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V.....U.S., space vehicle launch facility, Vandenberg AFB. See Vandenberg Air Force

V.....Roman number for 5.

V.....vol, French for flight.

V III.....Roman number for 8.

V-11A.....Russia, rocket, upper air geophysics. First launch 1958/00/00

V-2.....Germany, missile. First launch from the U.S. 05/10/1946. First launch 1942/00/00

V-2-A.....Russia, rocket, upper atmosphere geophysics. First launch 1957/00/00

V-3-A.....Russia, rocket, upper atmosphere geophysics. First launch 1976/00/00

V-5-V.....Russia, rocket, upper atmosphere geophysics. First launch 1963/00/00

VAFB.....U.S., space vehicle launch facility. See Vandenberg Air Force Base, CA. Launch Site, U.S.

vaisseau.....French for space ship.

Valley Forge.....USS Valley Forge, CV 45, prime recovery ship for MR-1A.

van den Berg, Lodewijk.....U.S., astronaut, STS-51B (17), 1985/04/29. First launch 1985/04/29

Van Allen Belts.....Two regions of charged particles in the Earth's magnetosphere. The belts present a potential hazard to satellites due to the degrading effects on materials and the human body. Named after the discovered Dr. James Van Allen.

Van Hoften, James.....U.S., astronaut, STS-41C (11), 1984/04/06, STS-51I (20), 1985/08/27. First launch 1984/04/06

Vandenberg.....U.S., USNS Vandenberg (T-AGM-10). See tracking ship.

Vandenberg Air Force Base.....U.S., space vehicle launch facility. Contains the Western Test Range (WTR), is located near Lompoc, California. Location 24.7o N, 120.6o W. Also known as the Western Space Missile Center (WSMC) It has been the site of many military missile launches, of NASA launches of satellites intended to go into high inclination or polar orbits. Vandenberg cannot launch satellites toward the east because first stages would fall in populated areas. Launch and landing facilities that enable polar orbits for the space shuttle were built then deactivated following the Challenger accident in 1986. They will be reactivated sometime in the 1990's. POC, 30th Space Wing/XP, 747 Nebraska Ave., Suite 34, Vandenberg Air Force Base, CA 93437-6294. U.S.

- Dedicated 1958/10/04

- First launch of a missile (Thor) 1958/12/16

- Naval Missile Facility at Pt. Arguello became part of Vandenberg AFB, Western Test Range (WTR) formed.1964/07/1

- NASA consolidated both unmanned launch activities at both Eastern and Western Test Range under KSC. 1965

- Goddard filed office or Goddard launch operations office combined with the Pacific launch Operations office to form the Western Test Range Operations Division of KSC unmanned launch operations Directorate, 1965.

- Western Test Range Operations Division renamed Western Launch Operations Division (WLOD1973/), 06.

Dedicated 1958/10/04

Vanguard.....U.S., launch vehicle, LEO. Based upon two sounding rockets, Viking and Aerobee, 20 lbs (9 kg) LEO. Built for the Naval Research Laboratory (NRL) to launch the first U.S. satellite for the International Geophysical Year. Out of 11 attempts, it only placed 3 satellites were placed in orbit between 1957 and 1959. It did not launch the first U.S. Satellite.

- Vanguard, stage 1, Viking sounding rocket, X-405 engine, stage 2, Aerobee sounding rocket, AJ10-37. Stage 3, GCRC motor or ABL-248 motor.

- Viking-Vanguard, 12/08/1956, suborbital, check instrumentation

- Vanguard, TV1. First launch 1957/05/01, suborbital, 3 stage on Viking

- Vanguard, TV2. First launch 1957/10/23, suborbital

First launch 1957/12/06

Vanguard T. AGM 19.....USS Vanguard T. AGM 19, tracking ship for the following: APOLLO 7, APOLLO 9, APOLLO 10, APOLLO 11, APOLLO 13, APOLLO 14, APOLLO 15, APOLLO 16, APOLLO 17, SKYLAB 1, SKYLAB 2, SKYLAB 3, APOLLO-SOYUZ. See tracking ships.

VANGUARD.....U.S., satellite, scientific. First launch 1957/12/06

variety.....variete (Fr), abart (D).

Vassioutine, Valdimir.....Russia, cosmonaut. See Vasyutin.

