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U.S......Country, United States. See United States of America. See also USA.

UARS.....U.S. NASA, satellite, research. UPPER ATMOSPHERE RESEARCH SATELLITE, series of environmental monitoring satellites, placed in non-sun synchronous polar orbit. UARS, 1991 063B, 1991/09/15, STS-48, DISCOVERY/RMS, LEO.

First launch 1991/09/12

Uchastnik Poleta.....Russia, flight participant or tourist. Term used by Russia for Tourist flown on SOYUZ.

Uchinoura.....Japan, organization. Part of Kagoshima Space Center.

UDM.....Russia, satellite, ISS module. UNIVERSAL DOCKING MODULE. Cancelled.

UDMH.....Launch vehicle propellant, Unsymmetrical Dimethyl Hydrazine.

UF-1.....U.S., satellite, manned, 2001-054A, ENDEAVOUR, STS-108, LEO, ISS UF-1, Raffaello Multi-Purpose Logistics Module (MPLM), Photovoltaic Module batteries, Crew Rotation Kennedy LC39B, Dom, Yuriy Onufrikeno (Commander) and Daniel Bursch and Carl Walz (Flight Engineers), Kennedy LC39. First launch 2001/12/05

UF-2.....U.S., satellite, ISSA, ENDEAVOUR, STS-111, Leonardo Multi-Purpose Logistics Module (MPLM), Payload racks, Mobile Base System (MBS), Crew Rotation, ISS, Utilization Flight-2 UF-2. Kennedy LC39. First launch 2002/06/05

UF-3.....U.S., satellite, STS-?, ISS UF-3, Multi-Purpose Logistics Module (MPLM), EXPRESS Pallet. First launch 2005/00/00

UF-4.....U.S., satellite, STS-?, ISS UF-4, Spacelab Pallet carrying "Canada Hand" (Special Purpose Dexterous Manipulator).

UF-5.....U.S., satellite, STS-?, ISS UF-5, Multi-Purpose Logistics Module (MPLM), EXPRESS Pallet. First launch 2005/02/00

UF-6.....U.S., satellite, STS-?, ISS UF-6, EXPRESS Pallet, Multi-Purpose Logistics Module (MPLM). First launch 2005/06/00

UF-7.....U.S., satellite, STS-?, ISS UF-7, Centrifuge Accommodation Module (CAM). First launch 2006/04/00

UFO.....U.S. satellite, military communications. UHF FOLLOW-ON SATELLITE.

- UFO F3, 1994 035A, 1994/06/24, ESMC, Atlas, GEO.

- UFO F4, 1995 003A, 1995/01/29, ESMC, Atlas, GEO.

- UFO F5, 1995 027A, 1997/05/31, ESMC, Atlas 2, GEO.

- UFO F6, 1995 057A, 1995/10/22, ESMC, Atlas 2, GEO.

- UFO F7, 1996 042A, 1996/07/25, ESMC, Atlas 2, GEO.

- UFO F8, 1998/03/17, Atlas 2, GEO.

First launch 1994/06/24

UGM-73.....U.S., launch vehicle, Poseidon ICBM.

UGM-96A.....U.S., launch vehicle, SLBM, Trident 1.

UH25.....Launch vehicle propellant, mixture of 75% unsymmetrical dimethyl hydrazine and 25% hydrazine hydrate.

UHF.....U.S. DoD, satellite, communications. ULTRA HIGH FREQUENCY communications satellites, replacements for the FLTSATCOM and LEASAT satellites.

- UHF F/O F1, 1993 015A, 1993/03/25, ESMC, Atlas 1, GEO.

- UHF F/O F2, 1993 056A, 1993/09/03, ESMC, Atlas 1, HEO.

First launch 1993/03/25

UHF FOLLOW-ON SATELLITE.....U.S., satellite. See UFO

uhuru.....Swahili, freedom.

UHURU.....U.S. satellite, scientific. measures x-rays, Earth orbit, was EXPLORER 42.

First launch 1970/12/12

UK.....UK, satellite, scientific. UNITED KINGDOM SATELLITE. Also known as MIRANDA.

- UK X4, 1974 013A, 1974/03/09, WTR, Scout, LEO, MIRANDA.

First launch 1974/03/09

UK.....United Kingdom.

