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T.....Russia, abbreviation for Transportnyy, transport.

T'ai yuan.....China, space vehicle launch facility. See Taiyuan.

T-310.....U.S., satellite bus, built by TRW. First used on the GEOLITE satellite. Smaller version of the T-330.

T-330.....U.S., satellite bus, built by TRW. Uses graphic epoxy core for stiffness. Larger version of the T-310. First used on the AQUA satellite.

T-AGM.....U.S. See tracking ship.

T-AGM-1.....U.S., tracking ship, USNS Range Tracker T-AGM-1.

T-Systems International.....Germany, company, commercial satellite operator, EUROBIRD. Address, Hahnstarße 43d, Frankfurt am Main, D-60528, Germany.

T1.....U.S., satellite, see TELEDESIC T1.

T2K.....Russia, satellite, see KOSMOS. First launch 1970/11/24

TAAS.....Israel, launch vehicle motor, thrust ? lbf (? kN), pressure ? psi (? bar), solid propellant HTPB. Manufactured by Israel Military Industries. Used on Shavit launch vehicle.

TACCOMSAT.....U.S. satellite. See TACSAT.

TACSAT.....U.S. DoD, satellite, communications. Experimental TACTICAL COMMUNICATIONS SATELLITE, was TACCOMSAT.

- TACSAT 01, 1969 013A, 1969/02/09,ETR, Titan IIIC, GEO.

First launch 1969/02/09


TAD.....U.S., launch vehicle. Thrust augmented delta. See Delta.

Taepo Dong.....North Korea, launch vehicle

- Taepo Dong 1, First launch 1998/08/31.

- Taepo Dong 2.

First launch 1998/08/31

TAG.....U.S. See tracking ship.

TAGM.....U.S. See tracking ship.

Tai Kong Ren.....Chinese for astronaut. See Yuhangyuan.

TAID.....U.S., launch vehicle, Delta. Thrust Augmented Improved Delta. See Delta E.

TAIFUN.....Russia, satellite, calibration. Also known as 11F31. TAIFUN-2 Also known as 17F31 or YUG.

Taikonaut.....China, English word for Chinese astronaut, “Taiko” Chinese for space and is similar to "astro-" and "cosmo-" or “kosmo”. See yuhangyuan.

taikong ren.....China,means space men.

Taikong.....China, means space or cosmos.

taiyo.....Japan, Sun.

TAIYO.....Japan, satellite. Also known as SS-03. See SRATS.

Taiyun.....China, space vehicle launch facility. See China Taiyuan Satellite Launch Center.

TALKING SATELLITE.....U.S., satellite, see SCORE 1 First launch 1958/12/18

TAN.....U.S. & Malagasy, organization. See NASA STDN tracking station, Tananarive, Republic of Malagasy. Closed.

TAN CE.....China, satellite, scientific, magnetoshperic research satellite. Also known as TC-1, PROBE 1,and DOUBLESTAR, DSP-E for DOUBLE STAR PROBE EQUATORIAL. 2 satellites in constillation. First launch 2003/12/29

Tanegashima Space Center.....Japan, space vehicle launch facility. Tanegashima Space Center; Launch Site for civil and commercial satellites. Location 30.4o N, 131.0o E Two launch sites, Osaki and Takesaki, about 600 miles southwest of Tokyo in the Kagoshima prefecture. Takesaki site is used for small sounding rockets on research Flights. Osaki launch site is used for orbital launches of larger vehicles. First used in 1974 as the launch site for the N-series launcher and is used for the H-2 vehicles. Used for low earth orbits, geosynchronous transfer orbits, sun synchronous/polar orbits. Tanegashima Space Center, Minamitane-machi, Kumage-gum, Kagoshima 891-37, Japan. Nearest town is Minamitane. First launch 1971/09/28

TANGO.....Europe, satellite, scientific, LEO SSO. See also CLUSTER and SALSA. First launch 2000/08/09

Tani, Daniel.....U.S., astronaut, STS-108, 2001/12/5. First launch 2001/012/5

Tanner, Joseph.....U.S., astronaut, STS-66, 1994/11/03, STS-82, 1997/02/11, STS-097, 2000/12/01, STS-115, 2006/09/09. First launch 1994/11/03

tansei.....Japanese for light blue.

TANSEI.....Japan, satellite, technology. Technology Test Satellite. TANSEI means light blue, and code name MST 1. Also known as SS.

- TANSEI 01, 1971 012A, 1971/02/16, Kagoshima, MU-4S, LEO.

- TANSEI 02, 1974 008A, 1974/02/16, Kagoshima, MU-3C, HEO, 1983/01/22.

- TANSEI 03, 1977 012A, 1977/02/19, Kagoshima, MU-3H, HEO.

- TANSEI 04, 1980 015A, 1980/02/17, Kagoshima, MU-3S, LEO, 1983/05/12.

- TANSEI MS-T4, 1990/02/17.

First launch 1971/02/16

TANSOU.....China, satellite, see TS.

TANSUO.....China, satellite, see SHIYAN.


- TAOS, 1994 017A, 1994/03/13, WSMC, TAURUS,, STEP.

First launch 1994/03/13

TAT.....U.S., launch vehicle, Thrust Augmented Thor, 3 solid strap on Boosters, Polar LEO 2200 lbs (1000kg). See Thor, U.S. Air Force Intermediate Range Ballistic Missile. First launch 1963/06/12

TATIANA.....Russia, satellite, see UNIVERSITETSKIY.

TATR.....U.S., satellite, see TTS, TEST and TRAINING SATELLITE.

TATS.....U.S., satellite, see TTS, TEST and TRAINING SATELLITE.

tau.....Τ, τ, tau, 19, Greek Alphabet.

Taurus.....U.S., launch vehicle, 1st stage is the Peacekeeper ICBM 1st stage, with the upper stages being the Pegasus.

- DARPA Taurus, 2800 lbs (1315 kg), LEO.

- SSLV Taurus, similar to DARPA Taurus, 2890 lbm (1310 kg) LEO.

- Taurus, 3200 lbs (1490 kg), LEO.

- Commercial Taurus 3020 lbs (1370 kg), LEO. Stage 0, Castor 120 motor. Stage1, Orion 50SG motor Stage 2, Orion 50 motor. Stage 3, Orion 38 motor.

- Taurus XL, 3500 lbs (1590 kg), LEO.

- Taurus XLS, 4500 lbs (2050 kg), LEO.

First launch 1994/03/13

Taurus.....Astrological Sign, 4/20-5/20, and Constellation the Bull.

Taurus XL.....U.S., launch vehicle, see Taurus.

Taurus-Littro.....Moon, space vehicle launch site, for APOLLO I7, CHALLENGER. First launch 1972/12/14

Taurus-Tomahawk.....U.S., rocket, upper atmosphere geophysics. First launch 1978/00/00

Taussig DD 746.....USS Taussig DD 746, recovery ship, part of the fleet which recovered or was on duty and capable of recovering the following: MERCURY Atlas 9.

TAVE.....U.S., satellite. First launch 1962/09/29

Tawakoni ATF 114.....USS Tawakoni ATF 114, recovery ship, part of the fleet which recovered or was on duty and capable of recovering the following: SKYLAB 3.

Taylor DD 468.....USS Taylor DD 468, recovery ship, part of the fleet which recovered or was on duty and capable of recovering the following: GEMINI 5.

TC.....U.S., Launch vehicle motor, Thiokol Chemical Corp.

TC-1.....China, satellite, see TAN CE.

TC2C.....U.S., satellite, see TELECOM 2C.

TD.....U.S., satellite, scientific, high energy emissions.

- TD 1A, 1972 041A, 1972/03/12, WTR, Delta, LEO, 1980/01/09.

First launch 1972/03/12


TDF.....France, satellite, telecommunications direct broadcast. TELEDIFFUSION DE FRANCE.

- TDF 01, 1988 098A, 1988/10/28, Kourou, Ariane 2, GEO.

- TDF 02, 1990 063A, 1990/07/24, Kourou, Ariane 44L, GEO.

First launch 1988/10/28

TDR.....U.S., satellite, see TDRSS.

TDRS.....U.S., organization. NASA, central tracking site, White Sands TDRS Facility.

TDRSS.....U.S. NASA, satellite, communications. TRACKING AND DATA RELAY SATELLITE SYSTEM. Will replace many of the ground tracking stations used in earlier manned space Flights.

- TDRSS 01, 1983 026B, 1983/04/05, STS-06, CHALLENGER/IUS, GEO.

- TDRSS 03, 1988 091B, 1988/10/03, STS-26, DISCOVERY/IUS, GEO.

- TDRSS 04, 1989 021B, 1989/03/13, STS-29, DISCOVERY/IUS, GEO.

- TDRSS 05, 1991 054B, 1991/08/02, STS-43, ATLANTIS/IUS, GEO.

- TDRSS F6, 1993 003B, 1993/01/13, STS-54, ENDEAVOR, GEO.

- TDRSS F7, 1995 035B, 1995/07/13, STS-70, DISCOVERY, HEO.

