/21 - 1988/12/21. First crew exchange Soyuz 5 to Soyuz 4, 1969/01/16.

- The OKB-1 design bureau chose a number letter designation followed by a suffix. The SOYUZ was the 7th design of a manned vehicle by OKB-1. The K stood for Korabl which is Russian for ship. After the dissolution of the Soviet Union, this system has been abandoned.

- The Russian military used a more complicated number-letter-number system, e.g. 11F615.

- The system used for publicity were, SOYUZ, SOYUZ TM, etc.

- SOYUZ, 1967/08/28, Also known as 7K-L1.

- SOYUZ-A Also known as 7K.

- SOYUZ-7K-OK Also known as 11F615A12, or SOYUZ 1/9. The OK stood for Orbitalny korabl, which is orbital ship.

- SOYUZ-7K-T Also known as 11F615A9.

- SOYUZ-7KL1, The L1 stood for Luna-1 or Moon-1. Designed to carry 2 cosmonauts around the moon, 1967-1970. Launched by the Proton for circumlunar tests. Also known as ZOND.

- SOYUZ-7KL1P, 1967/03/10, Also known as 11F91. The P stood for launched by the Proton for reentry test.

- SOYUZ-7K-L1A, launched by the N1 rocket.

- SOYUZ-7K-L1E, launched by a Proton rocket for Earth orbit tests.

- SOYUZ-7K-OK(A), active docking.

- SOYUZ-7K-OK(P), passive docking.

- SOYUZ-7K1S, 1969/02/24, Also known as 11F92.

- SOYUZ-7K-LOK 1973/12/18, Also known as 11F93. LOK stood for Lunnyy orbital’nyy korbal, Lunar orbital ship.

- SOYUZ ASTP, 1973/12/18, Also known as 7K-M.

- SOYUZ, 1976/09/15, Also known as 7K-MF6.

- SOYUZ, 1966/12/28, Also known as 7K-OK.

- SOYUZ, 1971/01/08, Also known as 7K-OKS.

- SOYUZ, 1974/08/06, Also known as 7K-S, the S stood for Spetsial’nyy, Special, capable of independent flight.

- SOYUZ, 1978/04/04, Also known as 7K-ST, space station ferry, carried 3 cosmonauts, flew between 1978-1986.

- SOYUZ, 1986/05/21, Also known as 7K-STM.

- SOYUZ, 1972/01/10, Also known as 7K-T, the T stood for Transportnyy, transport, flown between 1971 to 1981, main function was to deliver crews to and return from the space stations.

- SOYUZ, 1974-1976, also known as 7K-TM, included a new androgynous docking system and improved life support.

- SOYUZ-T Also known as 11F732.

- SOYUZ-V Also known as 11K.

- SOYUZ-B Also known as 9K.

- SOYUZ-7K-TG, flew between 1978-1990, the TG stood for Transportnyy gruzovyy, transport cargo. Was known also as PROGRESS.

- SOYUZ-TM, 1986-2002. Upgraded 7K-ST with improved avionics, new rendezvous system.

- SOYUZ-7K-TGM, 1989 to today, known as PROGRESS M, which is a modernized version of the 7K-TG cargo tanker.

- SOYUZ-TMA, upgraded version of the SOYUZ-TM, the A stood for anthropometric, to accommodate the taller American astronauts. First launch 2002/10/30

First launch 1967/04/23

SOYUZ-7KL1.....Russia, satellite, Manned. The L1 stood for Luna-1 or Moon-1. Designed to carry 2 cosmonauts around the moon.

Soyuz-FG.....Russia, space vehicle launch facility, see Soyuz/Fregat or Soyuz.

Soyuz-Icare.....Russia, launch vehicle, marketed by Starsem (Aerospatiale, Arianespace, Russian Space Agency, Samara Space Center) formed in 9/96, to market the Soyuz-Icare booster complementing the Ariane 5. 1998/00/00

SOYUZ-R.....Russia, satellite, reconnaissance.

SOYUZ-VI/ZVEZDA.....Russia, satellite, reconnaissance, Also known as 11F73.

SP.....Launch vehicle motor, Sunstrand Power Systems.

SpaB-54.....China, launch vehicle motor, see FG-47.

space.....That part of the universe lying outside the limits of the Earth's atmosphere. More generally, the infinite domain in which all celestial bodies mover, including the Earth. The USAF defines space starting at 50 miles (85 km) altitude. The FAI defines space as starting at 62 miles (100 km) altitude.

space orbital element set.....Orbital component. See Keplerian Elements.

space port.....See space vehicle launch facility.

space probe.....Sonde (Fr),, raumsonde (D).

space probe.....Manmade object which travels beyond the Earths gravitational pull. See spacecraft, satellite.

space station.....A space station is a permanently (relatively) manned satellite in space.

- SALYUT 1, Russia, 1971/04/19.

- SALYUT 2, Russia, 1973/04/03.

- SKYLAB, US, 1973/05/14.

- SALYUT 3, Russia, 1974/06/24.

- SALYUT 4, Russia, 1974/12/26.

- SALYUT 5, Russia, 1976/06/22.

- SALYUT 6, Russia, 1977/09/29.

- SALYUT 7, Russia, 1982/04/19.

- MIR, Russia, 1986/02/20.

- ISSA, US, Russia, Europe, Japan, 1998/11/20.

space tourist.....See flight participant, or Uchastnik poleta (Russia).

space vehicle.....See spacecraft.

space vehicle launch facility.....Location of facilities that have launched a satellite. See also Licensed Commercial Spaceport.

Space Vehicle Launch Facility



Local Time at Midnight (12:00 AM midnight) UTC {Time Zones}

{12 hour clock, AM & PM}

Local Time at Midnight (24:00) UTC {Time Zones}

{24 hour clock, military time}

Alcântara, Brazil

2.3o S, 44.4o W

8:00 pm


Baikonur, Kazakhstan (Tyuratam)

45.6o N, 63.4o E

6:00 am


Barent Sea

69.3o N 35.3o W

3:00 am


Descartes, Moon (Apollo 16){Darling}


Dombarovsky, Russia 50°48 0″N, 059°31 0″E

50°48N, 059°31E


Eastern Range, U.S.  ETR, Kennedy Space Center, and Cape Canaveral AFB, U.S.

28.5o N, 81.5o W

7:00 pm


Fra Mauro, Moon (Apollo 14){Darling}


Gando AFB, Canary Island

27.6o N, 15.2 o W

12:00 am


Guiana Space Center, French Guiana

5.2o N, 52.8o W

9:00 pm


Hadley-Apennine, (Apollo 15){Darling}{Space World, 1971/10

26o N, 3.6o E


Hammaguir, Algeria

30.9o N, 3.1o W

1:00 am


Jiuquan, China

41.3o N, 100.3o E

8:00 am


Kagoshima, Japan (Uchinoura)

31.2o N, 131.1o E

9:00 am


Kapustin Yar, Russia

48.6o N, 46.3o E

3:00 am


Kennedy Space Center, U.S.

28.5o N, 81.5o W

7:00 pm


Kodiak Launch Complex, Alaska

57.6o N, 152.2o W

3:00 pm


Kwajalein Missile Range, Marshall Islands

18.5o N, 167.7o W

12:00 pm


Mar Fecunditatis, Moon (Luna 20){Darling}


Mare Crisium, Moon (Luna 24){Darling}


Ocean of Storms (Oceanus Procellarum) Moon (Apollo 12){Darling}

03.3o S, 23.18oW


Palmachim AFB, Israel

31.9o N, 34.7o E

2:00 am


Plesetsk, Russia

62.0o N, 40.8o E

3:00 am


Professor Satish Dhawan Space Center, Shar Srihirakota Launching Center, India

13.9oN, 80.4o E

5:30 am


San Marco Equatorial Range, Kenya

02.9o N, 40.3o E

3:00 am


Sea Launch Odyssey, Pacific Ocean

0o N, 154o W

2:00 pm


Sea of Tranquillity, Moon (Apollo 11){Darling}Yenne}

0.060 N, 23.40E


Svobodny Cosmodrome, Russia

51.8o N, 128.4o E

9:00 am


Taiyuan Satellite Launch Center, China

37.8o N, 111.5o E

8:00 am


Tanegashima Space Center, Japan

30.4o N, 130.6o E

9:00 am


Taurus-Littrow Valley, Moon, (Apollo 17){Darling}{Space World 1973/04}

20.15o N, 30.7o E


Vandenberg Air Force Base, U.S.

34.7o N, 120.6o W

4:00 pm


Wallops Flight Center, U.S.

36.9o N, 75.4o W

7:00 pm


Western Range, U.S.

34.7o N, 120.6o W

4:00 pm


Woomera, Australia

31.1o S, 136.6o E

10:30 am


Xichang, China.

28.2o N, 102o E

8:00 am


Yavne, Israel

35.5o N, 35.4o E

2:00 am


space walk.....A human moving about in space outside the vehicle, spacecraft.

Space Applictions Center.....India, organization, see ISRO. Also known as SAC.

Space Commerce Corporation.....U.S./Russia, aerospace company. POC for Plesetsk Cosmodrom. Address: 5718 Westheimer, Suite 1515, Houston, TX 77057, US.

Space Communications Corp......Japan, aerospace company, commercial satellite operator, communications, SUPERBIRD. Address: 2-8 Higashi-shinagawa, 2-chome, Shinagawa-ku, Tokyo 140-0002

Space debris.....See orbital debris.

Space Imaging.....U.S., aerospace company, commercial satellite operator, Earth imaging, ERS, IKONOS, IRS, LANDSAT, RADARSAT. Address: 12076 Grant St., Thornton, CO 80241, USA. Was Space Imaging EOSAT.

Space Research Institute.....Austria, organization. Institut für Weltraumforschung (IWF), Inffeldgasse 12, 8010 GRAZ. Telephone: +43/316/46 36 96 - 11 Fax: +43/316/46 36 97. The Space Research Institute (Institut für Weltraumforschung) is one of 18 institutes of the Austrian Academy of Sciences (Österreichischen Akademie der Wissenschaften).

Space Research Institute.....Russia, organization, Институт Космических Иссяедований, ИКИ, 117810, 84/32 Profsoyuznaya Str, Moscow, Russia.. Also known as IKI. Founded 1965/00/00.

Space Research Organization.....Netherlands, organization. See SRON.

Space Services Inc. of America.....U.S., aerospace company. See Conestoga.

Space Ship.....See satellite, spacecraft, space vehicle, spaceship.