UK 1.....UK, satellite, see ARIEL 1.

UK-DMC.....UK, satellite, monitoring disaster, SSO. Also known as DMC-UK, or BNSCSAT. Constellation of 3 satellites, including NIGERIASAT, and BILSAT-1. First launch 2003/09/27

Ukraine spacecraft and launch vehicle designation.....See Russia spacecraft and launch vehicle designation.

UKS.....UK, satellite, scientific. UK SATELLITE. Also known as APMTE 3, measures disturbances in the magnetosphere caused by ion release. See AMPTE.

First launch ESMC 1984/08/16

ULA.....U.S., company, United Launch Alliance, joint venture that combines Boeing's Delta and Lockheed Martin's Atlas launch vehicle programs. Became a stand-alone enterprise. 2012/01

ULA.....U.S., organization. See NASA STDN tracking station, Fairbanks, AK. Transferred to NOAA.

ULF1.....U.S., satellite, ATLANTIS, STS-114, ISS ULF1, Raffaello Multi-Purpose Logistics Module (MPLM), Utilization and Logistics Flight, External Stowage Platform (ESP-2), Expedition- 7 Crew, Kennedy LC39. First launch 2005/07/10


Ultraviolet.....Electromagnetic radiation resembling visible light, but of shorter wavelength. The eye cannot see Ultraviolet (UV), and much of it is absorbed by ozone, a variant of oxygen, at altitudes of 30-40 km; satellite telescope, however, can and do view stars and the Sun in UV, and even in the extreme UV (EUV), the range between UV and X-rays.

ULYS.....U.S., satellite, see ULYSSES.

Ulysses.....Greece, Odysseus.

ULYSSES.....Europe/ESA/JPL satellite, scientific. Probe to study the Sun from an orbit over its poles. Launched by the STS-41, at the Kennedy Space Center, FL. It carries particles-and-fields experiments (such as magnetometer, ion and electron collectors for various energy ranges, plasma wave radio receivers, etc.) but no camera. Since no human-built rocket is hefty enough to send ULYSSES far out of the ecliptic plane, it went to Jupiter instead, and stole energy from that planet by sliding over Jupiter's north pole in a gravity-assist maneuver in 1992/02/08. This bent its path into a solar orbit tilted about 85 degrees to the ecliptic. It will pass over the Sun's south pole in the summer of 1994. Its aphelion is 5.2 AU, perihelion is about 1.5 AU's. The solar-studies spacecraft will always further from the Sun than the Earth. While in Jupiter's neighborhood, ULYSSES studied the magnetic and radiation environment. ULYSSES was known as the ISPM (INTERNATIONAL SOLAR POLAR MISSION). Also known as ODYSSEOS.


- Jupiter flyby 1992/02/08.

- 1st Solar Polar Pass, 1994/06/26.

- 2nd Solar Polar Pass, 1995/06/19.

- 3rd Solar Polar Pass, 2000/09/08.

- 4th Solar Polar Pass, 2001/09/03.

- End of Mission, 2001/12/31.

First launch 1990/10/06

UM.....Un manned.

UM-129A.....Japan, launch vehicle motor, thrust 17,000 lbf (77 kN), pressure ? psi (? bar), launch vehicle propellant HTPB.

Umbriel.....Uranus moon, one of 17. See Miranda, Ariel, Umbriel, Titania, Oberon, Puck, Belinda, Rosalind, Portia, Juliet, Dosdemona, Cressida, Bianca, Ophelia, Cordelia, Caliban, Sycorax.

Ume.....Japan, Apricot blossom.

UME.....Japan satellite. See ISS.

UN.....Organization, United Nations.

UN Committee on the Peaceful Use of Outer Space.....U.N. organization., (COPUOS). The Committee on the Peaceful Uses of Outer Space was set up by the General Assembly in 1959 (resolution 1472 (XIV)) to review the scope of international cooperation in peaceful uses of outer space, to devise programs in this field to be undertaken under United Nations auspices, to encourage continued research and the dissemination of information on outer space matters, and to study legal problems arising from the exploration of outer space. See UN Office of Outer Space Affairs.