First launch 1983/04/05

TE 364-3.....U.S., launch vehicle motor. Thrust 5,450 lbf (24 kN), pressure ? psi (? bar). Manufactured by Thiokol. Used on Delta M launch vehicle.

TE.SA.M.....France, company, aerospace, partnership with Alcatel and France Tèlècom.

TE-M.....U.S., launch vehicle motor. Manufactured by Thiokol. Also known as TEM.

TE-M-364-14.....U.S./Japan, launch vehicle motor. Thrust ? lbf (? kN), pressure ? psi (? bar), solid propellant ?. Used on the Japanese N-I launch vehicle, stage 3.

TE-M-364-3.....U.S., launch vehicle motor. Thrust 10,000 lbf (44.5 kN), pressure? psi (? bar). Used on the Delta launch vehicle. Manufactured by Thiokol.

TEAMSAT.....ESA, satellite, scientific.First launch 1997/10/30

TECHNICAL EXPERIMENT.....China, satellite. See JSSW 1. First launch 1975/07/26


technology satellite.....A satellite used to test a new technology, e.g. TANSEI

TECHNOLOGY 4.....U.S., satellite, see CHAMPOLLION.



TECHSAT.....U.S. USAF, satellite, technology demonstration. Use X band transmitter, differential GPS and Micro-propulsion for the 3 satellite constellation station keeping.

TECHSAT.....Israel, satellite, technology. TECHNICAL UNIVERSITY SATELLITE OF HAIFA. Also known as GURWIN. First launch 1998/07/10

TECHSTAR.....U.S., satellite, see GFO.

TECSAR.....Israel, satellite, synthetic aperture radar, all weather/night strategic imaging intelligence. Built by Elta Electronic Industries. First launch 2006/00/00

TEKh-42.....Russia, satellite, see NSO-0 NANOSPUTNIK.

TELE.....Sweden, Norway and Finland, (Nordic) satellite, telecommunications. TELECOMMUNICATIONS. Provides direct TV broadcast to home receivers.

- TELE X, 1989 027A, 1989/04/02, Kourou, Ariane 2, GEO. First launch 1989/04/02

telecom.....Abbreviation for telecommunication.

TELECOM.....France, satellite. See TÉLÉCOM.

TÉLÉCOM.....France, satellite, telecommunication. TÉLÉCOMMUNICATIONS SATELLITES providing both commercial and military communications.

- TÉLÉCOM-1A, 1984 081B, 1984/08/04, Kourou, Ariane 3, V 10.

- TÉLÉCOM-1B, 1985 035B, 1985/05/08, Kourou, Ariane 3, V 13.

- TÉLÉCOM-1C, 1988 018B, 1988/03/11, Kourou, Ariane 3, V 21.

- TÉLÉCOM-2A, 1991 084A, 1991/12/16, Kourou, Ariane 44L, V 48.

- TÉLÉCOM-2B, 1992 021A, 1992/04/15, Kourou, Ariane 44L, V 50.

- TÉLÉCOM-2C, 1995 067A, 1995/12/06, Kourou, Ariane 44L, V 81.

- TÉLÉCOM 2D, 1996 044B, 1996/08/08, Kourou, Ariane 44L, V 90.

First launch 1984/08/04

telecommunications satellite.....See communications satellite

TELEDESIC.....U.S., satellite, communications, high speed data and video. Constellation would consists of 30 LEO satellites. Contractors/investors Boeing, Microsoft, Craig McCaw. Scheduled to be in service in 2002. At one time the contractors were estimating they would need 288 satellites. See Also BATSAT.

- TELEDESIC T1, 1998/02/25, Pegasus, LEO

First launch 1998/02/25

TELEDIFFUSION DE FRANCE.....France, satellite. See TDF.

TELEDISC F1.....U.S., satellite. See BATSAT.

telekommunikation.....German for telecommunication.

Telenor Satellite Services AS......Norway, aerospace company, commercial satellite operator, communications, INMARSAT, THOR. Address: Snarøyveien 30, M3A, 1331 Fornebu, Norway.



Telesat Canada.....Canada company, commercial satellite operator, ANIK, NIMIQ. 1601 Telesat Court, Gloucester, Ontario K1B 5P4, Canada.

TELESAT.....U.S., satellite. See SYNCOM satellite.

TELESAT.....Canada, satellite. See ANIK.

TELESAT DTH.....Russia, satellite, See NIMIQ.

Telesto.....Saturn moon, one of 19. See Prometheus, Pandora, Atlas, Epimetheus, Janus, Mimas, Helene, Enceladus, Tethys, Calypso, Telesto, Dione, Pan, 1995-S4, Rhea, Titan, Hyperion, Laptus, Phoebe.


TELKOM.....Indonesia, satellite, communication. PT Telecomunikasi Indonesia. First launch 1998/08/12

TELSAT.....Canada, satellite. See ANIK

TELSTAR.....U.S., satellite. communications. First commercial telecommunication satellite. TELECOMMUNICATIONS STAR (satellite).

- TELSTAR 01, 1962 029A, 1962/07/10, ETR, Delta, HEO.

- TELSTAR 02, 1962 013A, 1963/05/07, ETR, Delta, HEO.

- TELSTAR 3A, 1983 077A, 1983/07/28, KSC, Delta, GEO, SOLD TO ARABSAT 1994.

- TELSTAR 3C, 1984 093A, 1984/09/01, STS-41D, DISCOVERY/PAM-D, GEO.

- TELSTAR 3D, 1985 048D, 1985/06/19, STS-51G, DISCOVERY/PAM-D, GEO.

- TELSTAR 401, 1993 077A,1993/12/16, ESMC, Atlas 2AS, GEO.

- TELSTAR 402, 1994 058A, 1994/09/09, Kourou, Ariane 42L, HEO.

- TELSTAR 402R, 1995 049A, 1995/09/24, Kourou, Ariane 42L, GEO.

- TELSTAR 5,, 1997/05/24, Baikonur, Proton-DM,


- TELSTAR 12, was ORION 2.

First launch 1962/07/10

TEM.....U.S., launch vehicle motor. Also known as TE-M.

TEM-640.....U.S., launch vehicle motor, see Altair IIIA.

TEM-762.....U.S., launch vehicle motor, Antares IIIA.

TEMISAT.....Italy, satellite, communications. Manufactured by Italy to provide digital and distribution services for environmental sensors located in the Mediterranean Sea. 7 satellite constellation. TELESPAZIO MICRO SATLLITE. Launched by a Russia Tsyklon booster.

- TEMISAT, 1993 055B, 1993/08/31, Plesetsk, SL-14, LEO.

First launch 1993/08/31

TEMP.....U.S., satellite, communications, GEO.

TEMPO FM.....U.S., satellite, communications. See TEMPOSAT.

TEMPOSAT.....U.S., satellite, direct broadcast TV, GEO.

- TEMPO 1, 2002/05/07, Cape Canaveral, Atlas 2A., renamed DIRECTV 5

- TEMPO 2, 1997/03/08, ETR, Atlas 2A, GEO, TEMPO FM, renamed DIRECTV 6

First launch 1997/03/08

TEMPSAT.....U.S., satellite, surveillance calibration.

- TEMPSAT 1, 1965/08/13, Vandenberg, Thor Able-Star, LEO.

- TEMPSAT 2, 1969/09/30, Vandenberg, LT Thor Agena, LEO.

First launch 1965/08/13

Tenma.....Japan, Pegasus, flying horse.

TENMA.....Japan, satellite. See ASTRO.

TEP.....U.S., satellite, see TOMS EP.

TERCEL.....U.S., satellite, see USA 055.

Terechkova, Valentina.....Russia, cosmonaut. See Tereshkova.

Tereshkova, Valentina.....Russia, cosmonaut, VOSTOK 6 (SEA GULL), 1963/06/16. First launch 1963/06/16

Terilen.....Geographical location, Russia.

TERILEN.....Russia, satellite, see YANTAR.

Terminal Velocity.....The maximum speed of a vehicle. See Rocket Engine.

TERRA.....U.S., satellite, remote sensing. Also known as EOS-AM.

First launch 1999/12/18

TERRA EARTH OBSERVATION SATELLITE.....U.S., satellite. Also known as EOS-AM.

Terrapin.....U.S., rocket, cosmic ray measurements. First launch 1956/00/00

TERRASAR.....Europe, satellite, Earth observation, Polar orbit. 2 satellite constellation.

TERRASAR-L.....Europe, satellite, global monitoring.

TERRASAR-X.....Europe, satellite, radar imaging, 1 meter resolution. Polar orbit. First launch 2006/00/00

terre.....French for earth.

TERRESTAR.....U.S., satellite, communications, GEO. First launch 2008/00/00

Terrestrial Planet.....Any of the four planets closest to the Sun: Mercury, Venus, Earth, Mars. about a point.

Terrestrial Reference guidance.....See Guidance.

TERRESTRIAL PLANET FINDER.....U.S. NASA satellite, scientific. See TPF.

Terrier-Sandhawk.....U.S., rocket, upper atmosphere geophysics. First launch 1967/00/00


TES.....India, satellite, remote sensing. TECHNOLOGY EXPERIMENTAL SATELLITE. First launch 2001/10/22

TEST and TRAINING SATELLITE.....U.S., satellite, see TTS.