Space Shuttle.....U.S., launch vehicle. See Space Transportation System, STS.

Space Surveillance Network.....U.S., organization, (SSN). See 45th Space Wing.

Space Systems/Loral Project 2020.....U.S., satellite bus, built by Loral Space Systems. 25 kW power capabilities. Also known as 20.20 or SSL 2020.

Space Tourist.....Russia uses the term Uchastnik Poleta.

Space Transportation System.....U.S., launch vehicle. See STS.

Space vehicle designation.....See satellite designation.

Space vehicle name.....See satellite designation.



SPACE BASED RADAR.....U.S., satellite, see SBR.



SPACE FLYER UNIT.....U.S., satellite. See SFU.



SPACE LIGHTHOUSE.....U.S., satellite, see TRANSIT 1-B First launch 1960/04/13

SPACE METHUSELAH.....U.S., satellite, see VANGUARD 1 First launch 1958/03/17

SPACE MODULE.....U.S., commercial module added an extra room to the Space Shuttle. Manufactured by Spacehab Inc. located at 1595 Springhill Road, Suite #360, Vienna, VA 22182. Single module units 1 & 2 are expanded with units 3 & 4 to create double modules.

- SPACEHAB, 1993/06/21, ETR, STS 057,

- SPACEHAB, 1994/02/03, ETR, STS 060,

- SPACEHAB, 1995/02/03, ETR, STS 063,

- SPACEHAB, 1996/03/31, ETR, STS 076,

- SPACEHAB, 1996/05/19, ETR, STS 077,

- SPACEHAB, 1996/09/16, ETR, STS 079,

- SPACEHAB, 1997/01/12, ETR, STS 081,

- SPACEHAB, 1997/05/17, ETR, STS 084,

- SPACEHAB, 1997/09/25, ETR, STS 086,

- SPACEHAB, 1998/01/22, ETR, STS 089,

- SPACEHAB, 1998/06/02, ETR, STS 091,

- SPACEHAB, 1998/10/29, ETR, STS 095,

- SPACEHAB, 1999/05/27, ETR, STS 096,

- SPACEHAB, 2000/05/19, ETR, STS 101,

- SPACEHAB, 2000/09/08, ETR, STS-106,

- SPACEHAB, 2001/03/08, ETR, STS-102,

- SPACEHAB, 2001/10/08, ETR, STS-105,

- SPACEHAB, 2003/01/16, ETR, STS-107,

- SPACEHAB, 2005/07/26, ETR, STS-114,

- SPACEHAB, 2006/07/04, ETR, STS-121,

- SPACEHAB, 2006/12/03, ETR, STS-116,

First launch 1993/06/21

SPACE RADAR LABORATORY.....U.S. NASA, satellite, scientific. Flown on the SPACE SHUTTLE. First launch 1994/04/09

SPACE RECOVERY EXPERIMENT.....India, satellite, see SRE.

SPACE SHUTTLE.....U.S., satellite. See STS.

SPACE SHUTTLE MAIN ENGINE.....U.S., launch vehicle engine, see SSME.

SPACE SOLAR TELESCOPE.....China & Germany, satellite. See SST.

SPACE STATION FREEDOM.....U.S., satellite. See ISSA.

SPACE TECHNOLOGY.....U.S., satellite, see DEEP SPACE, DS, or ST.

SPACE TECHNOLOGY 5.....U.S., satellite, see STS-5.



SPACE TEST PROGRAM SATELLITE.....U.S., satellite. First launch 2005/00/00

SPACE TEST PROGRAM,.....U.S., satellite. See STEP.


SPACE VISION SYSTEM experiment.....U.S., satellite. See SVS experiment.

Spacebus 2000.....France, satellite bus, Alcatel Space/Dornier. GEO/MEO.

Spacebus 3000.....France, satellite bus, Alcatel Space/Dornier. GEO/MEO.

Spacebus 3000B.....France, satellite bus, Alcatel Space/Dornier. GEO/MEO.

Spacebus 3000B3S.....France, satellite bus, Alcatel Space/Dornier. GEO/MEO.

Spacebus 4000.....France, satellite bus, Alcatel Space. GEO/MEO.

Spacecom Satellite Communications Services.....Israel & U.S., aerospace company, commercial satellite operator, communications, AMOS. Partners IAI, Eurocom Group, GSSC, Mer Services Group. Address: Twin Towers 1, 33 Jabotinsky St., Ramat-Gan 52511, Israel.

Spacecraft.....See satellite, satellite designation.

Spacecraft.....Devices, manned or unmanned, that are designed to be placed into an orbit about the earth or into a trajectory to anther celestial body. Technically, all satellites are space vehicles or spacecraft since satellites operate in space. Often the term satellite is used for Earth orbiting space vehicle. The term spacecraft is often used for vehicles traveling to or by planets, moons, asteroids or the sun. Also known as satellites, extraterrestrial satellite, interplanetary vehicle, space probes, interstellar vehicle, spaceships.

Types of space vehicles:

- flyby, passes by a body but not capture by the body, e.g. VOYAGER 2.

- orbiter, goes into orbit about a planet, moon, or sun.

- atmospheric probe, enters the atmosphere.

- lander, lands on a planet or moons surface, e.g. VENERA.

- surface penetrator, penetrates the planets or moons surface.

- surface rover, travels on the surface of the planet or moon, e.g. MARS SOJOURNER.

Spacecraft subsystems; Components which are common in space vehicle systems;

- Communication and Data-handling

- Electrical power

- Environmental control (thermal control)

- Life support

- Structures

- Attitude and articulation control

- Mechanisms

- Propulsion

See satellite.

Spacecraft designation......See satellite designation.

Spacecraft names.....See satellite designation.

SpaceDev MiniSil.....satellite bus, see MiniSil.

Spacehab Inc......U.S., aerospace company. Address: 1595 Springhill Rd., #360, Vienna, VA 22182, USA.

SPACEHAB.....U.S., satellite. See SPACE MODULE.

SPACELAB.....U.S. satellite, part of the SPACE SHUTTLE cargo.

- SPACELAB 01, 1983/11/28, KSC, STS 9.

- SPACELAB 03, 1985/04/29, KSC, STS 051B.

- SPACELAB 02, 1985/07/29, KSC, STS 051F.

- SPACELAB D1, 1985/10/30, KSC, STS 061A.

- ASTRO 1, 1990/12/02, KSC, STS 035.

- SLS-1, 1991/06/05, KSC, STS 040.

- IML-1, 1992/01/22, KSC, STS 042.

- ATLAS 1, 1992/03/24, KSC, STS 045.

- SPACELAB J, 1992/09/12, KSC, STS 047.

- USML-1, 1992/06/25, KSC, STS 050.

- ATLAS-2, 1993/04/08, KSC, STS 056.

- SPACELAB D2, 1993/04/26, KSC, STS 055.

- SLS-2, 1993/10/18, KSC, STS 053.

- IML-2, 1994/07/08, KSC, STS 065.

- ATLAS-3, 1994/11/03, KSC, STS 066.

- ASTRO-2, 1995/03/02, KSC, STS 067.

- SPACELAB-MIR, 1995/06/27, KSC, STS 071.

- USML-2, 1995/10/20, KSC, STS 073.

- LMS, 1996/06/20, KSC, STS 078.

- LMS, 1997/04/04, KSC, STS 083.

- MSL-1R, 1997/07/01, KSC, STS 094.

- NEUROLAB, 1998/04/17, KSC, STS 090.

First launch 1983/11/28


SPACENET.....U.S. satellite. Earlier versions were ASC.

- SPACENET 1, 1985/08/27, KSC, STS 51I, ASC 1.

- SPACENET 3R, 1988/03/11, Kourou, Ariane, GEO.

- SPACENET 4, 1991/04/13, KSC, Delta 2, GEO, ASC 2.

First launch 1985/08/27

Spaceport.....See Licensed Commercial Spaceport or space vehicle launch facility.

Spaceport Canada.....Canada, facility, near northern Manitoba. Akjuit Aerospace was to start launching Russia's Start booster. Closed. First launch 1998/00/00

Spaceport Florida Authority.....U.S., space vehicle launch facility, part of the Eastern Range. SFA,150 Cocoa Isles Boulevard, Suite 401, Cocoa Beach, Fl 32931, USA. See also Eastern Range.

spaceship.....vaisseau (Fr),, raumschiff (D).

SPACEWAY.....U.S. satellite, broadband communications, GEO. Requires a 20 satellites constellation in MEO and 16 in GEO. Contractor Hughes/Boeing. First launch 2005/04/26

SpaceX.....U.S., company, space exploration technologies. Manufactures Falcon Launch Vehicles.

SPAINSAT.....Spain, satellite, Earth observation, GEO. First launch 2006/03/11

Spanker.....Russia, launch vehicle, see SS-17.

Sparrow-HV Arcas.....U.S., rocket, mesosphere meteorology. First launch 1965/00/00

Sparta.....U.S. rocket, reentry test, adapted for Australian satellite. Missile used Redstone missiles with two upper stages, launched from Woomera, Australia. Special Anti-missile Research Test, Australia.

- Sparta 1, 1966/11/28.

- Sparta 2, 1966/12/14.

- Sparta 3, 1967/04/20.

- Sparta 4, 1967/07/05.

- Sparta 5, 1967/07/25.

- Sparta 6, 1967/08/18.

- Sparta 7, 1967/09/16.

- Sparta 8, 1976/10/12.

- Sparta 9, 1967/11/01.

- WRESAT 1, 1967/11/29, launched on a spare Sparta vehicle.

- HAD 1, 1967/12/01, launched in association with Sparta 9.

- HAD 2, HAT 1, 1969/07/25.

First launch 1966/11/28

SPARTAN.....U.S., satellite, Astronomical research platform, short-term free-flier, SHUTTLE POINTED AUTONOMOUS RESEARCH TOOL for ASTRONOMY, STS.

- SPARTAN 01, 1985 048E, 1985/06/20, STS-51G, DISCOVERY, LEO, returned 06/24/85.

- SPARTAN 02, 1994 059B, 1994/09/13, STS-064, DISCOVERY, LEO, 1994/09/20.

- SPARTAN 201, 1993 023B, 1993/04/11, STS-056, DISCOVERY, LEO, 1993/04/13.

- SPARTAN 201, 1995 048B, 1995/09/08, STS-069, ENDEAVOR, LEO, 1995/09/18.

- SPARTAN 204, 1995 004B, 1995/02/07, STS-063, DISCOVERY, LEO, 1995/02/11.