UN Office for Outer Space Affairs.....U.N., organization. Address: Room E-0952, Office for Outer Space Affairs, United Nations, Vienna International Centre, A-1400 Vienna, Austria, Phone: (+43-1) 21345-4951, Fax: (+43-1) 21345-5830, The United Nations Office for Outer Space Affairs (OOSA) has the dual objective of supporting the intergovernmental discussions in the Committee on the Peaceful Uses of Outer Space (COPUOS) and assisting developing countries in using space technology for development through the United Nations Program on Space Applications (SAP). In addition, it follows scientific and technical developments relating to space technology and applications in order to provide technical information and advice to Member States, international organizations and other United Nations offices. The Office consists of two sections - the Committee Services and Research Section (CSRS) and the Space Applications Section (SAS).

       Member States conducting space launches have been requested by the Committee to provide the United Nations with information on their launchings. A registry of launchings has been maintained by the Secretariat since 1962, in accordance with General Assembly resolution 1721 B (XVI), and information from Member States has been issued in United Nations documents in the A/AC.105/INF series. Since the Convention on Registration of Objects Launched into Outer Space entered into force in 1976, another register of launchings has been established for information received from Member States and intergovernmental organizations that are parties to the Convention. That information has been issued in United Nations documents in the ST/SG/SER.E series. The A/AC.105/INF series continues with information provided by States who are not party to the treaty.

       The Registration Convention provides that the launching State should furnish to the United Nations, as soon as practicable, the following information concerning each space object:

- Name of launching State;

- An appropriate designator of the space object or its registration number;

- Date and territory or location of launch;

- Basic orbital parameters, including:

- Nodal period (the time between two successive northbound crossings of the equator - usually in minutes);

- Inclination (inclination of the orbit - polar orbit is 90 degrees and equatorial orbit is 0 degrees);

- Apogee (highest altitude above the Earths surface - in kilometers);

- Perigee; (lowest altitude above the Earths surface - in kilometers);

- General function of the space object.

       In 1962, UN Resolution 1721B (XVI) required member States of the UN to register objects launched into space. This was a move to reduce tensions and alleviate the fear that the U.S. or the USSR would place weapons in orbit. The resolution was complemented in 1976 when the UN drew up the Convention on Registration of Objects Launched into Outer Space.

       Registration documents submitted to the United Nations under the provisions of UN Resolution 1721B (XVI) and article IV of the 1976 Convention on Registration of Objects Launched into Outer Space are published as two series of United Nations documents (UNO 1962, UNO 1977), which are not widely available and in which the information is scattered and hard to find. Since 1962, most space payloads have been duly registered with the UN. (The USSR retrospectively registered its pre-1962 payloads, while the U.S. did not.) However, a number have not been registered, in violation of Resolution.

       Things are confusing for payloads launched by one state on behalf of another; the United States occasionally registers payloads which it launched but which belong to another country, but this is not done in any systematic way.


- UNAMSAT 1, None, 1995/03/28, Plesetsk, Start 1, FTO, first flight of START - LAUNCHER.

- UNAMSAT 2, 1996 052B, 1996/09/05, Plesetsk, SL-8, LEO, COSMOS 3M.

First launch 1995/03/28

undocking.....séparation (Fr), trennung (D).

Union of Soviet Socialist Republics.....See USSR.

UNISAT.....Italy, satellite, Earth observation, LEO. First launch 2000/09/26

UNISYS Federal Systems.....U.S. aerospace company, purchased by Loral in 1995.

United Launch Alliance.....U.S. company, see ULA.

United Research Corporation.....U.S., aerospace company. Was United Technology Corp. In 1975 it became the Chemical Systems part of Pratt & Whitney, which is part of United Technologies Corporation.

United Space Alliance.....U.S., aerospace company. Address: 1150 Gemini Ave., Houston, TX. Partners Lockheed Martin and Boeing.

United States of America.....1) The United States (U.S. or US) of America (USA), has two major space and launch organizations, and six launch sites. The two organizations are for military operations the United States Air Force (USAF), and for civilian operations the National Aeronautics and Space Administrations (NASA). Also, several commercial operations exist and supported by many corporations.

2) The six launch sites are the Eastern Range, Western Range, Poker Flats Range, Wallops Island Facility, Cape San Blas Launch Operations, and the White Sands Missile Range.

3) Launch vehicles; Jupiter, Thor, Delta, Titan, Saturn, Atlas, STS, Pegasus.

4) Date Convention, Month, Day, Year.