Vasyutin, Vladimir.....Russia, cosmonaut, SOYUZ T14, 1985/09/17. First launch 1985/09/17

VCL.....U.S., satellite, Earth observation, LEO. VEGETATION CANOPY LIDAR, measures vertical structure of forest using mulitbeam laser imaging. Part of NASA's Earth Systems Science Pathfinder (ESSP) program.

VDS.....U.S., satellite, see VIKING DYNAMIC SIMULATOR. First launch 1974/02/11

Veach, Lacy.....U.S., astronaut, STS-39, 1991/04/28, STS-52, 1992/10/22. First launch 1991/04/28

VEB.....ESA, launch vehicle, vehicle equipment bay, ring shaped structure on top fo the 3rd stage.

VEEGA.....Orbit, also known as Venus-Earth-Earth Gravity Assists Orbit. See orbits, gravity assists.

Vega.....Europe, Italy, launch vehicle,

- Vega, 3075 lbm (1395 kg), LEO. Stage 1, P80 FW. Stage 2, Zefiro 23. Stage 3 Zefiro 9. Stage 4, AVUM.

- K Zero, 700 lbs (320 kg), LEO.

- K, 2200 lbs (1000 kg), LEO. First launch 2005/00/00

VEGA.....Russia, satellite, scientific. Two spacecraft international project to study Venus and Halley's Comet. Encountered Halley's Comet 1986/03/06.

- VEGA 01, 1984 125A, 1984/12/15, Tyuratam, SL-12, 5V91T, Heliocentric.

- VEGA 02, 1984 128A, 1984/12/21, Tyuratam, SL-12, Heliocentric.

First launch 1984/12/15

VEGETATION.....Europe, satellite, remote sensing.



Veiculo Lancador de Satelites.....Brazil, launch vehicle, see VLS.

vektor.....Russia, vector.

VEKTOR.....Russia, satellite, Earth, atmosphere. Also known as 11F633. First launch 1974/06/18

Vela.....Constellation Vela, the Sail.

VELA HOTEL.....U.S. DoD, satellite, nuclear detection. Became VELA satellite program

- VELA 01, 1963 039A, 1963/10/17, ETR, Atlas Agena D,

- VELA 02, 1963 039C, 1963/10/17, ETR, Atlas Agena D,

- VELA 03, 1964 040A, 1964/07/17, ETR, Atlas Agena D,

- VELA 04, 1964 040B, 1964/07/17, ETR, Atlas Agena D,

- VELA 05, 1965 058A, 1965/07/20, ETR, Atlas Agena D,

- VELA 06, 1965 058B, 1965/07/20, ETR, Atlas Agena D,

- VELA 07, 1967 040A, 1967/04/28, ETR, Titan IIIC,

- VELA 08, 1967 040B, 1967/04/28, ETR, Titan IIIC,

- VELA 09, 1969 046A, 1969/05/23, ETR, Titan IIIC,

- VELA 10, 1969 046A, 1969/05/23, ETR, Titan IIIC,

- VELA 11, 1970 027A, 1970/04/08, ETR, Titan IIIC,

- VELA 12, 1970 027A, 1970/04/08, ETR, Titan IIIC,

First launch 1963/10/17

Venera.....Russia, Venus.

VENERA.....Russia, satellite, scientific. Spacecraft to study the planet Venus.

- VENERA, 1961/02/04, Tyuratam, SL-6, FTO, 2MV-2.

- VENERA, None, 1961/02/04, Tyuratam, SL-6, FTO.

- VENERA 01, 1961 T1, 1961/02/12, Tyuratam, SL-6, Solar orbit.

- VENERA 02, 1965 091A, 1965/11/12, Tyuratam, SL-6, Heliocentric, 3MV-4, 1966/02/27 PASSED Venus.

- VENERA 03, 1965 092A, 1965/11/16, Tyuratam, SL-6, Venus TRAJECTORY, 3MV-3, 1966/03/01 HIT Venus.

- VENERA 04, 1967 058A, 1967/06/12, Tyuratam, SL-6, Venus trajectory, 1967/10/18 HIT Venus. 1V (V-67).

- VENERA 05, 1969 001A, 1969/01/05, Tyuratam, SL-6, Trans Venus, 2V (V-29), 1969/05/16 landed on Venus.