- SPARTAN 207, 1996 032B, 1996/05/20, STS-077, ENDEAVOR, LEO, 1996/05/29.

First launch 1985/06/20

SPAS.....U.S. satellite.


First launch 1983/06/18

spationaut.....French for astronaut.

Spationautes.....France, astronaut.

Spationauts.....Term ment to replace astronaut and cosmonaut on the ISS.

SPECIAL BUS DESIGN.....U.S., satellite, technology, see SBD.

Specific Impulse.....Rocket motor, the rocket efficiency, Is, ratio of thrust provided by the mass flow. The total impulse per unite weight of propellant. The Is is affected by rocket motor/engine design, operating conditions, chamber pressure, atmospheric pressure/vacuum and mixture ratios of the oxidizer, fuel, and additives. Higher the Is means better performance.

Specific Impulse

Is = Ft/(g)(d(M)/dt)

= Vv/g

= (∫t0Ftdt)/(g)(d(M)/dt)

Is = Specific Impulse [s]

Vc = effective exhaust velocity of the exhaust gases [m/s]

g =gravitational acceleration on Earth [m/s2]

= 9.81 [m/s2]

= 32.2 [ft/s2]

Ft = thrust [N] or [kgm/s2]

d(M)/dt = mass flow rate [kg/s]

M = mass [kg]

SPECTR UF/UV.....Russia, satellite, scientific, ultraviolet telescope, HEO. First launch 2011/00/00

SPECTR-M.....Russia, satellite, radio astronomy. First launch 2007/00/00

SPECTR-RG.....Russia, satellite, radio astronomy, also known as eROSSITA/LOBSTER. First launch 2008/00/00

SPECTRA.....Russia, satellite, see SPEKTR.


Spectrum Astro.....U.S., company, purchased by General Dynamics in 2004. Manufactures Swift Space bus.

SPECTRUM.....Russia, satellite. See SPEKTR and MIR.

SPECTRUM UV.....Russia, satellite, scientific, HEO. Study's astrophysical objects at ultraviolet wavelengths.

SPECTRUM X-GAMMA.....Russia, satellite, scientific, HEO. Measure x-ray emissions from pulsars, black holes, supernova remnants and active galactic nuclei. Also known as SPEKTRUM X-GAMMA. INTEGRAL followon.

spektr.....Russia, spectrum.

SPEKTR.....Russia, satellite, scientific, astrophysics, x-ray, gamma ray sources. Has the same name as the MIR module, but not related. Also known as 77KS or SPECTR.

- SPEKTR, 1995 024A, 1995/05/20, Tyuratam, SL-13, LEO, TKM.

First launch 1995/05/20

Spektrum.....Russia, satellite bus, NPO Lavochkin. GEO/MEO.

SPEKTRUM R.....Russia, satellite, scientific, HEO. Also known as RADIOASTRON. First launch 2005/00/00

SPEKTRUM X GAMMA.....Russia, satellite. See SPECTRUM X-GAMMA.

Spelda.....A cylindrical structure with a conical top that supports two spacecraft during Ariane launches. Structure Porteuse pour Lancements Double Ariane.

Sperry DD 697.....USS Sperry DD 697, recovery ship, part of the fleet which recovered or was on duty and capable of recovering the following: MERCURY Atlas 6, MERCURY Atlas 8, GEMINI 4.

SPFL.....U.S., space vehicle launch facility, see Spaceport Florida, see Eastern Range.

SPHINX.....U.S., satellite, technology. Launched at CC by a Titan 3E, FTO. First launch 1974/02/11

SPIDER.....U.S. Satellite, manned Spacecraft APOLLO 9, LM-3. See GUMDROP CSM-104. First launch 1969/03/03

SPIDR.....U.S., NASA, satellite, scientific. SMEX program satellite, SPECTROSCOPY AND PHOTOMETRY OF THE INTERGALACTIC MEDIUM’S DIFFUSE RADIATION. First launch 2005/00/00

SPIN 2.....Russia, satellite. See KOMETA/SPIN 2

spion.....German for spy.

SPIRIT.....U.S., NASA, satellite, lander, see MARS EXPLORATION ROVERS, MER-A.

SPITZER SPACE TELESCOPE.....U.S., Japan, satellite, see SIRTF.

SPK.....Russia, satellite, SPUSKAEMIY KAPSULA. First launch 1988/05/12

splashdown.....Landing of a manned spacecraft in the ocean or in water.

SPOB.....U.S., satellite, see SPOT B.

SPOC.....U.S., satellite, see SPOT C.

SPOD.....U.S., satellite, see SPOT D.

SPORT.....U.S., satellite, transfer vehicle. SMALL PAYLOAD ORBIT TRANSFER VEHICLE.

SPOT.....France, satellite, earth observation. SATELLITE PROBATORI D'OBSERVATION DE LA TERRE. Built for the Centre National d'Etudes Spatiales (CNES). Polar-orbiting Earth observation satellite(s) with ground resolution of 10 meters. SPOT images are available commercially and are intended for such purposes as environmental research and monitoring, ecology management, and for use by the media, environmentalists, legislators, etc.

- SPOT 01, 1986 019A, 1986/02/22, Kourou, Ariane 1, LEO.

- SPOT 02, 1990 005A, 1990/01/22, Kourou, Ariane 4, LEO.

- SPOT 03, 1993 061A, 1993/09/26, Kourou, Ariane 40, LEO.

- SPOT 04, 1998/03/23, Kourou, Ariane 4 (V107), LEO.

In polar orbit. First launch 1986/02/22

SPOT FOLLOW-ON.....France, satellite. See 3S.

SPOT Image Corp......U.S., aerospace company, commercial satellite operator, Earth imaging, SPOT. Address: 14595 Avion Parkway, Suite 500, Chantilly, VA 20151, USA.

SpotMk2.....France. satellite bus, Matra Marconi Space, LEO.

SpotMk3.....France, satellite bus, Matra Marconi Space, LEO.

SPOUTNIK.....Russia, satellite, model of the original SPUTNIK. Also known as SPOUTNIK 40. SPOUTNIK 41, armature radio satellite. First launch 1997/10/05

SPOVT.....U.S., launch vehicle, Secondary payload orbital transfer vehicle for the NRO. Built by SpaceDev.

SPP.....U.S., satellite, see  9A.1.

SPR-SA.....U.S., NASA, satellite, scientific, lunar. SOUTH POLE AITKEN BASIN SAMPLE RETURN. Return a sample of the Moon's Aitken Basin using a robot.

Spring, Sherwood.....U.S., astronaut, STS-61B (23), 1985/11/26. First launch 1985/11/26

Springer, Robert.....U.S., astronaut, STS-29, 1989/03/13, STS-38, 1990/11/15. First launch 1989/03/13

SPRN.....Russia, satellite, ballistic missile early warning, uses infrared telescope. Spetsializirovannim apparatom dlya obnaruzhenniya yadernix vrivov (Spacial apparatus for observation of nulcear forces). Launched at Baikonur by a Proton into GEO. First launch 1975/10/08

Sproston DD 577.....USS Sproston DD 577, recovery ship, part of the fleet which recovered or was on duty and capable of recovering the following: APOLLO 3.

SPUSKAEMIY KAPSULA.....Russia, satellite, see SPK.

sputnik.....Russia for satellite or traveling companion, СПНИК.

Sputnik.....Russia, launch vehicle,

- Sputnik, SL-1, 8K710, 8K71PS, 2900 lbs (1300 kg) LEO. First launch 1957/10/04, Sputnik, Sheldon Name A

- Sputnik, SL-2, 8A91, 2900 lbs (1300 kg) LEO. First launch 1957/11/03, Sputnik, Sheldon Name A.

Launched first Soviet satellite. Adapted from the ICBM R-7, also known as the SS-6 Sapwood. See SL. First launch 1957/10/04

SPUTNIK.....Russia, satellite, scientific. Early series of satellites to develop manned spaceflight. First satellite launched by Russia (USSR or CIS). Also known as KORABL'-SPUTNIK.

- SPUTNIK 01, 1957 A2, 1957/10/04, Tyuratam, SL-1, LEO, 1958/01/04.

- SPUTNIK 02, 1957 B1, 1957/11/03, Tyuratam, SL-1, LEO, 1958/04/01.

- SPUTNIK 03-1, None, 1958/02/03, Tyuratam, SL-1, FTO.

- SPUTNIK 03, 1958 DELTA, 1958/05/15, Tyuratam, SL-1, LEO, 1958/04/06.

- SPUTNIK 04, 1960 E1, 1960/05/15, Tyuratam, SL-3, LEO, 1962/09/05.

- SPUTNIK 05, 1960 011A, 1960/08/19, Tyuratam, SL-3, LEO, 1960/08/20.

- SPUTNIK 06, 1960 P1, 1960/12/01, Tyuratam, SL-3, LEO, 1960/12/02.

- SPUTNIK 07, 1961 B1, 1961/02/04, Tyuratam, SL-6, LEO, 10/21/73.

- SPUTNIK 08, 1961 T3, 1961/02/12, Tyuratam, SL-6, LEO, 1961/02/25.

- SPUTNIK 09, 1961 H1, 1961/03/09, Tyuratam, SL-3, LEO, 1961/03/09.

- SPUTNIK 10, 1961 I1, 1961/03/25, Tyuratam, SL-3, LEO, 1961/03/25

- SPUTNIK 19, 1962 040A, 1962/08/25, Tyuratam, SL-6, LEO, 1982/08/26.

- SPUTNIK 20, 1962 043A, 1962/09/01, Tyuratam, SL-6, LEO, 1964/10/26.

- SPUTNIK 21, 1962 045A, 1962/09/12, Tyuratam, SL-6, LEO, 1962/09/14.

- SPUTNIK 22, 1962 057A, 1962/10/24, Tyuratam, SL-6, LEO, 1962/10/29.

- SPUTNIK 24, 1962 062A, 1962/11/04, Tyuratam, SL-6, LEO, 1962/11/05.

- SPUTNIK 25, 1963 001A, 1963/01/04, Tyuratam, SL-6, LEO, 1963/01/05.

First satellite launched by human race. 1957/10/04

SPUTNIK 1.....Russia, satellite, scientific. Reenters the atmosphere 1958/01/04

SPUTNIK 40.....Russia, satellite, research LEO. Built by Russian and French students to commemorate the 40th anniversary of SPUTNIK 1. Hand launched from MIR. Also known as RS-17. First launch 1997/11/04

SPUTNIK 41.....Russia, satellite, research LEO. Commemorate the 41st anniversary of SPUTNIK 1. Hand launched from MIR. First launch 1998/11/10

SPUTNIK 42.....Russia, satellite, research LEO. Commemorate the 42nd anniversary of SPUTNIK 1. Hand launched from MIR. First launch 1999/04/16

spy.....espion (Fr), spion (D).

spy.....Satellites to gather intelligence information on other countries. See classified.