TETHERED SATELLITE SYSTEM.....U.S. & Italy, satellite. See TSS.

Tethys.....Saturn moon, one of 19. See Prometheus, Pandora, Atlas, Epimetheus, Janus, Mimas, Helene, Enceladus, Tethys, Calypso, Telesto, Dione, Pan, 1995-S4, Rhea, Titan, Hyperion, Laptus, Phoebe.

TETR.....U.S. satellite, APOLLO tracking network TEST AND TRAINING SATELLITE.

- TETR 01, 1967 133B, 1967/12/13, ETR TAD, LEO, 04/28/68.

- TETR 02, 1968 100B, 1968/11/08, ETR TAID, LEO, 09/19/79.

- TETR D, 1971 083B, 1971/09/29, ETR LTTAD, LEO, 1978/09/19.

First launch 1967/12/13

TEX.....U.S., organization. See NASA STDN tracking station, Corpus Christi, TX, USA. Closed.

TEX.....U.S., satellite, technology. TRANSCEIVER EXPERIMENT. See Also STACKSAT. Launched at the WTR by an Atlas E into a Polar Orbit. First launch 1990/04/11

Texas Instrument Military and Electronics.....U.S. aerospace company, purchased by Raytheon in 1995.

TFX.....U.S., satellite, technology. Ranger TELEROBOTIC FLIGHT EXPERIMENT. Part of a user community of "free flying servicers" focused on the development of space robotics for eventual application to-on-orbit satellite servicing by free-flying servicing robots. Launch at the ETR by LLV-2. First launch 1997/03/15

TG.....Russia, abbreviation for Transportnyy gruzovyy, transport cargo. Was known also as PROGRESS.

Thagard, Norman.....U.S., astronaut, STS-51B (17), 1985/04/29, STS-7, 1983/06/18, STS-30, 1989/05/04, STS-42, 1992/01/22, SOYUZ-TM 21, 1995/03/14. First launch 1983/06/18


THAICOM.....Thailand, satellite, communications. THAILAND TELECOMMUNICATIONS SATELLITES.

- THAICOM 01, 1993 078B, 1993/12/18, Kourou, Ariane 44L, GEO.

- THAICOM 02, 1994 065B, 1994/10/08, Kourou, ARIANE 44L, GEO.

- THAICOM 03, 1997/04/16, Kourou, Ariane 44LP V, GEO.

First launch 1993/12/18

THAIPUTT.....Thailand, satellite.

Thalassa.....Neptune moon, one of 8. See Triton, Naiad, Thalassa, Nereid, Despina, Galatea, Larissa, Proteus.

The Cape.....U.S., launch site. Official name is Cape Canaveral Air Force Station or CCAFS.

Thebe.....Jupiter moon, one of 16. See also Metis, Adrastea, Amalthea, Thebe, Io, Europa, Ganymede, Callisto, Leda, Sinope, Himalia, Lysithea, Elara, Ananke, Carme, Pasiphae.

THELMA.....U.S., satellite, technology development, launched from OPAL satellite. First launch 2000/02/14

THEMIS.....U.S., NASA, satellite, scientific. Constillation of 5 small satellites to probe shift in Earths magnetosphere. TIME HISTORY OF EVENTS AND MACROSCALE INTERACTIONS DURING SUBSTORMS. First launch 2007/00/00

THEOS.....Thai, satellite, remote sensing, 2 meter resolution, SSO. THAI EARTH OBSERVATION SYSTEM. First launch 2006/00/00


Thesee.....France, Theseus.

theta.....Θ, θ, theta, 8, Greek Alphabet.

Thiele, Gerhard.....Germany, astronaut, ESA, STS-099, 2000/2/11. First launch 2000/02/11

Thiokol.....U.S., launch vehicle propellant, see Polysulfide.

Thiokol Castor 120.....U.S. launch vehicle motor, see Castor 120.

Thiokol Castor IVA.....U.S., launch vehicle motor, see Castor IVA.

Thiokol Chemical Crop......U.S., aerospace company. Founded 1929. Became Thiokol Corp.

Thiokol Corp......U.S. aerospace company. Address: 2475 Washington Blvd., Ogden, UT 84401, USA. Became part of Cordant Technologies. Thiokol Propulsion purchased by Alliant Techsystems in 2001.

Thirst, Robert.....Canada, astronaut, STS-78, 1996/06/20. First launch 1996/06/20

Thomas, Andrew.....U.S., astronaut, STS-77, 1996/05/19, STS-089, 1998/01/22, STS-102 2001/03/08. First launch 1996/05/19

Thomas, Donald.....U.S., astronaut, STS-65, 1994/07/08, STS-70, 1995/07/13, STS-083, 1997/04/04, STS-094, 1997/07/01, STS-113, 2002/11/24. First launch 1994/07/08

Thomason DD 760.....USS Thomason DD 760, recovery ship, part of the fleet which recovered or was on duty and capable of recovering the following: MERCURY Atlas 9.

Thor.....Norse, god of war.

Thor.....U.S., launch vehicle, IRBM. Air Force Intermediate Range Ballistic Missile (IRBM) The official designation was DSV-2 for Douglas Standard Vehicle. When mated with a second stage, the flight configuration took the dual name of Thor-(second stage); DoD designation PGM-17 A, PTM-17A. DoD designation pre 1963, SM-75, USM-75. First launch 1958/08/17. DoD System Management Code WS-315A-1.

- Thor-Able, (2nd and 3rd stage of the Vanguard), Polar LEO 1700 lbs (770 kg).

- Thor-Able 0. Stage 1, Thor Model DM1812-1, MB-1 engine. Stage 2, Able, AJ10-40.

- Thor-Able I. Stage 1, Thor Model DM 1812-6, MD-3 engine. Stage 2, AJ10-41. Stage 3, X-248.

- Thor-Able II. Stage 1, Thor Model DM 1812-4, MD-3 engine. Stage 2, AJ10-42.

- Thor-Able III. Stage 1, Thor Model DM 1812-6, MD-3 engine. Stage 2, AJ10-101A. Stage 3, X-248 A4.

- Thor-Able IV. Stage 1, Thor Model DM 1612-6A, MD-3 Block II. Stage 2, AJ10-101A. Stage 3, X-248 A4.

- Thor-Able V. Stage 1, Thor Model DM 1612-2, MD-3. Stage 2, AJ10-42. Stage 3, X-248 A7.

- Thor-Able-Star, Upper states were the Able Star for by the USN, LEO.

- DM-21A, Stage 1, MB-3 Block I, (XLR-79N A 7). Stage 2, AJ10-104 engine. Launched from the ETR.

- DSV-6. Stage 1, MB-3 Block II/III. Stage 2, AJ10-104 engine. Launched from the WTR.

First launch 1960/06/22.

- Thor-Altair, Upper stage was Altair, for us by the USAF, LEO. First launch 1965/01/19.

- Thor-Agena A, Thor with the Agena A upper stage. Stage 1, MB-3 engine (Thrust 150,000 lbf). Stage 2, Hustler 8048 engine. First launch 1959/02/28.

- Thor-Agena B, Thor MB3 engine with the Agena B upper stage with Hustler 8096 engine.. First launch 1960/10/28.

- Thor-Agena D, Thor with the Agena C upper stage. First launch 1962/06/27.

- Thor-Burner, Thor with the Burner upper stage by use of the USAF. First launch 1966/09/16.

- Thor-Delta, Stage 1, Thor. Stage 2, Delta with AJ10-118D engine. Stage 3, ABL X-248-A5 DM. Became known as the Delta. First launch 1969/05/13.

- TAT, Thrust Augmented Thor, 3 solid strap on Boosters (Sargent rocket motors), Polar LEO 2200 lbs (1000kg). Also known as DSV-2C. Stage 0, 3 Sergeant motors. Stage 1, MB-3 Block 3. Stage 2 First launch 1963/02/28.

- LTTAT, Long-Tank Thrust Augmented Thor, fuel and oxygen tanks lengthened, Polar LEO 3000 lbs (1360 kg). Also known as DSV-2L. First launc1967/h 5/9.

- THORAD, Long-Tank Thrust Augmented Thor Delta-Agena, longer tanks with 3 solid strap on Boosters, Polar LEO 3000 lbs (1360 kg). First launch 1996/08/09.

First launch 1957/01/25

Thor Delta.....U.S., launch vehicle, see Thor.

Thor DSV.....U.S., launch vehicle, part of Thor series.

Thor MG.....U.S., launch vehicle, part of Thor series.

THOR.....Norway, satellite, Direct TV, GEO. Named for Thor Heyerdahl of the Kon Tiki Expedition. Also known as BSB 2.

- THOR 3, 1998/06/11, Delta 2.

First launch 1998/06/11

THORAD.....U.S., launch vehicle, Long-Tank Thrust Augmented Thor Delta-Agena, longer tanks with 3 solid strap on Boosters, Polar LEO 3000 lbs (1360 kg). See Thor, U.S. Air Force Intermediate Range Ballistic Missile.