- VENERA 06, 1969 002A, 1969/01/10, Tyuratam, SL-6, Trans Venus, 1969/05/17 landed on Venus.

- VENERA 07, 1970 060A, 1970/08/17, Tyuratam, SL-6, Venus trajectory, 3V (V-70), 1970/12/15.

- VENERA 08, 1972 021A, 1972/03/27, Tyuratam, SL-6, Venus Trajectory, 3V (V-72), landed on Venus, 1972/07/22.

- VENERA 09, 1975 050A, 1975/06/08, Tyuratam, SL-12, Circum Venus, 4V-1, 1975/10/22.

- VENERA 10, 1975 054A, 1975/06/14, Tyuratam, SL-12, Circum Venus, 1975/10/25.

- VENERA 11, 1978 084A, 1978/09/09, Tyuratam, SL-12, Heliocentric, 1978/12/25 landed on Venus.

- VENERA 12, 1978 086, 1978/09/14, Tyuratam, SL-12, Heliocentric, 1978/12/21 landed on Venus.

- VENERA 13, 1981 106A, 1981/10/30, Tyuratam, SL-12, Heliocentric, 1982/02/27 landed on Venus.

- VENERA 14, 1981 110A, 1981/11/04, Tyuratam, SL-12, Heliocentric, 4V-I, landed on Venus 1982/03/05.

- VENERA 15, 1983 053A, 1983/06/02, Tyuratam, SL-12, Trans Venus, 4V-2, 1983/10/10.

- VENERA 16, 1983 054A, 1983/06/07, Tyuratam, SL-12, Trans Venus, 1983/10/14.

First launch 1961/02/04

Veng.....Argentina, launch vehicle.

Venturestar.....U.S., launch vehicle, 56,000 lbs (2500 kg), SSTO.

Venus.....The 2nd planet from the Sun, 67 million miles from the Sun, period of revolution 225 days, diameter 7,500 miles, no satellites or rings. Other names for Venus: Aztec Xolotl or Quetzalcoatl, god; Mayan Tlaloc; Roman Venus, god; Greece Aphrodite, god; Sumerian Ianna; Mesopotamian Attar, Ishtar, Ashtar, Astarte, god. See figure Venus Graphic Symbol.

venus.gifFigure 50 Venus graphic symbol.

Venus orbit.....Orbit around the planet Venus.

VENUS.....Spain, satellite, scientific, LEO. For collage students to get hands-on satellite operation experience.

VENUS C.....Japan, JAXA, satellite, scientific. First launch 2010/00/00

VENUS EXPRESS.....Europe, satellite, scientific. Built by EADS Astrium and Alcatel Alenia Space. Based on design of MARS EXPRESS. Entered highly elliptical Venus orbit 2006/04/11. Also known as VEX. First launch 2005/11/09

Venus-Earth-Earth Gravity Assists Orbit.....Orbit, also known as VEEGA. See orbits, gravity assists.

Venus-Venus-Earth-Gravity-Assists orbit.....Orbit, also known as VVEGA. See orbits, gravity assists.

VEO.....Very high orbit. Very large eccentricities, perigees and apogees above GEO.

VEP.....Japan, satellite, technology. VEHICLE EVALUATION PAYLOAD, verified the accuracy of the H-2 orbital injection, launched by Japan.

- VEP 01, 1994 007B, 1994/02/03, Tanegashima, H-2, LEO, H-2, MYOJO.

First launch 1994/02/03

verabredung.....German for docking.

verbindung.....German for docking.

verfolgung.....German for tracking.

Vernier.....Small supplementary rocket motors or gas nozzles mounted on a rocket and designed to make fine adjustments in the speed or course or to control the attitude.

Veronique.....France, rocket, upper atmosphere geophysics. First launch 1952/00/00

VESPER.....U.S., NASA, satellite, scientific, Venus orbit. VENUS SOUNDER FOR PLANETARY Exploration. First launch 2003/00/00

Vesta.....France, rocket, upper atmosphere geophysics. First launch 1964/00/00

VEX.....Japan, satellite, see VENUS EXPRESS.

VGR1.....U.S., satellite, see VOYAGER 1.

VGR2.....U.S., satellite, see VOYAGER 2.

VHF band.....Electromagnetic frequencies between 136 to 138 MHz. See band.

VI.....Roman number for 6.

VIC.....Visitor Information Center.