SPY in the SKY.....U.S. satellites, reconnaissance. Gather intelligence information on other countries. None listed as SPY IN THE SKY. See classified


SR.....U.S., satellite, see SOLRAD.

SR.....U.S., rocket motor designation, see DoD Designation.

SR19.....U.S., launch vehicle motor, DoD Rocket Motor Designation, Aerojet, LGM-30 stage 2, Minuteman. Aee MM SR-19

SR47.....U.S., launch vehicle motor, DoD Rocket Motor Designation, United Technology Center, Titan III, stage 0.

SR51.....U.S., launch vehicle motor, DoD Rocket Motor Designation, Thiokol, LGM-25C, Titan, retro motor.

SR55.....U.S., launch vehicle motor, DoD Rocket Motor Designation, United Technology Center, Titan, LGM-25C staging motor.

SR59.....U.S., launch vehicle motor, DoD Rocket Motor Designation, Atlantic Research, LGM-30, Pitch Motor, Minuteman.

SR61.....U.S., launch vehicle motor, DoD Rocket Motor Designation, Atlantic Research, LGM-30, Spin Motor, Minuteman.

SR73.....U.S., launch vehicle motor, DoD Rocket Motor Designation, Aerodyne, LGM-30,stage 3, Minuteman.

SRATS.....Japan, satellite, scientific. Also known as TAIYO (for sun), for ionosphere and Sun research, SOLAR RADIATION AND THERMOSPHERIC STRUCTURE.

SRATS, 1975 014A, 1975/02/24, Kagoshima, Mu 3C, HEO, 1980/06/29, TAIYO.

First launch 1975/02/24

SRB.....Solid Rocket Booster.

SRB.....Japan, launch vehicle motor, thrust 351,000 lbf (1560 kN), pressure 812 psi (56 bar), launch vehicle motor HTPB.

SRB.....U.S., launch vehicle motor, Aerojet, 0 to 5 are used on the Atlas V. Thurst 305,000 lbf (1361 kN), pressure 1463 psi (100 bar), propellant HTPB.

SRB-A.....Japan, launch vehicle motor, Nissan, solid fuel. Thrust 397,000 lbf (1765 kN), pressure 1420 psi (98 bar), propellant HTPB. Manufactured by IHI (Ishikawajima-Harima Heavy Industries) Aerospace Co. Ltd. Used on the J-1, H-IIA.


SRE.....India, satellite, scientific, microgravity experiments. SPACE RECOVERY EXPERIMENT. Launched as a piggyback payload with CARTOSAT 2. First launch 2005/00/00

SRET.....France, satellite, technology experiment.

SRET 1, 1972 025B, 1972/04/04, Plesetsk, SL-6, HEO, 1974/02/26.

First launch 1972/04/04

Sriharikota.....India, space vehicle launch facility. See Srihirakota.

Srihirakota Launch Center.....India, Srihirakota, space vehicle launch facility. Renamed Satish Dhawan Space Center. Known also as Shar. It is India's major launch site, located on the east coast north of the city of Madras on the Bay of Bengal, in the state of Andhra Pradesh. Location 13.8o N, 80.4o E. Shar began with sounding rocket launches in 1971 and since then has been the site of most of India's satellite launches. Shar is also responsible for administering several other minor launch sites, including Balasore Rocket Launching Station, located on India's east cost, south of the city of Calcutta. Balasore's more northern latitude makes it less suitable for orbital launches. Shar is capable of using ASLV, PSLV, and GLSV launch vehicles for Low earth orbit, polar orbit, and geosynchronous orbits. POC Srihirakota Range, Andhra Pradesh 524124, India.

SRM 1.....Israel, launch vehicle stage, uses TAAS motor. Used on Shavit launch vehicle.

SRM 2.....Israel, launch vehicle stage, uses TAAS motor. Used on Shavit launch vehicle.

SRM-1.....U.S., launch vehicle motor, see Orbus 21.

SRM-2.....U.S., launch vehicle motor, see Orbus 6E.

SRMU.....U.S., launch vehicle motor, Solid Rocket Motor Upgrade, manufactured by Alliant Techsystems. Thrust 1,700,000 lbf (7500 kN), pressure 1260 psi (87 bar), solid propellant HTPB. Used on Titan IVB.

SRON.....Netherlands, organization. Space Research Organization Netherlands, (address ?). Part of the Netherlands Organization for Scientific Research (NWO). SRON, Sorbonnelaan 2, 3584 CA Utrecht, The Netherlands.

SROSS.....India, satellite, scientific. STRETCHED ROHINI SATELLITE SERIES, India gamma ray experiment satellite, launched by the India Augmented Satellite Launch Vehicle (ASLF) from Srihirakota launch range. First launch 1992/05/29

SRS.....India, satellite. See ROHINI.

SRS.....U.S., satellite, scientific. Derived from the FERRET subsatellite in the 1980's.

SRS.....Secondary recovery ship. Designated backup U.S. Navy ship which received astronauts during the pre U.S. STS launches. See also primary recovery ships.

SRV.....U.S., satellite, reconnaissance. SATELLITE REENTRY VEHICLE, part of the CORONA/DISCOVERER, GAMBIT imaging reconnaissance, satellite which carried the film canister to earth. Designation Also used for the BIOSATELLITE return vehicle.

SS.....U.S., satellites, see FERRET SUBSATELLITES.

SS.....Japan, satellite, scientific.

- SS, 1970/09/25, Kagoshima, Mu-3S.

- SS, 1971/02/16, Kagoshima, Mu-3S, TANSEI 1.

- SS-01,1971/9/21, Kagoshima, Mu-3S, SHINSEI.

- SS-02, 1972/09/19, Kagoshima, Mu-3S, DENPA.

- SS, 1972/02/16, Kagoshima, Mu-3S, TANSEI 2.

- SS-03, 1975/02/24, Kagoshima, Mu-3S, TAIYO.

- SS, 1977/02/19, Kagoshima, Mu-3S, TANSEI 3.

- SS-05, 1978/02/04, Kagoshima, Mu-3S, KYOKKO.

- SS-06, 1978/09/16, Kagoshima, Mu-3S, JIKIKEN.

- SS-04, 1979/02/21, Kagoshima, Mu-3S, HAKUCHO.

- SS, 1980/02/17, Kagoshima, Mu-3S, TANSEI 4.

- SS-07, 1981/02/21, Kagoshima, Mu-3S, HINOTORI.

- SS-08, 1983/02/20, Kagoshima, Mu-3S, TENMA.

- SS-09, 1984/02/14, Kagoshima, Mu-3S, OHZORA.

- SS-10, 1985/01/07, Kagoshima, Mu-3S, SAKIGAKE.

- SS-11, 1985/08/18, Kagoshima, Mu-3S, SUISEI.

- SS, 1998/02/057, Kagoshima, Mu-3S, GINGA.

- SS, 1989/02/21, Kagoshima, Mu-3S, AKEBONO.

- SS, 1993/02/20, Kagoshima, Mu-3S, ASUKA.

First launch 1970/09/25

SS Designation for Soviet Missiles.....See Russia Launch Vehicle Designation.

SS Designation for Russian Missiles......See Russia Launch Vehicle Designation.

SS Designators.....U.S. DoD System designation. See WS Designators.

SS/L.....U.S. Space Systems/Loral, satellite manufacturer company.

SS-11.....Russia, launch vehicle, Sego, ICBM. 2,200 lbm (1,000 kg) LEO.

SS-13.....Russia, launch vehicle, Savage, RS-12, ICBM. 440 lbm (200 kg) LEO.

SS-17.....Russia, launch vehicle, Spanker, RS-16, ICBM. 2200 lbm (1000 kg) LEO.

SS-18.....Russia, launch vehicle, Satan, RS-20 ICBM. 6,600 lbm (3,000 kg) LEO.

SS-19.....Russia, launch vehicle, Stiletto, RS-18, ICBM. 2,600 lbm (1,300 kg) LEO.

SS-24.....Russia, launch vehicle, Scalpel, ICBM. 2,200 lbm (1,100 kg) LEO.

SS-25.....Russia, launch vehicle, Sickle, ICBM. 660 lbm (300 kg) LEO.

SS-4.....Russia, launch vehicle. See Kosmos, small

SS-464L.....U.S., DoD System Management Code, X-20 Dyna-Soar. Also RS-620A. See SS.

SS-5.....Russia, launch vehicle. See Kosmos, large

SS-6.....Russia, launch vehicle. See Sputnik or Vostok

SS-N-17.....Russia, launch vehicle, Snipe, SLBM. 220 lbm (100 kg) LEO.

SS-N-18.....Russia, launch vehicle, Stingray, RSM-50, SLBM. 880 lbm (400 kg) LEO.

SS-N-20.....Russia, launch vehicle, Sturgeon, RSM-52, SLBM. 1,400 lbm (700 kg) LEO.

SS-N-23.....Russia, launch vehicle, see Shtil or Skiff.

SS-N-6.....Russia, launch vehicle, Serb, SLBM. 220 lbm (100 kg) LEO.

SS-N-8.....Russia, launch vehicle, Sawfly, SLBM. 440 lbm (200 kg) LEO.

SSA.....U.S., satellite, intelligence, see SSU. First launch 1983/02/09

SSB.....U.S., satellite, intelligence, see SSU. First launch 1983/02/09

SSB.....Japan, launch vehicle motor, thrust 141,500 lbf (630 kN), pressure 780 psi (54 bar), solid propellant HTPB. CastorCastor II. Also known as MHI SSB.

SSB-10 A.....U.S., launch vehicle, DoD designation, see Transtage, Titan 34D.

SSB-7 A.....U.S., launch vehicle, DoD designation, see IUS, used with Titan IV.

SSB-8 A/B.....U.S., launch vehicle, DoD designation, see Centaur, used with Atlas II and Titan IV.

SSB-9 A.....U.S., launch vehicle, DoD designation, see PAM D-II, Delta II.

SSBUV.....U.S. NASA, satellite, scientific. SHUTTLE SOLAR BACKSCATTER ULTRAVIOLET instrument. Launched on STS-56. First launch 1993/04/08

SSC.....Sweden, aerospace company. See Swedish Space Corporation.