Thornton, Kathryn.....U.S., astronaut, STS-8, 1983/08/30, STS-51B (17), 1985/04/29. First launch 1983/08/30

Thornton, William.....U.S., astronaut, STS-33, 1989/11/22, STS-49, 1992/05/07, STS-61, 1993/12/02, STS-73, 1995/10/20. First launch 1996/11/19

Thoth.....Egypt, moon god or Venus god, wisdom, knowledge, (also the moon god, changed during the 4th century BC as a result of assimilation of Greece culture).

Thout, Pierre.....U.S., astronaut, STS-36, 1990/02/28, STS-49, 1992/05/07, STS-62, 1994/03/09. First launch 1990/02/28

THREE CORNER SATELLITE.....U.S., USAF, satellite, demonstrate micropulpsion, stereo-imaging, formation flying.

Thrust.....The force generated by a rocket motor/engine due to the change in momentum that changes speed or direction of a vehicle. Conversion 133 lbf/kN. See Rocket Engine.

Thrust Augmented Thor.....U.S. launch vehicle. See Thor, or TAT.

Thrust to weight ratio.....The numeric ratio of the thrust devided by the total weight of the launch vehicle.

Thumba.....India, Rocket launching Station, located just north of the city of Trivandrum near India's souther tip. 8.5N, 76.9E. Thumba is now administered in cooperation with the United Nations and is used for atmospheric sounding-rocket research by many nations, including France, Germany, Japan, and the U.S.

thuraya.....Arabic world for the Pleades. A cluster of seven starts in the constellation Taurus.

THURAYA.....United Arab Emirates, satellite, communications, GEO. 2 satellite constellation. Uses the HS 702 bus. Also known as THURAYASAT. First launch 2000/10/21

THURAYASAT.....United Arab Emirates, satellite, mobile communications, GEO. See THURYAYA.

Ticonderoga.....USS Ticonderoga, CV 14, prime recovery ship for APOLLO 15, 16, 17, Skylab 2.

Tidbinbilla tracking station.....Australia/USA, Canberra, organization, location of NASA tracking station operated by Australian staff. See Canberra Deep Space Communication Complex.

TIMATION.....U.S. Navy, satellite, navigation. Time Navigation satellites, for navigation by the Navy. Followed the TRANSIT program and preceded the NAVSTAR Global Positioning System (GPS). TIMATION 3 was redesignated as NAVIGATION TECHNOLOGY SATELLITE (NTS-1).

- TIMATION 01, 1967 O35E, 1967/05/31, WTR, Thor Agena D, LEO.

- TIMATION 03, 1975 074B, 1974/07/14, WTR, Atlas F, MEO, NTS-1.

First launch 1967/05/31



TIMED.....U.S., NASA, satellite, scientific, LEO. THERMOSPHERE IONOSPHERE MESOSPHERE ENERGETICS AND DYNAMICS SATELLITE. Measures UV energy radiation from the Sun and determines response of the Earth's atmosphere. Launch from WTR by a Delta with JASON-1. First launch 2001/12/07

TIP.....U.S. Navy & APL satellite, communications. TRANSIT IMPROVEMENT PROGRAM, communications and navigation. See TRANSIT.

- TIP 02, 1975 099A, 1975/10/12, WTR, Scout, LEO, decayed 05/26/91.

- TIP 03, 1976 089A, 1976/09/01, WTR, Scout, LEO, decayed 05/30/81.

First launch 1975/10/12

TIPS.....U.S., satellite, scientific. NRO TETHER ? PHYSICS AND SURVIVABILITY spacecraft. Consists of two small end masses connected by a non-conductive tether 4-km long and 2-mm thick. Part of STS-78 payload. 2 tethered satellites named RALPH and NORTON for Ralph Kramden and Ed Norton of the classic TV show "The HONEYMOONERS". Also known as USA 123 and USA 124.First launch 1996/06/20

TIROS.....U.S. NASA, ESSA, NOAA, satellite, meteorological. TELEVISION INFRARED OBSERVATION SATELLITE, 24 hour television infrared weather monitoring systems.

The story of TIROS begins with studies done in the late 1940's and early 1950's, both classified and unclassified, that discussed the feasibility of satellites observing the Earth’s weather, also known as meteorological satellites. The first public mention by the U.S. Weather Bureau, was a paper by H. Wexler in 1954. Tests’ by sounding rockets convinced most weather experts of the value of space-based weather observations, supporting the contention that “You can see a lot, by looking!” (Yes, Yogi Berra said this). Support languished until two events occurred: A) in March 1955, the USAF issued a secret directive to develop a reconnaissance program, including weather observation, leading to the WS-117L program, and B) President Eisenhower on 5 July, 1955, announced the United States would launch scientific satellites in support of the International Geophysical Year. The nascent satellite community smelled money. The Naval Research Laboratory in Washington, D.C., proposed a satellite, that would include technology experiments and the data collection necessary for the development of weather satellites. This ultimately became the VANGUARD satellite.

       At the same time, both the other branches of the military and the U.S. Weather Bureau were developing plans and studies for weather satellites. After SPUTNIK was launched, the impetus for U.S. satellite development greatly accelerated (Thank you, Russia). At that time, most work on weather satellites came under the purview of the Department of Defense Advanced Research Projects Agency (ARPA). APRA received input from the military services and the U.S. Weather Service, and subsequently gave the responsibility for developing a weather satellite to the U.S. Army Signal Research and Development Laboratory (USASRDL), Fort Monmouth, New Jersey, which was familiar with satellite and tracking technology and went on to develop other satellites. One can only imagine the politicking and lobbying that took place, but that is another story. The Weather Service and the Army had a long history together, the weather Service started in the Army Signal Service, in 1870, and remained there until the weather service was transferred to the Department of Agriculture and became the US Weather Bureau, on 1 July, 1890.

       During 1955, the Radio Corporation of American (RCA), who had been working under the WS-117L program to develop television equipped spy satellites, entered the picture. The WS-117L program had chosen to use photographic technology in lieu of television for picture taking for the spy satellites, giving birth the DISCOVERER/CORONA satellites, which was a great disappointment for RCA. Not to be left out of the potential satellite market, RCA proposed the use of television cameras for weather satellites. The contract was awarded to RCA, and the Janus program was created and given to the USASRDL in 1956.

       After studying several satellite configurations, the USASRDL chose the drum shape. It seems that the “EXPLORER” rod shape had a tendency to tumble unstably in orbit. The rotating drum shape was more stable, making it more suitable for taking television pictures of Earth from space. The name of the program was changed from Janus to TIROS (Television and InfraRed Observation Satellite). 

       The mission of TIROS was to provide an operating system for daily worldwide weather observations using proven remote sensing technologies, thus inaugurating space-based meteorology.

       During this same time period, 1955-60, intense competition for use of launch vehicles was underway by the military branches and launch vehicle manufacturers. The competition continues today on an international scale, but that’s another story. The Army, Navy, and Air Force proposed and developed their own launch vehicles based upon the IRBMs and ICBMs in their arsenal. That fierce competition is the subject of many more stories. The Thor-Able launch vehicle was chosen and the USAF took control of the TIROS program in 1958. One can only imagine the feeling of the US Army in losing it to the Air Force. However, the Air Force was to experience a similar feeling, when in 1959, President Eisenhower transferred control of the TIROS program to a brand new civilian agency, the National Aeronautics and Space Administration (NASA). The U.S. Department of Defense was not to be without a weather satellite, and this story will be told through the DMSP satellite program.

       The TIROS design continued under the direction of the NASA’s Goddard Space Flight Center, Greenbelt, Maryland, one of several facilities funded by NASA, through 1959. The first TIROS satellite was a squat cylinder, 42 inches (1.07 meters) in diameter and 19 inches (0.49 meters) tall. The two RCA television (TV) cameras viewed the Earth through the base plate. Around the circumference were mounted solar cells to power the satellite. The satellite “flew” through space similar to a frisbee. The satellite was spin stabilized, like a spinning top, and used the Earths magnetic field to turn the satellite in order for the cameras to continually face the surface of the Earth.

       The two television cameras had 500 line resolution, similar to your conventional television set in the U.S. One camera was equipped with a wide angle lense, f 1.5, providing a 600,000 square mile (1.6 million square km) image. The other camera was equipped with a narrow angle lens, f 1.8, providing a 5,000 square mile (13,000 square km) image. The orbital altitude was 460 miles (740 km). The combination of optics and orbital altitude allowed the satellite pictures to be contiguous, the earth rotated just enough during the 95 minute orbits for the left-hand edge of one picture to match the right-hand edge of the picture taken 95 minutes later. This was optimized to occur over the northern hemisphere land masses.

       The images were transmitted directly to ground stations when in range, or stored on a tape recorder and sent when the satellite passed over the ground station. Two existing ground stations were used for Command and Data Acquisition (CDA), the US Army Signal Corps laboratory in Belmar, New Jersey, and the U.S. Air Force facility a Kaena Point, Hawaii. A third station, located at the RCA plant in Hightstown, New Jersey, where the TIROS were built, served as a backup and for engineering. The data were then sent to U.S. Weather Bureau National Meteorological Center (NMC) near Washington, D.C. The TIROS program followed the organization plan were RCA builds the TIROS, NASA managed the project, and the U.S. Weather Bureau analyzed the meteorological data and provided weather forecasts.