Vickers.....Europe, aerospace company, became part British Aircraft Corp. after being joined by English Electric, Blackburn, Bristol and Hunting, in 1965.

Victor.....Jose Victor Aruani, 1941-1994, Musat project member.

VICTOR.....Argentina, satellite, see MUSAT.

Viehboeck, Franz.....Austria, cosmonaut, SOYUZ TM 13, 1991/10/02. First launch 1991/10/02

VIETNAMSAT.....Vietnam, satellite, communications. VIETNAM, SATELLITE, mobile communications, GEO.

VII.....Roman number for 7.

Viking Model I.....U.S., rocket, upper atmosphere geophysics. WSMR. First launch 1949/05/03

Viking Model II.....U.S., rocket, upper atmosphere geophysics. First launch 1952/00/00

Viking VC.....ESA, launch vehicle motor, Snecma, thrust 152,000 lbf (676 nM), 848 psi (58.5 bar), N2O4/UH25, used on Ariane 4 stage 1 L220.

Viking VI.....ESA, launch vehicle motor, Snecma, thrust 152,000 lbf (676 nM), 848 psi (58.5 bar), N2O4/UH25, used on Ariane Liquid Strap-on, L40 or PAL.

VIKING.....Sweden, satellite, scientific. Study magnetic, electric and UV properties of the Auroral regions.

- VIKING, 1986 019A, 1986/02/22, Kourou, Ariane 1, HEO.

First launch 1986/02/22

VIKING.....U.S. NASA, satellites, scientific. Obits Mars and sent landing vehicles to the surface. VIKING 1 went into Martian orbit on June 19, 1976, and the lander set down on the western slopes of Chryse Planitia on July 20, 1976. It soon began its programmed search for Martian micro-organisms (there is still debate as to whether the probes found life there or not), and sent back incredible color panoramas of its surroundings. One thing scientists learned was that Mars' sky was pinkish in color, not dark blue as they originally thought (the sky is pink due to sunlight reflecting off the reddish dust particles in the thin atmosphere). The lander set down among a field of red sand and boulders stretching out as far as its cameras could image. The VIKING 1 orbiter kept functioning until August 7, 1980, when it ran out of attitude-control propellant. The lander was switched into a weather-reporting mode, where it had been hoped it would keep functioning through 1994; but after November 13, 1982, an errant command had been sent to the lander accidentally telling it to shut down until further orders. Communication was never regained again, despite the engineers' efforts through May of 1983. An interesting side note: VIKING 1's lander has been designated the Thomas A. Mutch Memorial Station in honor of the late leader of the lander imaging team. The National Air and Space Museum in Washington, DC is entrusted with the safekeeping of the Mutch Station Plaque until it can be attached to the lander by a manned expedition. VIKING 2 was launched on September 9, 1975, and arrived in Martian orbit on August 7, 1976. The lander touched down on September 3, 1976 in Utopia Planitia. It accomplished essentially the same tasks as its sister lander, with the exception that its seismometer worked, recording one marsquake. The orbiter had a series of attitude-control gas leaks in 1978, which prompted it being shut down that July. The lander was shut down on April 12, 1980. The orbits of both VIKING orbiters should decay around 2025.

- VIKING, 01, 1975 075A, 1975/08/20, ETR, Titan IIIE Centaur, Areocentric.

- VIKING, 02, 1977 083A, 1975/09/09, ETR, Titan IIIE Centaur, Areocentric.

First launch 1975/08/20

Vikram Sarabhai Space Center.....India, organization, see ISRO. Also known as VSSC.

Viktor Patsayev.....Russia, tracking ship. See also tracking ships.

Viktorenko, Alexander.....Russia, cosmonaut, SOYUZ TM 03, 1987/07/22, SOYUZ TM 08, 1989/09/05, SOYUZ TM-14, 1992/03/17, SOYUZ TM 20, 1994/10/03. First launch 1987/07/22

VINASAT.....Vietnam, satellite, communications, GEO. First launch 2008/00/00

Vinci.....ESA, launch vehicle motor, Snecma, Ariane 5 Upper Stage ESC-B. Thrust 40,500 lbf (180 kN). Pressure 870 psi (60 bar), fuel LOX/LH2.