SSETI-EXPRESS.....Europe, ESA, scientific, developed by students. First launch 2005/00/00

SSF.....U.S., satellites, see FERRET SUBSATELLITES.

SSI.....U.S., launch vehicle. See Conestoga (Space Services Inc. of America)

SSL 1300.....U.S., satellite bus. Built by Space Systems/Loral. Was LS-1300, LS-1300.

SSM-A-14.....U.S., launch vehicle, known as Redstone.

SSM-A-17.....U.S., launch vehicle, known as Corporal.

SSM-G-14.....U.S., launch vehicle. Army, Redstone, IRBM.

SSME.....U.S., launch vehicle engine, Space Shuttle Main Engine. Thrust each 418,000 lbf (1,862 kN), pressure 3008 psi (207 bar), 12.5 million Hp, liquid propellant LOX/LH2.

SSN.....U.S., organization. USAF, Space Surveillance Network. Space surveillance sensors, a communication network, and an operational control center. Has three kinds of sensors:

Dedicated sensors whose primary mission is to support the SSN and includes radar and two optical systems.

- Det 1, Socorro, NM, U.S.

- Det 3, Maui, HI, U.S.

- Det 4, Diego Garcia, BIOT,

- NAVSPASUR, Dahlgren, VA, U.S.

- Eglin AFB, FL. U.S.

- Collateral sensors whose primary mission is to other than SSN support;

- 6 SWS, Cape Cod, AFS, MA. U.S.

- 7 SWS, Beale AFB, CA. U.S.

- 8 SWS, Eldorado, AFS, TX. U.S.

- 9 SWS, Robins AFB, GA, U.S.

- 12 SWS, Thule AB, Greenland.

- 13 SWS, Clear AFS, AK, U.S.

- RAF Flyingdales, UK

- 16 SPSS, Eareckson, AFB, AK., U.S.

- 19 SPSS, Pirinclik, AB, Turkey.

- 10 SWS, Cavalier, AFS, ND, U.S.

- Det 1, Antigua Island.

- Det 2, Ascension Island.

Contributing sensors under contract or agreement to support the SSN when requested by USSPACECOM:

- Maui, HI, U.S.

- Kwajalein Atoll, Marshall Islands.

- Lincoln Lab's Wesford, MA, U.S.

SSO.....Sun Synchronous/Polar Orbit. See orbit

SSP.....Japan, satellite, technology, SOLAR SAIL SUB PAYLOAD, also known as SORASEIRU SABUPEIRO-DO. First launch 2006/02/21

SSPS.....U.S./Japan, launch vehicle stage. Used LE-3 engine for stage 2, Japanese N-I, and AJ10-118F engine for the N-2.

SSR.....Suborbital Sounding Rocket

SSR.....Brazil, satellite, remote sensing.

SSS.....U.S., satellites, part of the EXPLORER series.

SSSAT.....Japan, satellite, technology, solar sail. First launch 2006/09/22

SST.....China & Germany, satellite, scientific. SPACE SOLAR TELESCOPE. Study the sun's magnetic filed. First launch


SSTI.....U.S., satellite bus, TRW Space & Electronics, LEO.

SSTI.....U.S., satellite,see LEWIS.

SSTL.....UK, company, see Surry Space Technology LTD

SSTL bus......UK, satellite bus, build by Surry Satellite Technology Ltd., SSTL.

SSTO.....Single Stage to Orbit. Type of launch vehicle capable of placing a satellite into orbit using a single stage. Most current launch vehicles use multiple stages.

SSU.....U.S. Navy. satellite, surveillance. Ocean SATELLITE SURVEILLANCE.

- SSU 01, 1975 051C, 1975/06/08, WTR, Titan IIID, LEO.

- SSU 01, 1976 038C, 1976/04/30, WTR, Atlas F, LEO, SUBSATELLITE TO PARCAE 1.

- SSU 02, 1976 038D, 1976/04/30, WTR, Atlas F, LEO, SUBSATELLITE TO PARCAE 1.

- SSU 03, 1976 038J, 1976/04/30, WTR, Atlas F, LEO, SUBSATELLITE TO PARCAE 1.

- SSU 06, 1980 019C, 1980/03/03, WTR, Atlas F,

- SSU 07, 1980 019D, 1980/03/03, WTR, Atlas F,

- SSU 08, 1980 019G, 1980/03/03, WTR, Atlas F,

First launch 1975/06/08

SSV.....U.S., ship, launch platform for Seal Launch, see Odyssey.

ST.....Singapore, satellite, communications. Launched at Kourou by an Ariane 44P into GEO. SINGAPORE- TELECOM or SINGAPORE-TAIWAN. First launch 1998/08/25

St. John's.....Canada/U.S., organization, NASA, STDN, Spaceflight Tracking and Data Network. St. John's, Canada, NASA/STDN Station.

ST-5.....U.S., satellite, space technology. SPACE TECHNOLOGY 5. Part of New Millennium Technology Test bed Program. 3 micro satellites, weight 55 lbs (25 kg). SSO. Will measure intensity and direction of Earth’s magnetic field. First launch 2006/03/22

ST-735.....Japan, sounding rocket.

STACKSAT.....U.S., satellites, multiple launch. Also known as P87-2. see POGS, TEX, and SCE.

STADAN.....U.S., NASA, organization. part of tracking network. Consolidated with MSFN and renamed STDN after the SKYLAB program.

stadt.....German for city.

Stafford, Thomas.....U.S., astronaut, GEMINI 6, 1965/12/15, GEMINI 9, 1966/06/03, APOLLO 10, 1969/05/18, APOLLO-SOYUZ APOLLO CSM-119, 1975/07/15. First launch 1975/07/15

star.....Synonym for satellite, used in satellite names. e.g. APSTAR.

star.....etoile (Fr)., stem (D).,
star.gifFigure 47 Star, "sun and Birth" (C),

starjap1.gifFigure 48 Star, Hoshi (J)

Star.....U.S., launch vehicle motor. Manufactured by Thiokol.

Star 27.....U.S., launch vehicle motor, apogee, Thiokol. Thrust 5,177 lbf (23 kN), pressure 569 psi (39 bar), solid propellant AP + Al + binder.

Star 37.....U.S., launch vehicle motor, Thiokol. Used on Titan II 23G, and Pegasus.

Star 37FM.....U.S., launch vehicle motor, Thiokol. Thrust 10,300 lbf (45.8 kN), pressure 529 psi (36.5 bar), propellant HTPB. Used on Delta II..

Star 48B.....U.S., launch vehicle motor, Thiokol. Thrust 14,900 lbf (66 kN), pressure 575 psi (40 bar), propellant HTPB. Used on Delta II stage 3.

Star City.....Russia, see Star Town.

Star One.....Brazil, company, commercial satellite operator, BRASILSAT. Praia de Botafogo, #228, 3rd Floor, Rio de Janeiro, RJ 22250-906 Brazil.

Star Town.....Russia, city, trained cosmonauts. Also known as Star City, and Zvezchny Gorodok. Started in 1960. Contains the Yuri Gagarin Cosmonaut Training Center, or TsPK.

STAR ONE.....Brazil, satellite, communications. First launch

STAR-2.....U.S., satellite bus, Orbital Sciences. Designed for small GEO market.

Star-63D.....U.S., launch vehicle motor. Thrust 17,600 lbf (78 kN), pressure ? psi (? bar), solid propellant ?. Used on Titan III launch vehicle, stage 3.

Star-63F.....U.S./China, launch vehicle motor, manufactured in the U.S., used on the CZ-2E.

STARAD.....U.S. satellite, surveillance. Used to detect STARFISH nuclear explosion, artificial radiation data, part of the CORONA surveillance satellite program.

STARAD, 1962 058A, 1962/10/26, WTR, Thor Agena D, HEO, 10/5/67. First launch 1962/10/26

StarBus.....U.S., satellite bus, Orbital Sciences Corp., GEO satellite platform. accommodate payloads up to 200 kg and 550 W, 7 to 10 year life. Can operate in LEO. MEO or deep space. Used on the following launch vehicles: Delta II, Ariane, Proton, Long March.

STARBUS.....Indonesia, satellite, communications.

STARDUST.....U.S. NASA/JPL, satellite, scientific, Heliocentric. Will travel within 62 miles of the comet Wild-2 on 2004/01/02 and collect dust for return to Earth on 2006/01/00. Part of NASA's Discovery low cost satellite program. First launch 1999/02/07

Starfire.....U.S. sounding rocket, SSI. Modified Terrier/Black Brant. First launch 1989/03/29

STARFISH.....U.S., satellite. See STARAD.

Stargazer.....U.S., launch vehicle, Orbital Science, uses an L-1011 jet launch aircraft to launch Pegasus launch vehicles.

STARLETTE.....France satellite, geodetic.

- STARLETTE, 1975 010A, 1975/02/06, Kourou, Diamant B-P4, LEO.

First launch 1975/02/06

STARLITE.....U.S., satellite, surveillance, LEO, 8 TO 48 satellite constellation. For surveillance, targeting and reconnaissance. SURVEILLANCE, TARGETING, AND RECONNAISSANCE SATELLITE. Renamed to TACTICAL SPACE BASED MOVING TARGET INDICATOR SATELLITES.

STARNET.....U.S., satellite, mobile communications, LEO.

Stars.....U.S. DoD, BMDO, launch vehicle, sub orbital. The Strategic Target System vehicle is comprised of refurbished Polaris missile motors for its fist and second stages, an Orbis third stage and a post boost vehicle that carried 26 objects to an altitude of 565 miles. The launch was to evaluate the performance of the sensors on the Midcourse Space Experiment (MSX) satellite. The launch was from the U.S. Navy's Pacific Missile Range Facility (PMRF) on Kauai, Hawaii. First launch 1996/08/31

Starsern S.A......France, Russia, aerospace company. Satellite launcher, joint venture, Aerospatiale & Arianespace (France), TsSKB Progress & Russian Space Agency (Russia). Launch vehicle Soyuz. First launch 1998/00/00

STARSHINE.....U.S., satellite, scientific, LEO. STUDENT-TRACKED ATMOSPHERIC RESEARCH SATELLITE FOR HEURISTIC INTERNATIONAL NETWORK EXPERIMENT. Design and build by the U.S. Naval Research Laboratory. The spheroid is covered by aluminum reflectors.



- STARSHINE 3, LEO, 2001-043A

- STARSHINE 4, STS-114. First launch 1999/05/27

STARSYS.....U.S., satellite, telecommunications, LEO. First launch ?

start.....Russia, launch.

start.....départ (Fr)., adflug (D)., abfahrt (D).