       The first TIROS flown satellite was designated as A-1, and contained the two television cameras. No other instrumentation was included to keep the cost and complexity down. Later TIROS satellites carried infrared radiometers (IR). The first TIROS was launched on 1 April, 1960, by the last Thor Able launch vehicle. (See Figure 2-1, An early TIROS satellite - later models had cameras mounted on sides(NOAA Photograph)). The 263 lbs. (119 kg) satellite was placed in a 430 by 466 mile (690 by 750 km) orbit, at a 48.4 degree inclination. The only problem was the malfunction of the narrow angle television camera control system. However, after 1 month in orbit, it began to operate (Romulan interference in our space program?). TIROS operated for 77 days until a fatal power failure. The satellite returned 22,952 pictures of the Earths weather system’s, including pictures of the USSR and China. The pictures were distributed worldwide for everyones use. This must have given the USSR and China mixed feeling, having a foreign power take pictures of their country’s land mass and their weather, but also allowed the USSR and China to provide improved weather predictions for their countries.

       TIROS 1 success spurred the continued support and technological improvements, with newer, more complex, and heavier satellites (270-305 lbs., 122-138 kg) with longer lifetimes. The additional instrumentation enabled the satellites to collect data that improved the U.S. Weather Service’s ability to forecast the weather. Improvements resulted in TIROS 7 operating for 1809 days, the longest of any TIROS satellite. All the TIROS through TIROS 7 were launched with an inclination of 58 degrees or less. The next big change came with the launch of TIROS 9. This satellite was placed in a near polar orbit (inclination of about 90 degrees) even though it was launched from Cape Canaveral, Florida. The satellite could now view the entire Earth. The orbit and altitude were also chosen for their sun-synchronous properties. That is, the satellite passed over the same spot on the surface of the Earth at the same time of day, allowing comparisons from day to day, which is a great advantage in weather forecasting (and intelligence gathering). Now you know that the lens optics, orbit altitude, orbital period, and inclination are all interrelated it give the desired viewing coverage. TIROS 9 also had the television cameras mounted around the circumference, and the satellite rolled around its orbit similar to the rolling of a tire, with the cameras pointing toward the Earth then into space. TIROS 10 was similar to TIROS 7.

       Now jump forward 13 years to 1978, and we have TIROS N, Television Infrared Operational satellite’s Next Generation. The satellite weighed more than 1600 lbs., was 146 inches long by 74 inches wide, and included the AVHRR, TOVS-TIROS, and a data collection platforms used to receive, process, and store information from free floating balloons and buoys worldwide. It was placed in a 470 nm polar orbit, Earth oriented with three-axis stabilization. The TIROS N was the prototype for the new NOAA satellites launched from 1979.

       During this time, the designation of the TIROS satellite numbering protocol was put in place. With the exception of the first TIROS satellite, the satellite was given a name and letter designation during design, construction and launch (e.g., TIROS C). It is possible for a satellite to have more than one designation during this phase of its life (e.g., TIROS C was also known as A-3). The designations may not be in numerical or alphabetical sequence, e.g., TIROS D is also known as A-9. (I do not know what happened to A-4 through A-8.) After being successfully placed in orbit and functioning, the satellites name was changed to a number (e.g., TIROS C was changed to TIROS 3). If a satellite was lost or did not function correctly, it would not receive the number designation. This system continues to be use today.

- TIROS 01, 1960 B2, 1960/04/01, ETR, Thor ABLE, LEO.

- TIROS 02, 1960 P1, 1960/11/23, ETR, Delta, LEO.

- TIROS 03, 1961 017A, 1961/07/12, ETR, Delta, LEO.

- TIROS 04, 1962 002A, 1962/02/08, ETR, Delta, LEO.

- TIROS 05, 1962 025A, 1962/06/19, ETR, Delta, LEO.

- TIROS 06, 1962 047A, 1962/09/18, ETR, Delta, LEO.

- TIROS 07, 1963 024A, 1963/06/19, ETR, Delta, LEO.

- TIROS 08, 1963 054A, 1963/12/21, ETR, Delta, LEO.

- TIROS 09, 1965 004A, 1965/01/22, ETR, Delta, LEO.

- TIROS 10, 1965 051A, 1965/07/02, ETR, Delta, LEO.

- TIROS N, 1978 096A, 1978/10/13, WTR, Atlas F, LEO.

First launch 1960/04/01

TIROS-N.....U.S., satellite bus, Lockheed Martin, LEO.

Titan.....Saturn moon, one of 19. See Prometheus, Pandora, Atlas, Epimetheus, Janus, Mimas, Helene, Enceladus, Tethys, Calypso, Telesto, Dione, Pan, 1995-S4, Rhea, - Titan, Hyperion, Iapetus, Phoebe.

Titan.....U.S. Air Force, Intercontinental Ballistic Missile, and launch vehicle which was a backup to the Atlas. DoD designation HGM-25 A, HTM-25B. DoD designation pre 1963, SM-68, USM-68A. DoD System Management Code WS-107A-2.

- Titan I, ICBM, 2 stage. First launch 1959/02/00.

- Titan II, ICBM, storable propellants, improved to 13,000 mile range. DoD designation LGM-25C, SB-4 A. DoD designation pre 1963 SM-68B. Rocket Motor SR51 and SR55. First launch 1962/03/16.

- Titan II GEMINI, 7900 lbs (3600 kg) LEO, converted to a man rated launch vehicle. First launch 1964/04/08.

- Titan II SLV, Refurbished Titan II ICBM which can be flown with 2, 4, 6, 8, or 10 segment solid strap on rocket motors. First launch 1988/09/05.

- Titan 2, 4200 lbs (1900 kg) LEO polar.

- Titan II 23G, 5500 lbs (2500 kg), LEO. Stage 1, 2 LR87-AJ-5 engine. Stage 2, 2 LR91-AJ-5 engine,

- Titan II 23G/Star 37, 4900 lbs (2235 kg), SSO. Similar to Titan II 23G with the addition of a stage 3, Star 37 motor.

- Titan IIIA, 9000 lbs (4100 kg) LEO, Same as Titan II with stretched stages 1 & 2 and integral transtage upper stage. First launch 1964/09/01.

- Titan IIIB, 8200 lbs (3790 kg) polar LEO, Titan IIIA with Agena upper stage in place of the Transtage. First launch 1966/07/29.

- Titan 33B ?

- Titan 34B, 7965 lbs (3600 kg) polar LEO, Titan IIIA with stretched stage 1. DoD designation SB-6 A. First launch 1976/06/02.

- Titan IIIC, 29200 lbs (13300 kg) LEO, Titan IIIA with 5 segment solid motors. First launch 1965/06/18.

- Titan IIID, 24600 lbs (11200 kg) polar LEO, Titan IIIC with no upper stage. First launch 1971/06/15.

- Titan IIIE, 30400 lbs (13800 kg) LEO, Titan IIID with Centaur upper stage.

- Titan IIIM, 7 segment solid rocket motor. First launch 1974/02/11.

- Titan 34D, 33800 lbs (15350 kg) LEO, Titan 34B with 5 ½ segment solid motor. First launch 1983/06/20.

- Titan III, 32000 lbs (14515 kg) LEO, Titan 34D with stretched stage 2. Stage 0, SRM, thrust 1,400,000 lbf (6,2000 kN), pressure 934 psi (64 bar),solid propellant PBAM. Stage 1, LR87-AJ-11 engine. Stage 2, 2 LR91-AJ-5 engine. Stage 3, with PAM-D2 or Transtage to TOS upper stage. First launch 1989/12/31.

- Titan IVA, 39000 lbs (17700 kg) LEO, Titan 34D stretched stage 1 & 2, with 7 segment solid rocket motor, IUS or Centaur upper stage. DoD designation SB-5 A. First launch 1989/06/14.

- Titan IV B, 47,000 lbs (21,680 kg), LEO. Stage 0, 2 strap-on SRMU. Stage 1, 2 LR87-AJ-11 engine. Stage 2, LR91-AJ-11 engine. Stage 3 IUS or Centaur. DoD designation SB-5 B.

- Titan 401B, 11400 lbs (5220 kg), GEO.

- Titan 402B, 6200 lbs (2860 kg), GEO.

- Titan 403B, 41000 lbs (18600 kg), SSO.

- Titan 405B, 45900 lbs (20900 kg), LEO.

- Titan 4, 39000 lbs (17000 kg), LEO.

First launch 1959/02/02

Titan 2.....U.S. Launch Vehicle, also known as Titan II. See Titan.

Titan 3.....U.S. launch vehicle, also known ans Titan III. See Titan.

Titan 4.....U.S. launch vehicle, also known ans Titan III. See Titan.

Titan III.....U.S. launch vehicle, also known as Titan 3. See Titan.

Titan IV.....U.S. launch vehicle, also known as Titan 4. See Titan.