5) currency, dollar $.

6) First satellite launched EXPLORER 1, Jupiter C, at Cape Canaveral 1958/01/31

United States Tracking Ship.....A ship used for tracking the satellite during launch or splashdown/landing. See also tracking ships.

- Used during the early U.S. manned spaceflight.

       - USNS Costal Sentry.

       - USNS Gen. H.H. Arnold T-AGM-9.

       - USNS Hayes TAG-95.

       - USNS Huntsville T-AGM-7.

       - USNS Mercury T-AGM-21.

       - USNS Observation Island T-AGM-23.

       - USNS Range Sentinel T-AGM-22.

       - USNS Range Tracker T-AGM-1.

       - USNS Redstone T-AGM-20.

       - USNS Rose Knot.

       - USNS Vandenberg T-AGM-10.

       - USNS Vanguard T-AGM-19.

       - USNS Watertown T-AGM-6.

United Technologies.....U.S., aerospace company. Address: United Technology Bldg., Hartford, CT 06101, USA.

United Technologies Corporation.....U.S. aerospace company. Was

- United Technology Corporation 1960-1962,

- United Research Corporation after joining with United Aircraft Corporation,

- United Technology Center,

- Chemical System, part of Pratt and Whitney Systems which is part of United Technologies Corporation in 1975

United Technology Center.....U.S., aerospace company. Was the United Research Corporation and became part of United Technologies Corporation in 1975.

United Technology Corporation.....U.S., aerospace company. Became United Research Corporation.


Units.....- SI

m = meters, length

s = seconds, time

kg = kilogram, mass

N = Newton, force

- United States Customary System, somtimes called the Engineering or Foot Pound Second (FPS) system,

ft = feet, length

s = seconds, time

lb = pound, mass & force.

UNITY.....U.S., ISSA, satellite, LEO. Launched by STS-088. Also known as NODE 1. First launch 1998/12/04

Universal gravitational constant.....6.67x10-11 [Nm2/kg2]. Also known as G.

UNIVERSAL DOCKING MODULE.....Russia, satellite, see UDM.

UNIVERSITETSKIY.....Russia, satellite, research, built by students at MGU (Moskovskiy Gosudarstvenniy Universitet) for the university's 250th anniversary, and is nicknamed 'Tatyana' (Tatiana) since the university's

anniversary day is St. Tatyana's day. Also known as MGU-250. First launch 2005/01/20



Unsymmetrical Dimethyl Hydrazine.....Launch vehicle propellant, liquid, chemical symbol (CH3)2NNH2. Also known as UDMH.

UOSAT.....England, satellite, communications, LEO. UNIVERSITY OF SURREY SATELLITE, U.K., communications, technology experiments and CCD camera for earth observation.

- UOSAT 01, 1981 100B, 1981/10/06, WTR, Thor Delta, LEO, 1989/10/13, OSCAR 09.

- UOSAT 02, 1984 021B, 1984/03/01, WSMC, Delta, LEO, OSCAR 11.

- UOSAT 03, 1990 005B, 1990/01/22, Kourou, Ariane 4, LEO, OSCAR 14.

- UOSAT 04, 1990 005C, 1990/01/22, Kourou, Ariane 4, LEO, OSCAR 15.

- UOSAT 05, 1991 050D, 1991/07/17, Kourou, Ariane 4, LEO, OSCAR 22.

First launch 1981/10/06

UPILSON-LAB SAT.....Japan, satellite, experimental.

Uplink.....A radio link originating at a ground station and directed to a spacecraft.

UPM/LBSAT.....Spain, satellite. See UPMSAT.

UPMSAT.....Spain, satellite, telecommunications. UNIVERSITY POLITECHNICAL OF MADRID SATELLITE (UPM in Spanish).

UPMSAT 01, 1995 033C, 1995/07/07, Kourou, Ariane 40, LEO.

First launch 1995/07/07

Upper Atmosphere Rockets.....Australia, rocket, sounding, high altitude geophysics. These were sometimes made up of Cockatoo and Kookaburra parts and about 17 of this type was launched between October 1970 and July of 1971.


UPRAVLYAYEMYI SPUTNIK.....Russia, satellite, see US.

upsilon.....Υ, υ, upsilon, 20, Greek Alphabet.