Start.....U.S. Air Force, test, Spacecraft Technology and Advanced Reentry Test. Project designed to build and test configuration s control systems and ablative materials for hypersonic lifting body type reentry vehicles. First launch ?

Start.....Russia, launch vehicle, derived from a modified SS-25 mobile ICBM, RT-2PM. Also known as Topol, 15Zh58, RT-2PM. Launched from Plesetsk and Svobodny.

- Start, 1000 lbs (480 kg), LEO. First launch 1995/3/28.

- Start 1, L-1, SL-18, 1393 lbs (632 kg), LEO.. Stage 1 thrust 200,000 lbf (890 kN), solid propellant, ?. Stage 2, Thrust 110,000 lbf (4909 kN), solid propellant ?. Stage 3, thrust 55,000 lbf (245 kN), solid propellant ? Stage 4, 23,000 lbf (100 kN), solid propellant ? First launch 1993/03/25.

First launch 1993/03/25

START-1.....Russia, satellite, communications. Launched at Plesetsk by Start-1. First launch 1993/03/25

Startdatum.....German for Start date (launch date).

Startland.....German for launch site.

State Scientific Production Space Rocket Center TsSKB-Progress.....Russia, organization, see TsSKB.

station.....French and German for center.

station to station transfer.....First station to station transfer MIR/SOYUZ T-15 to SALYUT 7. Transfer of personnel from one satellite to another while in orbit. 1986/05/06

Station Keeping.....Maintains a satellite's position by adding thrust to overcome environmental perturbations


stationary orbit.....See geosynchronous or orbit.

STATSIONAR.....Russia, satellite, see RADUGA.

STDN.....U.S., organization. NASA, Spaceflight Tracking and Data Network.

- Alaska Station, P.O. Box 1307, Fairbanks, AK. 99707 U.S. Started 1963/09/01, Turned over to NOAA 10/01/84.

- Ascension Island Station, for Mercury, GEMINI, APOLLO, Ascension Island, P.O. Box A, Patrick Air Force Base, FL 32925, later for STS Attn.: Senior Manager, David A. Ransom, P.O. Box 5220, Patrick AFB, FL 32925-1220, U.S.

- Barstow Tracking Station. See Goldstone

- Bermuda Station, Attention: Station Director, P.O. Box 7015, FPO, NY, NY 09560, U.S.

- Chile Station, Sucursal, Chile

- Dakar Station, Attn.: Station Director, Telesenegal, B.P. 69, Station de Grandoul, Dakar, Senegal, Africa. Later, Dakar-GDKR, Attn: NASA/STDN Facility, U.S. Embassy, c/o U.S. Ambassador, Manager/DKR, Dakar, Senegal.

- Deakin, Office in Charge, NASCOM Switching Center, Deakin Telephone Exchange Bldg., Kent St., Deakin A.C.T., Australia 2600

- Goddard Space Flight Center, NTTF Facility, Code 850.2, Goddard Space Flight Center, Greenbelt, MD 20771 Later, Goddard Space Flight Center, Network Control Center-GNCC, Attention: Site Manager, NASA/STDN Control Center, Goddard Space Flight Center, Bldg. 13, Code 530.3, Greenbelt, MD 20771 U.S.

- Goldstone Station, for Mercury, GEMINI, & APOLLO, P.O. Box 789, Barstow, CA 92311. For STS, Attn: Aviation Director, P.O. Box 997, Barstow, CA 92311. Later Goldstone-JPL, Attn: Station Director, Bendix Field Corpt., 850 E. Mam St., Barstow, CA 9231, U.S.

- Guam Station, Attention: Station Director, Dan Dan, Guam 96916, U.S.

- Johannesburg, S. Africa, NITR/CSIR,

- JSC, Houston, TX 77058, U.S.

- Kokee Tracking Station, Attention: Senior Manager, P.O. Box 538, Waimea, Kauai HI. 96976 U.S.

- KSC, Attention: Station Director, MILA STDN, Mail Code MILA, JFK Space Center, KSC, FL, U.S. 32899

- London, ATTN.: Station Director, NASA Communication Switch Station, Room IA, Electra House, Victoria Embankment, London, WC 2, England.

- Madrid Space Station, Madrid, Spain. Facility Manager, c/o American Embassy, NASA/INTA (Madrid) APO NY 09285, U.S.

- Merritt Island Station, P.O. Box 1947, Titusville, FL. 32780 US. Later Merritt Island-GMIL, Attention: Station Director, NASA/STDN Merritt Island, P.O. Box 1930, Titusville, FL 32781-1930 U.S.

- Orroral Valley Tracking Station, P.O. Box 40, Kingston, ACT 2604 Australia. Later address NASA/STDN Orroral Station, Attn: Station Director, Orroral Valley, PO Box 585, Canberra City ACT 2601, Australia. Closed 1998.

- Ponce de Leon. For STS, Attn.: Commanding Officer, Ponce de Leon Inlet, P.O. Box 370, New Symurna, FL 32069, U.S.

- Quito Station, Quito, Ecuador, NASA/STDN Station, Attn: Station Director, American Embassy Quito, Department of State, Washington, D.C. 20520, U.S.

- Rosman Station, NASA/STDN Rosman Station, NC, 28772 U.S.

- Santiago Station, Chile, c/o American Embassy, APO, Miami, FL 34033. For STS, Attn.: Station Director, Embajada de Los EE.UU., APO Miami, FL 34033. Later Santiago, Chile-GAGO, Attention: GSFC Representative or Station Director, NASA/STDN Santiago Station, American Embassy, APO Miami, FL 34033-0001 U.S.

- St. John's, Canada, NASA/STDN Station,

- Wallops, Flight Center Code C & CSS, Wallops Island, VA 23337 U.S.

- White Sands-GNGT, Attention: Station Director, White Sands STDN Station, P.O. Drawer GSC, Las Cruces, NM 88004 U.S.

- Winkfield Station, SRC Station Dir., NASA/STDN (Appleton Lab Field Station) Pigeonhouse Lane, Winkfiled, Windsor SL4 4SH, Berkshire, England.

- Yarragadee Station, Mobil Laser Tracking Station, Attn.: Station Director, P.O. Box 137, Yarragadee, Dongara, 6525 Western Australia.

Stefanyshyn-Piper, Heidemarie.....U.S., astronaut, STS-115, 2006/09/09. First launch 2006/09/09

stella.....Latin, Star.

STELLA.....France, French Space Agency, satellite, geodetic. Global laser reflector satellites. Launched by the Ariane booster.

- STELLA, 1993 061B, 1993/09/26, Kourou, Ariane 40, LEO.

First launch 1993/09/26

STELLAT.....France, satellite, communications, GEO. Uses the 3000 B3 satellite bus. First launch 2002/07/05


stem.....German for star.

Stennis Space Center.....U.S., organization. NASA, John L. Stennis Space Center, MS 39529. This Center, located on Mississippi's Gulf Coast, is NASA's prime test facility for large liquid propellant rocket engines and propulsion systems. The main mission of the Center is to support testing, on a regular basis, of the Space Shuttle's main propulsion system. SSC is responsible for a variety of research programs in the environmental sciences and the remote sensing of Earth resources, weather; and oceans, and is the lead NASA Center for the commercialization of space remote sensing.

STENSAT.....U.S., satellite, satellite, amateur radio, launched from OPAL satellite. First launch 2000/02/14

STENTOR.....France, satellite, communications, experimental. Uses Alcatel Spacebus 3000 with Eurostar 3000 components. SATELLITE DE TELECOMMUNICATIONS POUR EXPERIMENTER DE NOUVELLES TECHNOLOGIES EN ORBITE. FTO. First launch 2002/12/11

STEP.....U.S. Air Force, satellite, communications. SPACE TEST PROGRAM, housed a Department of Defense communications experiment.

- STEP 00, 1994 017A, 1994/03/13, WSMC, Taurus.

- STEP 01, NONE, 1994/06/27, EAFB/L1011, Pegasus XL, FTO, P90-1, EAGLE.

- STEP 02, 1994 029A, 1994/05/19, EAFB/B-52, Pegasus, LEO, EAGLE

- STEP 03, NONE, 1995/06/22, WSMC/L-1011, Pegasus XL, FTO.

- STEP M4, 1967/10/22, WI, Pegasus XL, LEO, EAGLE.

First launch 1994/03/13

STEP/Eagle.....U.S., satellite bus, TRW Space & Electronics, LEO.

Stephano.....Character from Shakespear's The Tempest.

Stephano.....Uranous moon, 1999/was S U2.

STEREO.....U.S. NASA, satellite, scientific, solar physics. SOLAR TERRESTRIAL RELATIONS OBSERVATORY. Solar orbits slightly ahead of and behind Earth. Assembled at Johns Hopkins University Applied Physics Laboratory. Also known as STEREO 3D. 2 satellites launched on the same launch vehicle. STEREO A will be positioned in solar orbit ahead of the Earth, and STEREO B in solar orbit behind the Earth. First launch 2006/10/26

Stewart, Robert.....U.S., astronaut, STS-41B (10), 1984/02/03, STS-51J (21), 1985/10/03. First launch 1984/02/03

STEX.....U.S., DoD, satellite, scientific, LEO SSO. SENSOR TECHNOLOGY EXPERIMENT, demonstrates radiation measurement technology. Also known as SPACE TECHNOLOGY EXPERIMENT SATELLITE. First launch 1998/10/03

Stickell.....USS Stickell, recovery ship, part of the fleet which recovered or was on duty and capable of recovering the following: GEMINI AGENA 6.

Stiletto.....Russia, launch vehicle, see SS-19.

Still, Susan.....U.S., astronaut, STS-083, 1997/04/04, STS-094, 1997/07/01, STS-094, 1997/07/01. First launch 1997/04/04

Stingray.....Russia, launch vehicle, see SS-N-18.

STIS.....U.S. NASA, satellite, scientific. SPACE TELESCOPE IMAGING SPECTROGRAPH, installed on the HUBBLE SPACE TELESCOPE. First launch 1997/02/11

Stodder DDG 22.....USS Stodder DDG 22, recovery ship, part of the fleet which recovered or was on duty and capable of recovering the following: APOLLO 13.

Stormes.....USS Stormes, DD-780, recovery ship, part of the fleet which recovered or was on duty and capable of recovering the following: MERCURY Redstone 4, MERCURY Atlas 6.