VINISAT.....Viet Nam, satellite, communications. First launch 2005/00/00

Vinogradov, Pavel.....Russia, cosmonaut, SOYUZ TM 26, 1997/08/05, TMA 8 Expedition 13, 2006/03/30. First launch 1997/08/05

VIOCESPAN.....U.S. satellite, broadband communications, GEO.

Virgo.....Astrological Sign, Virgin, 8/23-9/22.

Virtural GEO.....Orbit. A constellation of satellites in which satellites would be in elliptical orbits offset from GEO satellites by a least 40 degrees relative to the equator. Elliptical orbits measuring 320 miles (540 km) at perigee and 17,000 miles (2898,000 km) at apogee with an 8 hour orbit with about 5 hours of operating time per orbit. Gives the appearance to ground stations of satellites in GEO.

Visible light.....Electromagnetic radiation in the 4 - 7.5x1014 Hz wavelength or 750 to 400 nM.

VISIONSTAR.....U.S. satellite, broadband communications, GEO.

VITA.....U.S., satellite, telecommunications, LEO. See VITASAT.

VITASAT.....U.S., satellite, communications, LEO. 2 satellite constellation. VOLUNTEERS IN TECHNICAL ASSISTANCE. See Also GEMSTAR.

Vittori, Roberto.....ESA, cosmonaut, SOYUZ TM 34, 2002/04/25, SOYUZ TMA 6 2005/04/15. First launch 2002/04/25

VKS.....Russia, organization. Military space forces, Voyenno Kosmicheskiye Sily.

VL1.....U.S., satellite, VIKING LANDER 1, see Mutch Station.

VLM.....Brazil, launch vehicle, Veiculo Lancador de Microsatelites. Launched at Alcentara.

- VLM, 200 lbs (1000 kg), LEO. Stage 1, S43 motor. Stage 2, S40 motor. Stage 3, S44 motor. Stage 4, S33 motor.

See Alcantara. First launch 1997/11/02

VLS.....Brazil, launch vehicle, Veiculo Lancador de Satelites. Launched at Alcentara.

- VLS, 275 lbs (125 kg), LEO.

- VLS-1, 840 lbs (380 kg), LEO. Stage 1, 4 S43 motors. Stage 2, S43 motor. Stage 3, S40 motor. Stage 4, S44 motor.

See Alcantara. First launch 1997/11/02

VNII ElectroMikhaniki.....Russia, organization. (1953 - 1992/11), see NII-627.

VNIIEM.....Russia, organization, see Russian Scientific and Research Institute of Electromechanics.

VNIITransMash.....Russia, organization, Russian Scientific and Research Institute of Mobile Vehicle Engineering.

VO-52.....India, satellite, see HAMSAT.

vobereitung.....German for preparation.

Vogelgesand DD 862.....USS Vogelgesand DD 862, recovery ship, part of the fleet which recovered or was on duty and capable of recovering the following: GEMINI 2.

VOICE FROM SPACE.....U.S., satellite, see SCORE 1 First launch 1958/12/18

vol.....French for flight.

Volgograd station.....Russia, space vehicle launch facility, see Kapustin Yar.

Volk, Igor.....Russia, cosmonaut, SOYUZ T12, 1984/07/17. First launch 1984/07/17

Volkov, Alexander.....Russia, cosmonaut, SOYUZ T14, 1985/09/17, SOYUZ TM 07, 1988/11/26, SOYUZ TM 13, 1991/10/02. First launch 1985/09/17

Volkov, Vladislav.....Russia, cosmonaut, SOYUZ 07, 1969/10/12, SOYUZ 11, 1971/06/06. First launch 1969/10/12

volna.....Russia, means wave.

Volna.....Russia, launch vehicle, 191 lbs (86 kg), LEO, launched from a submarine. Commercial version of SS-N 18 Stingray ICBM, also known as R-29R or RSM-50.

Volund.....Norse, god of creativity.

Volynov, Boris.....Russia, cosmonaut, SOYUZ 05, 1969/01/15, SOYUZ 21, 1976/07/06. First launch 1969/01/15

VORTEX.....U.S., satellite. See CHALET.

voskhod.....Russia, sunrise.

Voskhod.....Russia, launch vehicle,

- 11A59, A-1-m, SL-5.