UR-500.....Russia, launch vehicle, see Proton.

uragan.....Russia, hurricane.

URAGAN.....Russia, satellite, see GLONASS or 11F654.

URAGAN SPACE INTERCEPTOR.....Russia, satellite, space plane. See BOR.

URAN.....Russia, satellite, Military, ASAT Target. Also known as 5V91T, IST, ISP. First launch 1976/02/15

Uranus.....The 7th planet from the Sun, 1,786 million miles from the Sun, period of revolution 84 years, diameter 31,700 miles, 15 satellites (See Miranda, Ariel, Umbriel, Titania, Oberon, Puck, Belinda, Rosalind, Portia, Juliet, Dosdemona, Cressida, Bianca, Ophelia, Cordelia, Caliban, Sycorax.), 11 rings.

uranus.gifFigure 49 Uranus graphic symbol.

Uranus orbit.....Orbit around the planet Uranus.

uribyol.....Korea, Our Star.

URIBYOL.....South Korea, satellite, see KITSAT and STSAT.

URISEF.....Japan, satellite, SSO. First launch 2003/00/00

US.....United States See United States of America.

US.....Russia, satellite, controlled satellite. In Russian it is UPRAVLYAYEMYI SPUTNIK. Operated in the 1970's. US-P, passive, US-A, active.

US ASAT.....U.S., satellite see ASAT TARGET BALLOON.

US DBS.....U.S., satellite, direct broadcast TV, GEO. U.S. DIRECT BROADCAST SATELLITE.

US One-stop-satellite-solutions.....U.S., satellite bus.


US-A.....Russia, satellite, US-P, passive, US-A, active. See RORSAT.

US-AM.....Russia, satellite, surveillance,

- 1987/02/09, Baikonur, Tsyklon, LEO, COSMOS 1818, RORSAT, 17F16.

- 1987/07/10, Baikonur, Tsyklon 2, LEO, COSMOS 1867, ROSAT, 17F16.

First launch. 1987/02/09

US-KS.....Russia, satellite, early warning. Also known as OKO. Built by Lavochkin.

US-P.....Russia, satellite, US-P, passive, US-A, active. See EORSAT.

US-PM.....Russia, satellite, surveillance. Also known as EORSAT, 17F17.

First launch 1993/03/20

US-PU.....Russia, satellite, Elint. Also known as EORSAT, ELINT OCEAN RECONNAISSANCE SATELLITE, 17F120.

USA.....U.S., organization. United States Army, part of the Department of Defense.

USA.....U.S., satellite, surveillance.. UNITED STATES OF AMERICA. See also Satellite Designation and DoD Designation. Beginning in 1984, the DOD started giving the USA designation for most military satellites, both classified and unclassified. This term allows discussion of the satellites in a non classified manner. However, many of the satellites with a USA designation are not classified. In fact, one is foreign. Some DoD satellites were/are not given a USA designation. It seams as if there are many exceptions to the USA designation. The following are the satellites series to receive USA designation starting in 1984:




- experimental research satellites;

- FERRET (electronic intelligence);


- GLOMAR (communications);

- JUMPSEAT (signal intelligence);

- KEYHOLE (KH)(surveillance);

- LACROSSE (imaging reconnaissance);

- MILSTAR (communications);


- NAVSTAR (Global Positioning System or GPS);



- SATELLITE DATA SYSTEMS (SDS)(communications);

- ULTRA HIGH FREQUENCY FOLLOW-ON SATELLITE (UFO) (who said DoD does not have a sense of humor);

- VORTEX (signal intelligence);

As of the end of 2004, only 181 satellites have received the USA designation.

       A military satellite will only receive the USA designation, once it is working properly and in the correct orbit. When the Space Shuttle is used to launch a military satellite, the Space Shuttle does not receive a USA designation, nor any items not released from the Shuttle. A military satellite will only receive the designation after it has left the Shuttle and is successfully working. The only foreign satellite to receive the USA designation is NATO 4B (don’t ask why). Many one of a kind research satellites are given this designation and are too numerous to discuss. Not all military satellites receive the “USA” designation.

First launch 1984/06/13

USA.....U.S. See United States of America.


Usachev, Yuri.....Russia, cosmonaut, see Usachoev, Yuri.