STP.....U.S. Air Force satellite. Advanced SPACE TECHNOLOGY EXPERIMENTS, Space test Program (former SESP). Designation STP year-number.

- STP, 1971 089A, 1971/10/17, WTR, Thor Agena D, LEO.

First launch 1971/10/17

STP P97.....UK, satellite, see P97.

STRA.....U.S., satellite, see STRV 1A,

Strategic Target System.....U.S., organization. See Stars.

Strauss DDG 16.....USS Strauss DDG 16, recovery ship, part of the fleet which recovered or was on duty and capable of recovering the following: GEMINI 12, APOLLO 12.

STRB.....U.S., satellite, see STRV 1B.

STREAK.....U.S., satellite, classified, SSO. Also known as STP-R1, USA 183. First launch 2005/09/23

Strekalov, Gennadi.....Russia, cosmonaut, SOYUZ T3, 1980/11/27, SOYUZ T8, 1983/04/20, SOYUZ 10A, 1984/02/08, SOYUZ T11, 1984/04/03, SOYUZ TM 10, 1990/08/01, SOYUZ TM 21, 1995/03/14. First launch 1980/11/27

strela.....Russia, arrow.

Strela.....Russia, launch vehicle.

Strela, 15A30, 3440 lbs (1560 kg), LEO. Stage 1, 4 RD-0233 engines. Stage 2, 1 with RD-0236 vernier with 4 nozzles.

STRELA.....Russia, satellite, crane used in ISS. 2 cranes, STRELA 1 & 2.

STRELA.....Russia, satellite, military, store-dump communications, LEO SSO. Launched at Baikonur by a Cosmos. Commercial versions are GONETS. COSMOS 23230, 2337-9, 2352-7. Also known as 17F13. First launch 1964/08/18

Stretched Emeraude.....France, launch vehicle, stage 1, Diamant B and BP4. Thrust 77,000 lbf (343 kN), pressure ? psi (? bar), liquid propellant N2O4/UDMH.

Strong.....USS Strong, DD-758, prime recovery ship for Big Joe 1.

Structure Porteuse pour Lancements Double Ariane.....See Spelda.

STRV.....Great Britain, satellite bus, DERA.


- STRV 1A, 1994 034B, 1994/06/17, Kourou, Ariane 44LP, HEO.

- STRV 1B, 1994 034C, 1994/06/17, Kourou, Ariane 44LP, HEO.

First launch 1994/06/17

STS.....U.S. launch vehicle, LEO, manned, transfer stages. NASA, Space Transportation System, launcher, also known as the Space Shuttle. Designed and built to carry the manned delta wing Space Shuttle into low earth orbit. Through the end of 1995, the STS had a total of 78 launches with 77 successes. The launch vehicle propulsion system is a liquid fueled main stage with two large strap-on solid booster. Naming convention for Flights:

STS-# (sequential number starting with 1. Changed after STS-9) Started in 1981, ended in 1983 and started again in 1988.

STS-Fiscal year, launch site, alphabetical sequence, starting in 1984. (Fiscal year, e.g. 4 is 1984 which started1983/10/1 and ended1984/9/30). Launch site (1 for KSC). Alphabetical sequence (starting with A). Example STS-41B is the mission which took place in fiscal year 1984, launched from KSC, was the second mission designated by the second letter B of the alphabet. The designation does not change if the flight is delayed into the next year or if a flight is canceled. As a consequence, STS-41G follows STS-41D!

- Longest STS flight, 14 days, 17 hours, 56 minutes, STS-65, 1994/07/08 -1994/07/23.

- Longest EVA 8 hours, 29 minutes, STS-49, 1992/05/14.

Payload 63,500 lbm (28,800 kg) LEO. Total thrust 6,554,000 lbf, (29,000 kN).

- Stage 1, 2 RSRM or ASRM.

- Stage 2, Orbiter 3 SSME engines and 2 OMS engines. RCS engines 38 primary thrusters, each thrust 870 lbf (3.87 kN), pressure psi ( bar), liquid propellant N2O4/MMH. 6 RCS vernier thrusters, each thrust 25 lbf (0.11 kN), pressure psi ( bar),liquid propellant N2O4/MMH

U.S. Manned Spacecraft, Space Shuttle.

- Atlantis, U.S. Manned Spacecraft Space Shuttle, OV-104. First launch 1985/09/20.

- Challenger, U.S. Manned Spacecraft Space Shuttle, OV-99. First launch 1983/04/04. Explosion 1986/01/28 killed all on board.

- Columbia, U.S. Manned Spacecraft Space Shuttle, OV-102. First launch 1981/04/12. Damaged during liftoff, burned up in reentry 2003/02, killed all on board

- Discovery, U.S. Manned Spacecraft Space Shuttle, OV-103. First launch 1984/08/30.

- Endeavor, U.S. Manned Spacecraft Space Shuttle OV-105. First launch 1992/05/07.

- Enterprise, U.S. Manned Spacecraft Space Shuttle, OV-101, (test vehicle only, never went into space).

First launch 1981/04/12

STS-003.....U.S., satellite. NASA first STS landing at WSMR. 1982/03/30

STS-011.....U.S., satellite. NASA, first STS landing at KSC. 1984/02/11

STSAT.....Korea, satellite, scientific, extreme ultraviolet telescope, SSO. Also known as KAISTSAT, or URIBYOL.First launch 2003/09/27

STSS.....U.S., satellite, reconnaissance, SPACE TRACKING SURVEILLANCE SATELLITE, ballistic missile tracking. Revised SBIRS-LOW program. First launch 2007/09/00


Stuart, Rossa.....U.S., astronaut, APOLLO 14, 1971/01/31. First launch 1971/01/31


Sturckow, Frederic.....U.S., astronaut, STS-088, 1998/12/06, STS-104, 7/12/200. First launch 1998/12/06

Sturgeon.....Russia, launch vehicle, see SS-N-20.

STV.....Australia, satellite, SATELLITES TEST VEHICLE.

- STV 1, 1968/11/30, Woomera, Europa I, F-7, FTO.

- STV 2, 1969/07/02, Woomera, Europa I, F-8, FTO.

- STV 3, 1970/06/12, Woomera, Europa I, F-9, FTO.

- STV 4, 1971/11/05, Kourou, Europa II, F-11, FTO.

First launch 1968/11/30

STW.....China, satellite. See SHIYAN TONGXIN WEIXING.


subsatellite point.....Orbital component. Point where a straight line drawn from a satellite to the center of the Earth intersects the Earth's surface.

subsatellites.....Small satellite launched from a satellite.

SUBSATELLITES.....U.S., satellites, flew on some CORONA, ARGON, LANYARD, GAMBIT, and HEXIGON satellite launches.

Subsystem E.....U.S., WS-117L program split into two subsystems, E and F. The photographic mission was Subsystem E. The cameras were developed and designated E1, E2,.. The were used by SAMOS.

Subsystem F.....U.S., WS-117L program split into two subsystems E and F. The electronic reconnaissance system was designated Subsystem F. They were applied to FERRET satellites. F-2 satellite designation was Program 102. F-4 or SAMOS F-4 are subsatellites based upon P-11.

Sud-aviation.....Europe, aerospace company, was joined by Quest-aviation in 1960, Morane-Saulnier in 1965, Nord-aviation in 1965 to became Aerospatiale in 1965.

sugar.....Launch vehicle propellant, solid, fuel, sucrose. Used in smaller rockets. Not used in Spacecraft Launch vehicles..

suisei.....Japan, comet.

SUISEI.....Japan satellite, scientific. Encountered comet Halley 1986/03/08. Also known as PLANET.

- SUISEI, 1985 073A, 1985/08/18, Kagoshima, MU-3S2, heliocentric, SS-11, PLANET.

First launch 1985/08/18

SUITSAT.....U.S., Russia, satellite, technology, launched from the ISS. Used the Orlan spacesuit as a ham radio satellite. First launch 2006/02/03

sulfur.....Launch vehicle propellant, solid, can be used as an oxidizer with Zinc or as a fuel in fireworks (black powder).. Not used in Spacecraft Launch vehicles.

Sullivan, Kathryn.....U.S., astronaut, STS-41G (13), 1984/10/05, STS-31, 1990/04/24, STS-45, 1992/03/24. First launch 1984/10/05

Sullivans.....USS Sullivans, recovery ship, part of the fleet which recovered or was on duty and capable of recovering the following: MERCURY Redstone 3.

Summer DD 592.....USS Summer DD 592, recovery ship, part of the fleet which recovered or was on duty and capable of recovering the following: GEMINI 10.


sun.....soleil (Fr), sonne (D).

Sun.....The star about which the planet Earth orbits, and is the center of Earth's solar system. Apheline is the high point (apoapsis) of an orbit around the sun. Other names for the Sun, roman god: Greece Helius, Horus, Apollo, gods: Egypt -Aten, Khephri, Ra, Atum, gods; Phoenician Baal, god; Aztec Nahui Ollin.

Sun/Earth L1.....Orbital component. See lagrange point.

Sun, orbit, first.....U.S., PIONEER 4, first satellite to be placed in orbit around Sun, launched on 1959/03/03

SUN PLANETOID.....U.S., satellite, see PIONEER 4. First launch 1959/03/03

Sun-Sync.....Orbit. See sun-synchronous.

sun-synchronous orbit.....The path of a satellite which places it over a place on Earth at the same local time of the day. Orbits are inclined between 95 to 100 degrees and altitudes between 400 to 800 miles (700 to 1300 km). Describes the orbit of a satellite that provides consistent lighting of the Earth-scan view. The satellite passes the equator and each latitude at the same time each day. For example, a satellite's sun-synchronous orbit might cross the equator twelve times a day each time at 3:00 p.m. local time. The orbital plane of a sun-synchronous orbit must also precess (rotate) approximately one degree each day, eastward, to keep pace with the Earth's revolution around the sun.

SUNSAT.....South Africa, satellite, Earth observation and imaging, LEO. STELLENBOSCH UNIVERSITY SATELLITE. First launch 1999/02/23

sunsynchronous orbit.....See sun-synchronous orbit.

Super Arcas.....U.S. developed sounding rocket.

Super Loki-Dart.....U.S., rocket, mesosphere meteorology. First launch 1968/00/00

SUPERBIRD.....Japan, satellite, telecommunications, GEO. Owned by the Space Communications Corporation (SCC). Also known as N-SAT.

- SUPERBIRD A, 1989 041A, 1989/06/05, Kourou, Ariane 44L, GEO.

- SUPERBIRD A1, 1992 084A, 1992/12/01, Kourou, Ariane 42P, GEO.