Titania.....Uranus moon, one of 17. See Miranda, Ariel, Umbriel, Titania, Oberon, Puck, Belinda, Rosalind, Portia, Juliet, Dosdemona, Cressida, Bianca, Ophelia, Cordelia, Caliban, Sycorax.

Tito, Dennis.....U.S., tourist, in Russian Uchastnik poleta. SOYUZ TM 32, 2001/4/28. Note, Tito is a U.S. Citizen but flew on a Russian Space Vehicle. 2001/


Titov, Gherman.....Russia, cosmonaut, VOSTOK 02 (EAGLE), 1961/08/06. First launch 1961/08/06

Titov, Vladimir.....Russia, cosmonaut, SOYUZ T8, 1983/04/20, SOYUZ T10A, 1984/02/08, SOYUZ TM 04, 1987/12/21, STS-63, 1995/02/03. First launch 1983/04/20

TIUNGSAT.....Malaysia, satellite, communications, store-and forward, and meteorological. First launch 2000/09/26

TKM.....Russia, satellite, remote sensing module for MIR, see SPEKTR.

TKS.....Russia, satellite, manned rated, satellite, see 11F72 TKS-VA. Also known as 11F74. Also known as HEAVY COSMOS. First launch 1977/07/17

TKS.....Russia, transport supply ship. Transportnyy Korabl Snabzhenia (English, Transportation Supply Ship).

Tlaloc.....Mayan, Venus god.

TLV.....U.S., launch vehicle, Atlas target launch vehicle use for GATV/GTA.

TMI Communications.....Canada, aerospace company, commercial satellite operator, communications, MSAT. Address: 1601 Telesat Ct., Ottawa, Ontario K1G 5M2, Canada.

TMSAT.....Thailand, satellite, communicating. THAI, MICROSATELLITE, part of UOSAT series. First launch 1998/07/10

TNS-0 No. 1.....Russia, satellite, see NSO-0 NANOSPUTNIK.

TNSC.....Japan, space vehicle launch facility, Tanegashima Space Center. See Tanegashima.

tod.....German for death.

Tognini, Michael.....France, cosmonaut, SOYUZ TM 15, 1992/07/27, STS-093,1999/7/23. First launch 1992/07/27

Tokarev, Valery Ivanovich.....Russia, cosmonaut, STS, 096, 1999/5/27. Soyuz TMA-7 Expeditions 12, 2005/10/01. First launch 1999/


TOM and JERRY.....U.S. & German, satellite, see GRACE.

TOMS-EP.....U.S. satellite, scientific. TOTAL OZONE MAPPING SPECTROMETER EARTH PROBE, part of NASA's Mission to Planet Earth. Environmental measurements.

TOMS-EP, 1996 037A, 1996/07/02, WSMC/L-1011, Pegasus XL, LEO.

First launch 1996/07/02

TONGASAT.....Tonga, satellite, communication. Renamed GORIZONT 42 which was renamed RIMSAT G2.

TOPAZ.....Russia, satellite, part of KOSMOS series. First launch 1987/02/01

Topaze.....France, launch vehicle, stage 2 using an 803 motor with a Soleil grain, Diamant A and B. Thrust 97,000 lbf (431 kN), pressure ? psi (? bar), solid propellant, ?

TOPEX/POSEIDON.....U.S. & French, satellite, observation. Earth observing satellite, launched on an Ariane 4 booster at Kourou. The primary objective of the TOPEX/POSEIDON project is to make precise and accurate global observations of the sea level for several years, substantially increasing understanding of global ocean dynamics. The satellite Also will increase understanding of how heat is transported in the ocean.

TOPEX/POSEIDON, 1992 052A, 1992/08/10, Kourou, Ariane 42P, LEO

First launch 1992/08/10

TOPO.....U.S. satellite, observation. U.S. Army SECOR type tactical survey.

TOPO 01, 1970 025B, 1970/04/08, WTR, Thorad Agena D, LEO.

First launch 1970/04/08

TOPSAT.....UK DERA, satellite, microsatellite, Earth observation, 2.5 meter resolution. Uses the SSTL bus. First launch 2005/10/27

Torjen Points.....See Lagrange points.

TOS.....U.S., launch vehicle stage. Upper stage launch vehicle, Transfer Orbit Stage. Designed to launch payloads from the STS and Titan to GTO. Uses SRM-1 (Orbus 21) motor.

TOS.....U.S., organization. See NASA STDN tracking station, Rosman, NC, U.S. Closed.

Total energy.....Orbital component, see Orbit total energy.

Total impulse.....Total energy release by all the propellant in a propulsion system.

Total Impulse

It ≡∫t0Ftdt)

It = Total Impulse [s]

Ft = thrust [N] or [kgm/s2]

d(M)/dt = mass flow rate [kg/s]

M = mass [kg]


Toulouse.....France, location of CNES headquarters..

Tournesol.....France, Sunflower.

TOURNESOL.....France, satellite, scientific, sun and UV Astronomy.

- TOURNESOL 01, 1971 030A, 1971/04/15, Kourou, Diamant B, LEO, decayed 1980/01/28

First launch 1971/04/15

TP-H1011 Type 2.....Launch vehicle propellant, PBAN by Thiokol.

TPF.....U.S., NASA satellite, scientific, orbit L2. Find planets and proto planets orbiting nearby stars. TERRESTRIAL PLANET FINDER. First launch 2009/00/00

TR.....Launch vehicle motor, TRW Systems.

TR.....Japan, launch vehicle, test, for H-II Launch vehicle.

TR-107.....U.S., launch vehicle motor. Thrust lbf ( kN), pressure psi ( bar), liquid propellant LOX/Kerosene. Manufactured by TRW.

TR-1A.....Japan, rocket, single stage solid propellant.

TRAAC.....U.S., Navy, satellite, scientific. TRANSIT RESEARCH AND ATTITUDE CONTROL.

TRAAC, 1961 031C, 1961/11/15, ETR, Thor Able Star, LEO.

First launch 1961/11/15

TRACE.....U.S. NASA, satellite, scientific, LEO SSO, Also known as SMEX 6. TRANSITIONAL REGION AND CORONAL EXPLORER, measure the relationship between magnetic fields and plasma structures of the Sun..

- TRACE, 1998/04/01, Pegasus,

First launch 1998/04/01

tracking.....poursuite (Fr), verflogung (D).

Tracking Ship.....A ship used for tracking the satellite during launch or splashdown/landing.

- Used during the early U.S. manned spaceflight.

       - USNS Costal Sentry.

       - USNS Gen. H.H. Arnold T-AGM-9.

       - USNS Hayes TAG-95.

       - USNS Huntsville T-AGM-7.

       - USNS Mercury T-AGM-21.

       - USNS Observation Island T-AGM-23.

       - USNS Range Sentinel T-AGM-22.

       - USNS Range Tracker T-AGM-1.

       - USNS Redstone T-AGM-20.

       - USNS Rose Knot.

       - USNS Vandenberg T-AGM-10.

       - USNS Vanguard T-AGM-19.

       - USNS Watertown T-AGM-6.

- China

       Yuan Wang 1

       Yuan Wang 2

       Yuan Wang 3

- Japan

- Russia

- Cosmonaut Vikor Patsayev

- Cosmonaut Vladimir Komarov

- Cosmonaut Yuri Gagarin

- Academician Sergei Korolev

- Pavel Belyayev

- Georgi Dobrovolski

- Viktor Patsayev

- Bladislav Volkov

- Borovichi

- Kegostrov

- Morzhovets

- Nevel

- Marshal Nedelin (Russian Navy)

- Marshal Kyrlov (Russian Navy)


Trailblazer I.....U.S., rocket, upper atmosphere reentry. First launch 1959/00/00

Trailblazer II.....U.S., rocket, upper atmosphere reentry. First launch 1961/00/00

TRAILBLAZER.....U.S., satellite, prototype, LEO. Future satellites will be scientific, 1 meter resolution, Lunar orbit and Lunar impact. Planned by Transorbital. First launch 2002/12/20

trans lunar orbit.....Path which will lead to the moon.

trans- orbit.....The trajectory a spacecraft follows in-route to a given destination. e.g. trans lunar orbit is the trajectory a satellite follows in-rout to the moon.

TRANSCEIVER EXPERIMENT.....U.S., satellite, see TEX.

transfer orbit.....Orbit used by spacecraft/satellites to transfer from one orbit to another orbit.

Transfer Orbit Stage.....U.S., launch vehicle. See TOS


TRANSIT.....U.S. DoD, satellite, navigation. First military navigational satellites. When program was declassified, the TRANSIT spacecraft were given numerical designations in the NAVSAT series, which ultimately include the TRANSIT IMPROVEMENT PROGRAM (TIP), NOVA spacecraft, and NAVSAT. Also known as NNS.

- TRANSIT 1A, None, 1959/09/17, ETR, Thor ABLE, FTO.

- TRANSIT 1A, None, 1960/11/30, ETR, Thor Able Star, FTO.

- TRANSIT 1B, 1960 003B, 1960/04/12, ETR, Thor Able Star, LEO, 1967/10/05.

- TRANSIT 2A, 1960 007A, 1960/06/22, ETR, Thor Able Star, LEO.