Usachoev, Yuri.....Russia, cosmonaut, SOYUZ TM 18, 1994/01/08, SOYUZ TM 23, 1996/02/21, STS-102 & Expedition 2, 2001/3/8. First launch 1994/01/08

USAF.....U.S., organization. United States Air Force, part of the Department of Defense, launches many military satellites.

USAF EARLY WARNING.....U.S., satellites, surveillance. Detects nuclear missile attacks. See MIDAS, MEWS and DSP satellites. First launch 1978/06/12

USERS.....Japan, satellite, technology, includes a reentry mode, LEO. UNMANNED SPACE EXPERIMENT RECOVERY SYSTEM. First launch 2002/09/10

USM-65D/E.....U.S., launch vehicle, see Atlas D or E.

USM-68A.....U.S., launch vehicle, Titan I.

USM-75.....U.S., launch vehicle, Thor.



- USMP-1, 1992/10/22, ETR, STS-52.

First launch 1992/10/22

USN.....U.S., organization. United States Navy, part of the Department of Defense.

USNS.....United States Naval Ship, civilian manned.

USNS Costal Sentry.....U.S. See tracking ship.

USNS Gen. H.H. Arnold (T-AGM-9).....U.S. See tracking ship.

USNS Hayes (TAG-95).....U.S. See tracking ship.

USNS Huntsville.....U.S. See tracking ship.

USNS Mercury.....U.S. See tracking ship.

USNS Observation Island (T-AGM-23).....U.S. See tracking ship.

USNS Range Sentinel (T-AGM-22)......U.S. See tracking ship.

USNS Range Tracker T-AGM-1.....U.S. tracking ship

USNS Redstone (T-AGM-20).....U.S. See tracking ship.

USNS Rose Knot.....U.S. See tracking ship.

USNS Vandenberg (T-AGM-10).....U.S. See tracking ship.

USNS Vanguard (T-AGM-19).....U.S. See tracking ship.

USNS Watertown.....U.S. See tracking ship.

USS.....United State Ship, naval or military manned.

USS Decatur.....USS Decatur, DD 936, prime recovery ship for MA-4 (2 recovery ships).

USS Plymouth Rock.....USS Plymouth Rock, LSD 29, prime recovery ship for MA-4 (2 recovery ships).

USS Stormes.....USS Stormes, DD-780, prime recovery ship for MA-5 (Enos)(2 recovery ships).

USSC.....U.S., organization. United States Space Command, created 1984/11/23, part of the Department of Defense. Tracks over 110,000 objects in space, most space debris. U.S. Department of Defense, United States Space Command, 250 S Peterson Blvd., Colorado Springs, CO 80914, U.S.

USSPACECOM.....U.S. organization. See USSC.

USSR.....First satellite launched, SPUTNIK 1, at Baikonur Cosmodrom. 1957/10/04

USSR.....Union of Soviet Socialist Republics, CCCP. Made up of:

- Armenia,

- Azerbaijan,

- Belarus,

- Estonia,

- Georgia,

- Kazakstan,

- Kirghizstan,

- Latvia,

- Lithuania,

- Moldova,

- Russia,

- Tajikistan,

- Turkmenistan,

- Ukraine,

- Uzbekistan,

Became the Confederation of Independent States (CIS) 1991/12/25.

USSR Launch Vehicle Designation.....See Russia Spacecraft and Launch Vehicle designation.

USSR Satellite Designation.....See Russia Spacecraft and Launch Vehicle designation.

USSR spacecraft and launch vehicle designation.....See Russia spacecraft and launch vehicle designation.

UT.....Launch vehicle motor, United Technology Center.

UTC.....See Coordinate Universal Time.

UTC.....U.S., aerospace company. See United Technology Corporation.

UTC Freedom.....U.S., ship. See Freedom Star and Liberty Star.

UTC Liberty.....U.S., ship. See Liberty Star and Freedom Star.

UV.....See Ultraviolet.

UV RADIOMETER.....U.S., satellite, scientific. Shortwave, ULTRA VIOLET RADIOMETER experiment.

- UV RADIOMETER, None, 1968/08/16, WTR, Atlas Burner II, FTO.

First launch 1968/08/16

UWE.....Germany, satellite, communications First launch 2005/10/27

Uzbekkomos.....Uzbekistan, space agency.

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Updated 2007/2/01