- SUPERBIRD B1, 1992 010A, 1992/02/26, Kourou, Ariane 44L, GEO.

- SUPERBIRD BS2X, None, 1990/02/22, Kourou, Ariane 44L, FTO.

- SUPERBIRD C, 1997/07/27, ETR, Atlas 2AS, GEO.

First launch 1989/06/05



- SURCAL 1B, 1963 021F, 1963/06/15, WTR, Thor Agena D, LEO,1963/07/5.

- SURCAL, 1965 016G, 1965/03/09, WTR, Thor Agena D, LEO, 1981/03/27.

- SURCAL, 1965 065B, 1965/08/13, WTR, Thor Able Star, LEO.

- SURCAL 01, 1967 053B, 1967/05/31, WTR, Thor Agena D, LEO.

First launch 1963/06/15

SURF.....U.S., satellite, see SURFSAT.

SURFSAT.....U.S., satellite, scientific. SUMMER UNDERGRADUATE RESEARCH FELLOWSHIP SATELLITE of JPL to simulate X, Ku and Ka band transmissions. Test vehicle for DSN tests.

- SURFSAT, 1995 059B, 1995/11/04, WSMC, Delta2, LEO.

First launch 1995/11/04

Surry Space Technology LTD.....UK, company, builds small satellites. Also known as SSTL.

surveillance.....See classified satellite.



SURVEYOR.....U.S., satellite, scientific. Space probes to soft land on the Moon, SURVEYOR A, 1-7.

       SURVEYOR A was designed primarily to see if an APOLLO lunar module could land on the surface of the Moon without sinking into the soil (before this time, it was feared by some that the Moon was covered in great layers of dust, which would not support a heavy landing vehicle). Surveyor A was a test and placed in orbit around the Moon. - SURVEYOR 1965 064A, 1965/08/11, ETR, Atlas Centaur.

- SURVEYOR 1 was designed primarily to see if an APOLLO lunar module could land on the surface of the Moon without sinking into the soil (before this time, it was feared by some that the Moon was covered in great layers of dust, which would not support a heavy landing vehicle). It contributed to the success in proving that the lunar surface was strong enough to hold up a spacecraft. It was part of the first U.S. probes to soft land on the Moon, taking thousands of images and scooping the soil for analysis.

- SURVEYOR 01, 1966 045A, 1966/05/30, CC, Atlas Centaur, Moon landing 1966/06/02.

- SURVEYOR 2 was an unsuccessful Missions, it crashed on the Lunar surface.

- SURVEYOR 02, 1966 084A, 1966/09/20, ETR, Atlas Centaur, Moon impact 1966/99/22.

- SURVEYOR 3, APOLLO 12 landed 600 feet from SURVEYOR 3 in 1969 and returned parts of the craft to Earth. First moon crust samples with digger.

- SURVEYOR 03, 1967 035A, 1967/04/17, ETR, Atlas Centaur, Moon landing 1967/04/19.

- SURVEYOR 4 was an unsuccessful Missions, it crashed on the Lunar surface.

- SURVEYOR 04, 1967 068A, 1967/07/14, ETR, Atlas Centaur, crashed on moon 1967/07/17.

- SURVEYOR 5 was designed primarily to see if an APOLLO lunar module could land on the surface of the Moon without sinking into the soil (before this time, it was feared by some that the Moon was covered in great layers of dust, which would not support a heavy landing vehicle). Magnetic and lunar soil analysis tests.

- SURVEYOR 05, 1967 084A, 1967/09/08, ETR, Atlas Centaur, Moon landing 1967/09/11.

- SURVEYOR 6 was designed primarily to see if an APOLLO lunar module could land on the surface of the Moon without sinking into the soil (before this time, it was feared by some that the Moon was covered in great layers of dust, which would not support a heavy landing vehicle). It contributed to the success in proving that the lunar surface was strong enough to hold up a spacecraft. It was part of the first U.S. probes to soft land on the Moon, taking thousands of images and scooping the soil for analysis. Proves Moon can support man and spacecraft.

- SURVEYOR 06, 1967 112A, 1967/11/07, ETR, Atlas Centaur, Moon landing 11/9/67.

- SURVEYOR 7, the last of the series, was a purely scientific mission which explored the Tycho crater region. Learns origin of the Moon.

- SURVEYOR 07, 1968 001A, 1968/01/07, ETR, Atlas Centaur, Moon landing1968/01/9.

First launch 1966/05/30

SUZAKI.....Japan, satellite, X-ray observatory. Legendary bird God. Also known as ASTRO-EII. First launch

Suzaku.....Japan, legendary red bird which guards people from evil and brings fortun.

SUZAKU.....Japan, satellite, astronomy, ASTRO-E2. First launch 2005/07/10

SV.....Satellite vehicle, or space vehicle.

SVETOCH.....Russia, satellite, communications, military. Also known as 11F625.

SVLB.....U.S., satellite, see SVLBI.

Svobodny.....Russia, Cosmodrom. Launch facility in the Amur Bolast region of far eastern Russia, less than 60 miles from Manchuria. Named after the Svobodny river near the site. Developed to reduce Russia's reliance on Baikonur. Location 51.2oN, 128.0oE. First satellite launched was the ZEYA.

First launch 1997/03/04

SVS EXPERIMENT.....U.S. Space Vision System experiment, on the Space Shuttle. First launch 1992/10/24

SWAKOPMUND.....Namibia, tracking and command station for China satellites. Placed in service in 2001.

SWALLLOW.....Russia, satellite, manned, VOSTOK 1, (SWALLLOW), launched by SL-3, Tyuratam, Cosmonaut, Yuri Gagarin, R 1961/04/12. First launch 1961/04/12

SWARM.....ESA, satellite, scientific. 3 satellite constellation to chart the Earth’s magnetic field. First launch 2010/00/00

SWAS.....U.S. NASA, satellite, scientific, astronomy, LEO. SUBMILLIMETER WAVE ASTRONOMY SATELLITE. Launched at Vandenberg by a Pegasus XL. First launch 1998/12/06

swath.....The area observed by a satellite as it orbits the Earth or other celestial body.

Sweden.....Member of ESA.

Swedish Space Corp......Sweden, aerospace company, satellite communications. Address: PO Box 4207, SE-17104 Solna, Sweden. Also known as SSC.

Swift.....U.S., satellite bus, built by Spectrum Astro.

SWIFT GAMMA RAY BURST EXPLORER......U.S., satellite, scientific, LEO. Manufactured by General Dynamics Spectrum Astro for NASA. First launch 2004/11/20

Swigert, Jack.....U.S., astronaut, APOLLO 13, 1970/04/11. First launch 1970/04/11

Switzerland.....Member of ESA.

SXG.....Russia, satellite, scientific, measure x-ray emissions, SPECTRUM X-GAMMA..

Sylda.....A structure within the Ariane fairing that encloses one spacecraft and supports another spacecraft above it. System de Lancement Double Ariane.

SYMPHONIE.....France & Germany, satellite, communication, experimental.

- SYMPHONIE 01, 1974 101A, 1974/12/19, ETR, THROAD Delta, GEO.

- SYMPHONIE B, 1975 077A, 1975/08/27, ETR, Delta, GEO.

First launch 1974/12/19

synchronous orbit.....24 hour orbit, about 22,300 miles (37,900 km) above the earth. Satellite appears stationary over a single longitude.

synchronous satellite.....See geostationary orbit, geosynchronous orbit, or synchronous orbit.

SYNCHRONOUS COMMUNICATION Satellites.....U.S., satellite. See SYNCOM


       The success of the ATS geosynchronous satellite program convened NOAA to precede with a geosynchronous meteorological satellite program. NOAA named it the Synchronous Meteorological Satellite (SMS) program. The Objectives of the SMS program were to sense meteorological conditions from a fixed location above the Earth and provide this data to operational forecasters and private interests on the ground. The SMS satellites were considered operational prototypes, fitting between research/development, and production/operational satellites. Only two satellites were produced.

       The SMS was cylindrical, 75 inches (1.91 m) in diameter, and 103 inches (2.62 m) long and had over 15,000 solar cells for power. It weighted 630 lbs. (285 kgs). This required a Delta launch vehicle to place it in a geosynchronous (23,000 mile) orbit. The satellite was spin-stabilized and rotated at 100 revolutions per minute.

       SMS 1 carried:

- Visible Infrared Spin Scan Radiometer (VISSR) which provided day and night imagery of cloud conditions. The satellite had the capability to monitor cataclysmic weather events such as hurricanes and typhoons continuously, and relaying data from over 10,000 surface locations into a central processing center for incorporation into weather prediction models.

- WEFAX, which used facsimile transmission of processed images and weather maps to WEFAX field stations

- Space Environment Monitor (SEM), similar to those on the NOAA satellites, and

- Data Collection System (DCS) similar to those on the NOAA satellites.

       The satellite was built by Hughes. SMS 1 was placed over the Atlantic Ocean and provided continuous coverage of the Central and Eastern U.S. and the Atlantic Ocean, from 17 May, 1974 to 21 January, 1981.

       SMS 2 was nearly identical to SMS 1 and was place in orbit over the Pacific Ocean, and provided continuous coverage of the western US, Hawaii, and the Pacific Ocean from 6 February, 1975 to 5 August, 1982. The SMS was so successful, that it was the prototype for NOAA’s GOES satellites.

- SMS 1, 1974 033A, 1974/05/17, ETR, Thorad Delta, GEO.

- SMS 2, 1975 011A, 1975/02/06, ETR, Delta, GEOS.

First launch 1974/05/17

SYNCOM.....U.S., satellites, communications, GEO. SYNCHRONOUS COMMUNICATION SATELLITES. First geosynchronous orbit communications satellites.

- SYNCOM 01, 1963 004A, 1963/02/14, ETR, Delta, GEO.

- SYNCOM 02, 1963 031A, 1963/07/26, ETR, Delta, GEO.

- SYNCOM 03, 1964 047A, 1964/08/19, ETR, Delta, GEO.

First launch 1963/02/14

SYRACUSE.....France, satellite, communications. Military utilization of TELECOM. Provides cover of Atlantic and Indian Oceans.First launch

System de Lancement Double Ariane.....France, launch vehicle, component, see Sylda.

System Designation.....U.S. See DoD Designation.

System Management Codes.....U.S. See DoD Designation.

Système International d'Unitès.....Units of measure, see SI.

SYSTEMS TECHNOLOGY 3.....U.S., NASA, satellite, scientific.

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Updated 2007/2/01