- 11A57, A-2, SL-4

VOSKHOD.....Russia, satellite, manned capsule. Russia's second manned program. The modified VOSTOK capsule carried two and three Cosmonauts. VOSKHOD had only 3 Flights, two manned and one unmanned (two dogs). The cosmonauts stayed with the capsule until in landed on land. First EVA, Alexi Leonov, VOSKHOD 2, 1965/03/18. Shortest EVA 20 minutes, Alexi Leonov, VOSKHOD 2, 1965/03/18. First multi person capsule launched VOSKHOD 1, 1964/10/12.

- VOSKHOD 1, (RUBY), 1964 065A, 1964/10/12, SL-4, Tyuratam, manned, Feoktistov, Komarov, Boris Yegorov, R 1964/10/13.

- VOSKHOD 2, (DIAMOND), 1965 022A, 1965/03/18, SL-4, Tyuratam, manned, Belyayev, Leonov, R 1965/03/19.

- VOSKHOD 3, 1966 105A, 1966/02/22, SL-4, Tyuratam, canine, Veterok, Ugolek, LA 1966/02/22, R 1966/03/16. COSMOS 110.

First launch 1964/10/12

Voss, Janice.....U.S., astronaut, STS-57, 1993/06/21, STS-63, 1995/02/03, STS-083, 1997/04/04, STS-094, 1997/07/01, STS-099, 2000/2/11. First launch 1993/06/21

Voss, Jim.....U.S., astronaut, STS-44, 1991/11/24, STS-53, 1992/12/02, STS-69, 1995/09/07, Expedition 2, 2001/3/8. First launch 1991/11/24

vostok.....Russia, east.

Vostok.....Russia, launch vehicle

- Vostok, Luna, 8K72, A-1, SL-3

- Vostok K, 8K72K, A-1, SL-3

- Vostok-2, 8A92, A-1, SL-3,

- Vostok-2M, 8A92M, A-1, SL-3 

10400 lbs (4730 kg) LEO, manned. R-7/Sapwood with an upper stage. First launch 1958/06/25

Vostok 8A92M.....Russia, launch vehicle, based upon the R-7.

VOSTOK.....Russia, satellite, manned capsule. Russia's first manned program. It placed at total of six Cosmonauts is orbit over its lifetime. Cosmonauts ejected from capsule and parachuted to land. First manned orbital flight, Yuri Gagarin, VOSTOK 1, 1962/04/21.

- VOSTOK 6, first woman in space, Valentina Tereshkova 1963/06/16.

- VOSTOK-3KA, 1960/03/09, Also known as 11F63.

- VOSTOK-4 Also known as 11F64, ZENIT, 11F69.

- VOSTOK-1KP Also known as 1KP.

- VOSTOK Also known 3KD or 3KV.

- VOSTOK, None, 1959/07/18, Tyuratam, SL-3, FTO.

- VOSTOK, None, 1960/04/15, Tyuratam, SL-3, FTO.

- VOSTOK, None, 1960/04/16, Tyuratam, SL-3, FTO.

- VOSTOK, None, 1960/12/21, Tyuratam, SL-3, FTO, unmanned, recovered dogs.

- VOSTOK, None, 1962/06/01, Tyuratam, SL-3, FTO.

- VOSTOK 1 (SWALLLOW), 1961 012A, 1961/04/12, Tyuratam, SL-3, LEO, 1961/04/12, Gargarin.

- VOSTOK 2 (EAGLE), 1961 019A, 1961/08/06, Tyuratam, SL-3, LEO, 1961/08/07, -Titov.

- VOSTOK 3 (FALCON), 1962 036A, 1962/08/11, Tyuratam, SL-3, LEO, 1962/08/15, Nikolayev.

- VOSTOK 4 (GOLDEN EAGLE), 1962 037A, 1962/08/12, Tyuratam, SL-3, LEO, 1962/08/15, Popovich.

- VOSTOK 5 (HAWK), 1963/06/14, SL-3, Tyuratam, Bykovsky, 1963/06/19.

- VOSTOK 6 (SEA GULL), 1963/06/16, SL-3, Tyuratam, Tereshkova, 1963/06/19.

First launch 1959/07/18

voyage.....French for travel.

VOYAGER.....U.S., satellite, technology, Hawaii, picosatellite that is a cubesat, also known as MEA HUAKA’I . First launch 2006/07/26

VOYAGER.....U.S. NASA, satellite, scientific. Two (weighing 1,820 lbs (826 kg) each) were launched at the ETR by a Titan IIIE-Centaur (weighing 1,364,000 lbs each).