- TRANSIT 3B, 1961 007A, 1961/02/22, ETR, Thor Able Star, LEO.

- TRANSIT 4A, 1961 015A, 1961/06/29, ETR, Thor Able Star, LEO.

- TRANSIT 4B, 1961 031A, 1961/11/15, ETR, Thor Able Star, LEO.

- TRANSIT 5A, 1962 071A, 1962/12/19, WTR, Scout, LEO, 12/30/6.

- TRANSIT 5A3, 1963 022A, 1963/06/16, WTR, Scout, LEO,1990/08/3.

- TRANSIT 19, 1970 067A, 1970/08/27, WTR, Scout, LEO.

- TRANSIT 20, 1973 081A, 1973/10/30, WTR, Scout ALTAIR, LEO.

- TRANSIT, 1977 106A, 1977/10/28, WTR, Scout, LEO.

- TRANSIT 19, 1985 066B, 1985/08/03, WSMC, Scout, LEO, OSCAR 30.

- TRANSIT 20, 1985 066A, 1985/08/03, WSMC, Scout, LEO, OSCAR 24.

First launch 1959/09/17



Transport Machine Building KB.....Russia, organization, design space launchers. Also known as Barmin KB, GSKB.

Transportnyy Korabl Snabzhenia.....Russia, transport supply ship. Transportnyy Korabl Snabzhenia (English Transportation Supply Ship). See TKS.

transtage.....The last stage of a launch vehicle that is capable of transferring the spacecraft or satellite from one orbit to another.

Transtage.....U.S., launch vehicle. Final stage of Titan III launch vehicles, built by Martin Marietta (Lockheed Martin). Uses 2 AJ10-138 engines. DoD designation SSB-10 A, used on Titan 34D.

TraSta.....Tracking station. (Fr), reise (D).

trennung.....German for undocking.

Treschev, Serge.....Russia, cosmonaut, STS-111, 2002/06/05. First launch 2002/06/05


TRIAD.....U.S. Navy, satellite, navigation. Part of the TIP for TRANSIT IMPROVEMENT PROGRAM.

- TRIAD OI 01, 1972 069A, 1972/09/02, WTR, Scout, LEO.

First launch 1972/09/02

TRIANA.....U.S. NASA, satellite, Earth observation. Live images of Earth over the internet. First launch 2004/00/00

Trident.....U.S., launch vehicle, SLBM.

- Trident 1, UGM-96A, G-4, 660 lbm (300 kg) LEO.

- Trident 2, D-5, 1500 lbm (700 kg) LEO.

TRIMILSATCOM.....France & Great Briton & Germany, satellite, military communication. TRI MILITARY SATELLITE COMMUNICATIONS. First launch ?

Trinh, Eugene.....U.S., astronaut, STS-50, 1992/06/25. First launch 1992/06/25

Triton.....Neptune moon, one of 8. See Triton, Naiad, Thalassa, Nered Naiad, Thalassa, Nered Despina, Galatea, Larissa, Proteus.

TRMM.....U.S. and Japan, satellite, scientific. TROPICAL RAINFOREST MEASURING MISSION. First launch 1997/11/12

Trojan points.....Orbit, lagrange points, L4 and L5. So named because the first asteroides to be observed at lagrange points were the Trojan asteroides about Jupiter.


TROPIQUES.....Europe, CNES/INDIA, satellite, scientific. Measures thermal exchange at tropical latitudes.

TRS.....U.S., satellite, engineering experiments.

- TRS 2, 1963/05/09, Vandenberg, Atlas Agena, MEO.

- TRS 3, 1963/05/09, Vandenberg, Atlas Agena, MEO.

- TRS 4, 1963/07/18, Vandenberg, Atlas Agena, MEO.

- TRS 5, 1963/10/17, Vandenberg, Atlas Agena, HEO.

- TRS 6, 1964/07/17, Vandenberg, Atlas Agena, HEO.

First launch 1963/05/09

true anomaly.....Orbital component. Also known as γ. One of six Keplerian elements, it locates a satellite on an orbit. True anomaly is the true angular distance of a satellite (planet) from its perigee (perihelion) as seen from the center of the Earth, planet, moon, or the sun. It is the angle between the perigee vector and the satellite's position vector, values betwee 0o and 360o which change with time.(Sellers} See eliptical orbits or Keplerian elements.

Truly, Richard.....U.S., astronaut, STS-2, 1981/11/12, STS-8, 1983/08/30. First launch 1981/11/12

TRUMPET.....U.S., satellite. See JUMPSEAT.

TRW.....U.S., aerospace company. Address: 1900 Richmond Road, Cleveland, OH 44124-3760, USA. Purchased Astro Aerospace Corp. in 1999. Was purchased by Northrop Grumman in 2002.

Tryggavson, Bjarni.....Canada, astronaut, STS-085, 1997/08/07. First launch 1997/08/07

TS.....China, satellite, remote sensing. Developed by Harbin Institute of Technology. Also known as TANSOU or exploration.

TSAT.....U.S., satellite. TRANSFORMATIONAL SATELLITE. Incorporates high speed laser links and internet protocals for data transfer to replace WGS and AEHF. First launch 2013/00/00

tselina.....Russia, untouched soil.

TSELINA.....Russia, satellite, Elint.

- TSELINA-O Also known as 11F616.

- TSELINA-OM Also known as 11F617.

- TSELINA-D Also known as 11F619.

- TSELINA 2 Also known as 11F644.

- TSELINA O, 1967/06/26, Plesetsk Kosmos, FTO.

- TSELINA D, 1970/12/18, Plesetsk, VOSTOK, LEO.

- TSELINA 2, 1984/09/28, Plesetsk, Proton, LEO.

- TSELINA 2, 1996 051A, 1996/09/04, Tyuratam, Zenit-2, LEO, COSMOS 2333.

First launch 1967/10/30

Tsentr Upravleniya Polyotami.....Russia, mission control, TsUP, located in Kaliningrad.

Tsentralnoye Spetsializirovannoye KB.....Russia, organization. (1974/05 to 1996/04). See TsSKB.

Tsiblyev, Vasili.....Russia, cosmonaut, SOYUZ TM 17, 1993/07/01. First launch 1993/07/01

tsikada.....Russia, cricket.

TSIKADA.....Russia, satellite, navigational, LEO SSO. 20th in series, 11F643. First to be given a name. Also known as NADEZHDA.

- TSIKADA, 1986/11/13, Plesetsk, Kosmos.

- TSIKADA, 1995 002A, 1995/01/24, Plesetsk, SL-8, LEO.

First launch 1995/01/24

TSIKADA/RS.....Russia, satellite, part of KOSMOS series. First launch 1987/06/23

TSIKADA-KOSPAS.....Russia, satellite, part of NADEZHDA and KOSMOS series.

tsiklon.....Russia, cyclone.

Tsiklon.....Russia, launch vehicle. See Tsyklon

TSIKLON.....Russia, satellite, navigation. Launched at Plesetsk by a Kosmos into LEO.

First launch 1967/05/15

TSIKOVOCHNY OSTEK N0 1.....Russia, satellite, see PIRS.

Tsinghua.....Cina, Tsinghua University of Beijing, involved with microsatellites.

TSINGHUA.....China and UK, satellite, microsatellite, natural resource studies, LEO SSO. First launch 2000/06/28

TsKB.....Russia, organization, central design bureau.

TsKB-7.....Russia Leningrad (St. Petersburg), organization. Subordinate to PO Arsenal imeni M. V. Frunze (Late 1980's to early 1990's). Also known as GP KB Arsenal imeni M.V. Frunze. Mission reconnaissance satellites, solid propellant rocket engines, satellite thermal control and transport containers. Created 1949/00/00.

TsKBEM.....Russia, organization, (1966/03 to 1974/05). See OKB-1.

TsKBM.....Russia, organization, (1966/03 to 1983) See OKB-52.

TSLC.....China, organization. See China Taiyuan Satellite Launch Center.

TSM.....Russia, satellite, part of Russian Space Station series.

TsNII.....Russia, organization, Central NII. Overseas the development effort in an entire segment of the industry.

TsNII Kometa.....Russia, Moscow, organization. (1973 to 19??). Was OKB-41 of KB-1 (1962 to 1973). Became TSNPO Kometa (19?? to present). Mission anti-satellite spacecraft, early warning spacecraft, elint, radar reconnaissance. Created 1973/00/00.

TsNIIMash.....Russia, Kaliningrad (now Korolev), organization. Central Research Institute for Machine Building. Designs and test laboratory for new aerospace technologies. Formally NII-88.

TSNPO Kometa.....Russia, Moscow, organization. See TsNII Kometa.

TsPI.....Russia, organization, see Center for Program Studies.

TsPK.....Russia, organization, cosmonaut training center.

TSS.....Italy & U.S. satellite, scientific. TETHERED SATELLITE SYSTEM. Also known as TETHERED TEST SATELLITE or TTS.

- TSS 1, 1992/08/05, KSC, STS 46, ATLANTIS, PART OF PAYLOAD.

- TSS 1R, 1996 012B, 1996/02/25, STS 75, COLUMBIA, LE.

First launch STS 1992/08/05

TsSKB.....Russia, organization, Kuybshev, Samara, Central Special Design Bureau of Space Hardware., (1959/07 to 1960/03). Other designations, OKB-1 Branch No. 3 (1960/03 to 1966/05), TsSKB Kuybyshev Branch of TsKBEM (1966/03 to 1974/05), Tsentralnoye Spetsializirovannoye KB (1974/05 to 1996/04), GNPRKTs TsSKB-Progress or Foton Central Specialized Design Bureau (1996/04 to 1997). Combined with the Progress plan to form the State Scientific Production Space Rocket Center TsSKB-Progress in 1997. Mission remote sensing satellites, military photo reconnaissance satellites, microgravity processing platforms, scientific satellites, space launch vehicles manufacturing, long range ballistic missile manufacturing.

TsSKB Kuybyshev Branch of TsKBEM.....Russia, organization,(1966/03 to 1974/05). See TsSKB.

TsSKB-Progress of Samara.....Russia, organization, see TsSKB.

TSTO.....Two stages to orbit. Type of launch vehicle capable of placing a satellite into orbit using 2 stage. Most current launch vehicles use multiple stages.

TSUBASA.....Japan, satellite, see MDS.

Tsuki-yomi.....Japan, moon,

Tsukuba Space Center.....Japan, organization, North of Tokyo. Nucleus of NASDA's research and development program, hub of NASDA's satellite tracking and control network.

Tsukubagakuen.....Japan, organization. Tsukuba Space Center, Tsukubagakuen, Japan.

TSUP.....Russia, Kaliningrad ( now Korolev), organization. Flight control center. Controls MIR and Russian ISS modules, Soyuz, and Progress vehicles.

TSX.....U.S., satellite, military technology development, HEO. TRI SERVICE EXPERIMENTAL SATELLITE. Also known as P95-2. First launch 2000/06/07

Tsyklon.....Russia/Ukraine, launch vehicle, LEO. (ЧИКЛОН, Cyclone), F-2 or SL-14 based upon the SS-9 Scarp ICBM. 3 Stage launch vehicle. Can be launched from Baikonur and Plesetsk. Built by NPO Yuzhnoye. Three names used, U.S. (e.g. SL-12), Sheldon Name (e.g. F-2), and USSR Name (e.g. Tsyklon). The Sheldon name designation is abbreviated for: F = F; 1 = single upper stage, 2 = additional small liquid third stage; r = reentry stage.

- SL-10, ?, F-1-r. First launch 1966/09/17

- SL-11, ?, F-1-m. First launch 1967/10/27

- SL-14, 220,000 lbs (100,000 kg) LEO, F-2. First launch 1977/06/24.

- Tsyklon 2, F-1-m. SL-11, 11K69, 7900 lbs (3590 kg) LEO. Stage 1, one RD-261(3 RD-260 + RD-855). Stage 2, RD-262+ RD-855. First launc1969/08/06.

- Tsyklone, 2A, 11K69, F-1.

- Tsyklon 2K, F-1-m, SL-11, new third stage. Stage 1 and 2 same as Tsyklon 2. Stage 3 APM-610. 6060 lbs (2750 kg) LEO.

- Tsyklon 3, 11K69, F-2, SL-14, Tsyklon 2 stage 1 and stage 2, with C5M stage 3. 7900 lbs (3500 kg), LEO. First launch 1977/06/24.

- Tsyklon 4, Tsyklon 2 stage 1 and stage 2. Stage 3 uses RD-861k motor, 3340 lb (1560 kg) GTO.

- Tsyklon M, 8800 lbs (4000 kg), LEO

- Tsyklon commercial, 5000 lbs (2300 kg), SSO.

First launch 1977/06/24

Tsyklon 4.....Russia/Ukraine, launch vehicle, see Tsyklon.

TT-5.....Russia, launch vehicle, see N-1.

TT-500.....Japan, Rocket Launch vehicle.

TTS.....U.S., satellite, test and training. TEST and TRAINING SATELLITE.

- TTS-1, 1967/12/13, CC, Delta, LEO.

- TTS-2, 1968/11/08, CC, Delta, LEO, TATS-2, TATR-2.

First launch 1967/12/13

TTS.....Italy, satellite, scientific. TETHERED TEST SATELLITE. See TSS.

Tuan, Pham.....Viet Nam, cosmonaut, SOYUZ 37, 1980/07/23. First launch 1980/07/23

TUBITAK.....Turkey and UK, satellite, microsatellite, Earth observation. Also known as TUBITAK-BILTEN.

TUBITAK-BILTEN.....Turkey and UK, satellite, see TUBITAK.

TubSat.....Germany, satellite bus, Technical University of Berlin, micro satellite.

TubSat N.....Germany, satellite bus, Technical University of Berlin, micro satellite.

TUBSAT.....German satellite, communications. TECHNICAL UNIVERSITY OF BERLIN SATELLITE, store and forward communications test bed.. LEO SSO. Also known as DLR TUBSAT.

- TUBSAT, 1991 050D, 1991/07/17, Kourou, Ariane 4, LEO.

- TUBSAT B, 1994 003B, 1994/01/25, Plesetsk, SL-14, LEO.

- TUBSAT N, 1998/07/06, submarine, Shtil, TUBSAT N1.

First launch 1991/07/17

TUNGHANGHUNG.....China, satellite, communications. Transmitting the propaganda tune "The East is Red", as well as telemetry functions. Also known as SKW-1. First launch 1970/04/24

Turana.....Australia, rocket, sounding, high altitude geophysics.

Türk Telekom.....Turkey, aerospace company, commercial satellite operator, communications, TURKSAT. Address: Satellite Compunctions & Management Department, Golbasi Ankara 06839, Turkey.


TURKSAT.....Turkey, satellite, communications. TURKEY COMMUNICATIONS SATELLITE, owned by the Turkish Ministry of Post and Telecommunications.

- TURKSAT 01, None, 1994/01/24, Kourou, Ariane 44LP, FTO.

- TURKSAT 1B, 1994 049B, 1994/08/11, Kourou, Ariane 44LP, GEO.

- TURKSAT 1C, 1996 040B, 1996/07/09, Kourou, Ariane 44L V 89, GEO

First launch 1994/01/24

Turner DD 834.....USS Turner DD 834, recovery ship, part of the fleet which recovered or was on duty and capable of recovering the following: MERCURY Atlas 6.

Tushino MX.....Russia, organization. See MPO Molniya.

Tuyuan.....China, space vehicle launch facility. See China Taiyuan Satellite Launch Center.

TV-SAT.....German, satellite, direct broadcast satellite. TELEVISION SATELLITE.

- TV-SAT 01, 1987 095A, 1987/11/21, Kourou, Ariane 2, GEO.

- TV-SAT 02, 1989 062A, 1989/08/08, Kourou, Ariane 44LP, GEO.

First launch 1987/11/21

TWINS.....U.S., NASA, satellite, scientific, LEO : Selected as a mission of opportunity, the $15 million TWO WIDE-ANGLE IMAGING NEUTRAL-ATOM SPECTROMETERS (TWINS) satellites will be launched in 2001 or 2003 aboard a currently undesignated U.S. Government mission. TWINS will provide stereo imaging of the Earth's magnetosphere, the region surrounding the planet controlled by its magnetic field and containing the Van Allen radiation belts and other energetic charged particles. TWINS will enable 3 dimensional global visualization of this region, which will lead to greatly enhanced understanding of the connections between different regions of the magnetosphere and their relation to the solar wind. The TWINS satellite mission provides a new capability for stereoscopically imaging the magnetosphere. By imaging the charge exchange neutral atoms over a broad energy range (~1-100 keV) using two identical instruments on two widely spaced high-altitude, high-inclination spacecraft, TWINS will enable the 3-dimensional visualization and the resolution of large scale structures and dynamics within the magnetosphere for the first time.

Two stages to orbit.....See TSTO.

TX-280.....U.S., launch vehicle motor, ullage, solid fuel, thrust 3,469 lbf (15.4 kN), pressure ? psi (? bar). Manufactured by Thiokol.

TX-33.....U.S., launch vehicle motor, see Castor I.

TX-354.....U.S., launch vehicle motor, see Castor II.

TX-354-3.....U.S., launch vehicle motor, see Castor IIA.

TYAZHELIY SPUTNIK.....Russia, satellite, means heavy fellow traveler. Was SPUTNIK 7 and 8.

TYAZHOLIY SPUTNIK.....Russia, satellite, see SPUTNIK 7. First launch 1961/02/04

TYSC.....China, space vehicle launch facility, Taiyuan Space Center. See China Taiyuan Satellite Launch Center.

TYULPAN.....Russia, satellite, military, ASAT TARGET, Also known as 11F631.

Tyuratam Cosmodrom.....Kazakhstan, space vehicle launch facility. Soviet used the mailbox address of Tashkent 50. See Baikonur.

Tyurin, Mikhail.....Russia, cosmonaut, STS-105 & Expedition 3, 2001/8/10, TMA-09 Expedition 14, 2006/09/18. First launch 2001/08/10

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Updated 2007/2/01