VOYAGER 1 1977 084A, was launched 1977/09/05, and flew past:

       - Callisto on 1979/03/06.

       - Ganymede on 1979/02/25.

       - Europa on 1979/03/05.

       - Io on 1979/03/02.

       - Amalthea on 1979/03/04.

       - Jupiter on 1979/03/05.

       - Titan on 1980/11/11.

       - Mimas on 1980/11/12.

       - Saturn on 1980/11/13.

- Photo of the Solar system from 3.7 billion miles from Earth 1990/02/13.

VOYAGER 2 1977 076A, was launched 1977/08/20 (before VOYAGER 1), and flew past:

       - Callisto on 1979/07/08.

       - Ganymede on 1979/07/09.

       - Jupiter on 1979/07/09.

       - Hyperion on 1981/08/24.

       - Saturn on 1981/08/26.

       - Uranus on 1986/01/24.

       - Neptune on 1989/08/08.

VOYAGER 2 took advantage of a rare once-every-189-years alignment to slingshot its way from outer planet to outer planet. VOYAGER 1 could, in principle, have headed towards Pluto, but JPL opted for the sure thing of a Titan close up.

       The two probes, greatly increased our knowledge of the 4 giant planets, their satellites, and their rings. VOYAGER 1&2 discovered that Jupiter has complicated atmospheric dynamics, lightning and aurora. Three new satellites were discovered. Two of the major surprises were that Jupiter has rings and that Io has active sulfurous volcanoes, with major effects on the Jovian magnetosphere. When the two probes reached Saturn, they discovered over 1000 ringlets and 7 satellites, including the predicted shepherd satellites that keep the rings stable. VOYAGER 2, thanks to heroic engineering and programming efforts, continued the mission to Uranus and Neptune. Uranus itself was highly monochromatic in appearance. One oddity was that its magnetic axis was found to be highly skewed from the already completely skewed rotational axis, giving Uranus a peculiar magnetosphere. Icy channels were found on Ariel, and Miranda was a bizarre patchwork of different terrains. 10 satellites and one more ring were discovered.

       In contrast to Uranus, Neptune was found to have rather active weather, including numerous cloud features. The ring arcs turned out to be bright patches on one ring. Two other rings, and 6 other satellites, were discovered. Neptune's magnetic axis was Also skewed. Triton had a cantaloupe appearance and geysers. The two VOYAGERS are expected to last for about two more decades. Their on-target journeying gives negative evidence about possible planets beyond Pluto. Their next major scientific discovery should be the location of the heliopause. Low-frequency radio emissions believed to originate at the heliopause have been detected by both VOYAGERS. First launch 1977/08/20

VRM.....U.S., satellite., see MAGELLAN.

VSOP.....Japan NASDA, satellite, scientific. VLBI SPACE OBSERVATORY PROGRAM. (VLBI is very long baseline interferometry). NASA is building 3 specialized tracking stations to record the wideband radio astronomy data that this spacecraft will produce. Renamed HALCA. Also known as MUSES-B or HARUKA First launch 1997/02/12

VSSC.....India, organization, see ISRO. Also known as Vikram Sarabhai Space Center.

VSUM.....U.S., satellite, see ORBCOMM OXP-2. First launch 1993/04/25

Vulcain.....ESA, launch vehicle motor, Snecma, thrust 199,000 lbf (885 kN), 1566 psi (108 bar), liquid fuel, LOX/LH2. Used on Ariane 5G EPC Core H158.

Vulcain 2.....ESA, launch vehicle motor, Snecma, thrust 303,000 lbf (1350 kN) vacuum, 1670 psi (115 bar), liquid fuel, LOX/LH2. Used on Ariane 5E EPC Core H173.

Vulcan.....Roman, god of creativity.

VUSAT.....India, satellite, see HAMSAT.

VVEGA.....Orbit, also known as Venus-Venus-Earth-Gravity-Assists. See orbits, gravity assists.

Vysota.....Russia, launch vehicle, 220 lbs (100 kg), LEO. First launch ?

Vzlyet.....Russia, launch vehicle, 3650 lbs (1650 kg), LEO. Also known as Kosmos U. First launch

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Updated 2007/2/01